Glossary of IT Terms

. (See Dot, Root Directory)




AA (application architecture)

The AA describes the layout of an application’s deployment. This generally includes partitioned application logic and deployment to application server engines. AAs rely less on specific tool or language technology than on standardized middleware options, communications protocols, data gateways, and platform infrastructures such as Component Object Model (COM), JavaBeans and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The application architect is tasked with specifying an AA and supporting the deployment implementation.


ABC (activity-based costing)

An improved approach to understanding where and why costs are incurred within an enterprise. It provides the information for activity-based management, which focuses on the decisions and actions needed to reduce costs and increase revenue. ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in explicitly recognizing that not all cost objects place an equal demand on support resources.


ABM (activity-based management)

The use of activity-based costing (ABC) principles in the ongoing management of costs and resources. See ABC.


Access Control Entry (ACE)

An Access Control Entry is the smallest unit of security. It contains a SID (either a user or a group) and permissions information. The permission will be one of Access Allowed, Access Denied or System Audit. This object has flags to determine how the permissions should be inherited.  See also: SID, ACL and Auditing.


access method

  1. The portion of a computer’s operating system responsible for formatting data sets and their direction to specific storage devices. Examples from the mainframe world include Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) and Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM).
  2. In local-area networks, the technique or program code used to arbitrate the use of the communications medium by granting access selectively to individual stations. Examples are Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA-CD) and token passing.


ACE (See Access Control Entry)


ACL (See Access Control List)


ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)

Regulator of broadcasting, radio communications, telecommunications and online content in Australia, formed from two earlier bodies, the Australian Communications Authority and the Australian Broadcasting Authority.


ACT I (application, channel, technology and industry)

An acronym representing the “survival locations” for integrated document management (IDM) vendors. A survival location is a market segment where a vendor can develop sustainable competitive advantage. A critical mass of sustainable competitive advantage is necessary for a vendor to thrive in the long term in any market


active data dictionary

A facility for storing dynamically accessible and modifiable information relating to midrange-system data definitions and descriptions.


active Directory

The “directory service” portion of the Windows 2000 operating system. Active Directory manages the identities and relationships of the distributed resources that make up a network environment. It stores information about network-based entities (e.g., applications, files, printers and people) and provides a consistent way to name, describe, locate, access, manage and secure information about these resources. It the central authority that manages the identities and brokers the relationships between these distributed resources, enabling them to work together.



An application programming interface (API) that enhances Microsoft’s OLE protocol. Often compared to Java, ActiveX facilitates various Internet applications, and therefore extends and enhances the functionality of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser. Like Java, ActiveX enables the development of interactive content. When an ActiveX-aware browser encounters a Web page that includes an unfamiliar feature, it automatically installs the appropriate applications so the feature can be used.


AD (applications development)

The function of creating applications for an enterprise. The term refers not simply to programming, but to the larger overall process of defining application requirements, planning the application structure, developing the code, monitoring development progress and testing results.



Adapters are small, focused programs that expose functionality and/or data in a legacy application. Our use of this term includes not only the programs, but also the framework for designing and developing adapter programs. Adapters can be deceptively complex, with “thick” adapters performing a variety of functions that include recognizing events, collecting and transforming data, and exchanging data with platform, integration suite or other middleware. However, “thin” adapters may only “wrap” a native application interface, exposing another more-standard one for application access. Adapters can also handle exception conditions and can often dynamically (or with minor reconfiguration) accommodate new revisions of source or target applications.

Adapters are often sold in conjunction with integration middleware products, such as ESBs, integration suites or portal servers, or are offered as a stand-alone product, such as an adapter suite. Among the different adapters, high-level categories include technical and application adapters.

A comprehensive suite should include adapters for:

  • • Common technologies, such as COM, Enterprise JavaBeans and Web services
  • • Industry protocols, such as EDI, Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication and RosettaNet
  • • Common applications, such as SAP or PeopleSoft
  • • Proprietary applications, such as an adapter development kit


ADF (automated document factory)

A term for an architecture and set of processes to manage the creation and delivery of mission-critical, high-volume digital documents. The ADF applies factory production concepts to the document production – raw materials, including data and preparation instructions, enter the ADF, where they are transformed into digital documents and prepared for delivery.



“Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement” goal-oriented change management model; see Hiatt, J.M., ADKAR: a Model for Change in Business, Government and Our Community: How to Implement Successful Change in Our Personal Lives and Professional Careers, Prosci Research, ISBN 1930885504, Aug. 10, 2006.


ADSL (asymmetric DSL)

ADSL offers downstream data rates of up to 9 Mbps on short loops.



Among other improvements on basic ADSL, ADSL2 offers downstream data rates of up to 12 Mbps on short loops, and extends ADSL’s reach by approximately 600 feet.



Among other improvements, ADSL2+ doubles the downstream frequency of ADSL2 and enables downstream data rates of more than 25 Mbps on short loops.


AD technology profile

A method of assessing an enterprise and its methodology. It includes:

  • • Development process profile: Life cycle coverage, ease of use, change management, methodologies supported, project management, information model, templates/componentware.
  • • Development technology profile: Workgroup support, development platform, repository, object-oriented (OO) component concepts, technical quality, openness, integration.
  • • Target environment profile: Execution platforms, human interface, database management systems, middleware supported, portability, communications protocols, execution technology, reliability.
  • • Application capabilities profile: Application topology, application types, complexity supported, transaction volume, security, usability support, type of users supported.
  • • (Built-in) execution environment profile: Application servers, middleware, database gateways, wrapper facilities, workflow engine, rules engine, dynamic repartitioning.


advanced technology

A technology that is still immature but promises to deliver significant value, or that has some technical maturity but still has relatively few users. Among current examples: artificial intelligence, agents, speech and handwriting recognition, virtual reality and 3-D visualization, smart cards, real-time collaboration, enhanced user authentication, data mining, and knowledge management.


agile NeoRAD

This type of project approach applies agile methods, such as extreme programming. Models are sketches, rather than first-class development artifacts. There are few concerns about standardization in terms of reusing analysis and design patterns and frameworks. There is little model-based code generation.


AHP (analytical hierarchy process)

A process that uses hierarchical decomposition to deal with complex information in multicriterion decision making, such as information technology vendor and product evaluation. It consists of three steps:

  1. Developing the hierarchy of attributes germane to the selection of the IT vendor.
  2. Identifying the relative importance of the attributes.
  3. Scoring the alternatives’ relative performance on each element of the hierarchy.


Developed by Thomas Saaty while he was teaching at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business, the AHP is recognized as the leading theory in multicriterion decision making.


AI (artificial intelligence)

A wide-ranging discipline of computer science that at its core seeks to make computers behave more like humans. The term was coined by John McCarthy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1956. AI attempts to resolve problems by “reasoning,” similar to the process used by the human mind. AI involves the capability of a machine to learn (to remember results produced on a previous trial and to modify the operation accordingly in subsequent trials) or to reason (to analyze the results produced in similar operations and select the most favorable outcome). Today, applications of artificial intelligence include voice recognition, robotics, neural networks and expert systems (i.e., systems that can make decisions an expert would otherwise have to make to, for example, forecast financial performance, or diagnose illnesses).


AIM (AOL Instant Messenger)

A free, public instant-message service and one of the earliest. A variety of free client software is available, supporting Windows and Macintosh PCs, Palm operating system (OS), Microsoft’s Pocket PC and Symbian handheld devices. See also instant messaging (IM).


AM (asset management)

A system of practices intended to address shortcomings, inefficiencies, waste and unavoidable failures in managing technology and information technology equipment. It involves five major areas:

  1. Requisition
  2. Procurement
  3. Deployment
  4. Maintenance
  5. Retirement strategies


At its core is an integrated data repository that contains:

  • • Asset tracking – technical information about the equipment or software
  • • Portfolio information – acquisition and financial details
  • • A contracts database – summarizing key software and maintenance contracts terms and conditions


AMD (architected, model-driven development)

AMD is the most sophisticated end of the SOA modeling spectrum. It focuses on quality, performance and reuse. It comes in two “flavors”: AMD composition and AMD development. AMD composition presumes that the needed services exist and can be “assembled” into an application (business service), possibly with a new user interface (generally portal-based, using Web services). Organizations can generally use AMD composition models to generate the specifications for use by workflow orchestration technologies in the runtime environment.

AMD development assumes that new organizations need to develop software services prior to composition. AMD development tools can reuse the same business models developed by those doing AMD composition. But, generally, IT personnel refine these into more detailed models to generate as much of the code as possible ― 70% to 100% ― depending on the service type. AMD also includes the set of methods that promote “executable” models (that is, where there is no explicit transformation to implementation).


AMG (access media gateways)

An access media gateway (AMG) serves as the bridge between a circuit-based voice switch and a packet-based IP or ATM access network. An AMG takes care of the PSTN-to-packet-network transition at the local-loop level and is connected to the local exchange or an access node. It has Class 5 switch interfaces and supports VoIP and/or VoATM.

Included in the AMG segment are inverse AMGs, which make the transition from the packet-access domain – DSL, cable hybrid fiber-coax, power line and local multipoint distribution service – to a PSTN Class 5 local exchange via Generic Requirement (GR)-303, V5.x interface and Primary Rate Interface (PRI) (Q.931) V5.2 access node (AN), and GR-303 remote digital terminal (RDT).


AMIA (American Medical Informatics Association)

A not-for-profit organization dedicated to the development and application of medical informatics in the support of patient care, teaching, research and healthcare administration. The AMIA serves as an authoritative body in the field of medical informatics and represents the United States in the informational arena of medical systems and informatics in international forums.


AMIS (Audio Messaging Interchange Specification)

An enhanced key system feature for voice/call processing that enables enterprise locations to transfer and forward voice messages between systems. It is a voice processing standard that specifies the procedures to network voice processing systems, regardless of who manufactures the system.


AMO (application management outsourcing)

The ongoing maintenance, management, conversion, enhancement and support of an application portfolio by an external company. AMO, a subset of application outsourcing (see separate entry), includes changes that generally take less than some predefined time to implement (e.g., 10 days or 30 days). Examples of maintenance include regulatory changes, software upgrades, new release installations and “fix it if it breaks” troubleshooting. AMO may involve the transfer of people and application software to the vendor.


AMOLED (active matrix organic light-emitting diode [OLED])

Display consisting of pixels of electroluminescent organic compounds “printed” in a matrix onto a flexible polymer layer, and which emits light of different colors. Unlike liquid crystal displays, OLED displays do not require a backlight and consume very little power, making them suitable for battery-powered devices. Active matrix OLEDs use a thin-film transistor (TFT) to control the pixels.


AMPS (advanced mobile phone service)

U.S.-originated analog cellular standard, now largely obsolete.


AMR (adaptive multirate)

GSM codec that lowers the codec rate in response to interference, affording a greater level of error correction and potentially enabling operators to reduce capital expenditures by reducing the number of cell sites needed to support the user base.


AMS (automation management system)

A subsystem of the warehouse management system. It controls automated material-handling equipment such as carousels, pick to light, in-line scales, and conveyors. The AMS is designed to provide a standardized interface between the warehouse management system and the automated material-handling equipment.



Electronic transmission accomplished by adding signals of varying frequency or amplitude to carrier waves of a given frequency.


analog copiers

Image capture and transfer using optical or “light lens” technology in which the image is flash illuminated on the platen and transferred to the photoconductor through a series of lenses and mirrors. The latent image is then transferred from the photoconductor to paper through the electrophotographic process.



“analytic” application is defined as packaged BI capabilities for a particular domain or business problem.


analytics for CRM

These applications enable data preparation, data quality management, measurement and reporting, predictive modeling, profitability, and optimization.



Visual control device from the Japanese word for “lantern,” implying an andon display that sheds light on current performance.



Open-source mobile phone platform based on the Linux OS, launched in November 2007 by the Open Handset Alliance. The first commercial phone using the Android OS, the G1 (based on the HTC Dream handset), was launched in September 2008 by T-Mobile. The alliance is led by Google and includes operators and mobile phone and chipset vendors, such as HTC, Intel, LG, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics and T-Mobile. See also Open Handset Alliance (OHA).


ANOVA (analysis of variance)

Acronym for “analysis of variance,” a statistical tool for analyzing the variability in a process.


ANSI (American National Standards Institute)

ANSI coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the U.S. and represents the needs and views of U.S. stakeholders in standardization global forums. ANSI is actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards.



Equipment used for transmitting or receiving radio waves/signals. In WLAN communication systems, in addition to transmitting and receiving signals, antennas may be used to focus signal energy to suit the installed environment. Common antenna types include: omnidirectional, which creates a spherical pattern; parabolic, which flattens the spherical pattern of the omnidirectional pattern and creates a larger circular coverage area; patch, which creates a semicircular pattern; and yagi, which narrows the antenna energy into a tubular pattern that is often used in long aisles, where coverage is needed. In satellite-based communication systems, the antenna usually consists of a parabolic reflector or dish and a feed horn. In a receiving system, the reflector focuses radio waves onto the feed horn for detection and conversion into electrical signals that are then are transmitted to an end-user device such as a PC or a TV, via a satellite modem/receiver. In transmitting systems, the reflector concentrates the radio waves or signals emitted by the feed horn into a narrow beam aimed back up toward the satellite. See also satellite dish.


AOA (angle of arrival)

Technology for determining the location of a cellular mobile phone. AOA requires a complex and expensive antenna array at each base station to determine the angle from which a cellular signal comes. It works best when detecting voice transmissions. See also location-based services (LBS).


AP (access point)

Pico base station or network access point in a WLAN radio network, consisting of a radio (often more than one) and a network connection, enabling WLAN clients to access network resources connected to a home or enterprise network.



A small program that runs within an application. Applets are commonly used to make otherwise static Web pages more interactive. Examples include animated graphics, games, configurable bar charts and scrolling messages. Applets also play an important role in network computers (NCs). They increase an NC’s independence from the server because they do not have to communicate with the operating system (resident on the server) to function once the applet has been received by the NC.



An appliance is a preconfigured bundle of hardware and software integrated at the factory, created for a specific purpose, and typically packaged with services at time of sell.


application development

The AD software market comprises tools that represent each phase of the software development life cycle (application life cycle management [ALM], design, construction, automated software quality and other AD software).


application infrastructure suites

Because the market has evolved, products that were previously referred to as integration suites within this segment are now included with ESB suites. The application infrastructure suite market now includes only application platform suite functionality. Application platform suites are products composed of portals, integration middleware, BPM and business component engineering. They are geared toward supporting a variety of different project styles, including composite applications, new SOA applications and process integration.


application integration

The process of 1) keeping redundant copies of data (in independently designed applications) consistent, or 2) enabling end-users to access data and functionality from independently designed applications on a single user interface.


application management

Application management provides a wide variety of application services, processes and methodologies for maintaining, enhancing and managing custom applications, packaged software applications or network-delivered applications.


application portfolio analysis

A tool to divide current and proposed applications into three categories – utility, enhancement and frontier – based on the degree to which they contribute to the enterprise’s performance. The utility category is essential but does not enhance the enterprise’s performance (e.g., payroll); the enhancement category contains applications that improve the enterprise’s performance based on the use of established technology (e.g., documentation automation); and the frontier category is aimed at greatly improving enterprise performance (e.g., through aggressive use of rules-based decision support) but usually entails substantial risk. The management issues for each category are, respectively, cost, opportunity identification and innovation. The planning process should consider the best balance among the three categories to gain optimal future performance and the appropriate value from the application of IT.


application program

Software programs in a system are either application programs or supervisory programs, also called system software. Application programs contain instructions that transfer control to the system software to perform input/output and other routine operations, working through the application programming interface (API).


application server

An application server is a modern form of platform middleware. It is system software that resides between the operating system (OS) on one side, the external resources (such as a database management system [DBMS], communications and Internet services) on another side and the users’ applications on the third side. The function of the application server is to act as host (or container) for the user’s business logic while facilitating access to and performance of the business application. The application server must perform despite the variable and competing traffic of client requests, hardware and software failures, the distributed nature of the larger-scale applications, and potential heterogeneity of data and processing resources required to fulfill the business requirements of the applications.

A high-end online-transaction-processing-style application server delivers business applications with guaranteed levels of performance, availability and integrity. An application server also supports multiple application design patterns, according to the nature of the business application and the practices in the particular industry for which the application has been designed. It typically supports multiple programming languages and deployment platforms, although most have a particular affinity to one or two of these. Some application servers that implement standard application interfaces and protocols, such as Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE), are entirely proprietary. At present, the proprietary application servers are typically built into OSs, packaged applications, such as portals and e-commerce solutions, or other products and are not offered as stand-alone products. Proprietary and Java EE-compliant application servers are estimated in our Market Share and Forecast reports.

As the application server market matures, high performance becomes a stronger criterion, and thus where vendors now incorporate extensions to application servers, such as extreme transaction processing and event-based processing capabilities, these are also included in this market segment.


application sharing

The ability of two or more participants to have equal and simultaneous control over the content of a document inside an application (e.g., a word processing document, spreadsheet or conference slide) over a wide-area network, local-area network or modem connection. Enables users in different locations to work together on the same documents, with shared control and editing capabilities. A component of data conferencing.


application software services

This segment includes back-office, ERP and supply chain management (SCM) software services, as well as collaborative and personal software services. It also covers engineering software and front-office CRM software services.

  • • ERP and SCM software services – ERP is an application strategy focused on several distinct enterprise application suite markets. ERP is typically referred to as a back-office application set, but ERP applications typically automate and support more than administrative processes and include the support of production and inventory processes, as well as the asset management aspects of an enterprise SCM is a business strategy to improve shareholder and customer value by optimizing the flow of products, services and related information from source to customer. SCM encompasses the processes of creating and fulfilling the market’s demand for goods and services. It is a set of business processes that encompasses a trading partner community engaged in a common goal of satisfying the end customer. Thus, a supply chain process can stretch from a supplier’s supplier to a customer’s customer.
  • • Content, communications, and collaboration software services – The content, communications and collaboration software market sector comprises software products, tools and hosted services to organize, access, use and share content. Content management and/or collaboration initiatives involve managing and iages, forms and, increasingly, digital media. Included in this market sector are enterprise content management (ECM), e-mail and calendaring, Web conferencing and shared work spaces/team collaboration, IM, e-learning suites, information access with search, and ECM systems.
  • • Other applications software services – Other applications software includes, but is not limited to: commerce applications; e-discovery; e-learning; engineering applications; enterprise search; enterprise social software; geographic information systems; governance, risk and compliance; media and entertainment; mobile and wireless applications; and product life cycle management.
  • • CRM software services – CRM technologies should enable greater customer insight, increased customer access, more effective customer interactions, and integration throughout all customer channels and back-office enterprise functions. CRM is a business strategy, the outcome of which optimizes profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing around customer segments, fostering customer satisfying behaviors and implementing customer-centric processes. The CRM software sector, part of the enterprise software market, provides functionality to enterprises in three segments: sales, marketing, and customer service and support.
  • • Office suite software services – Office suites are software packages that bundle office or business management applications that include word processing, spreadsheets and presentation graphics. Other forms of office suites that are not included in this market definition are database tools, graphics suite, e-mail and calendaring, shared work space and team collaboration tools, and social software offerings that may have content authoring capabilities.


applications outsourcing

An outsourcing arrangement for a wide variety of application services including new development, legacy systems maintenance, offshore programming, management of packaged applications and staff augmentation. While this form of outsourcing generally involves a transfer of staff, the use of the term has recently broadened to include arrangements where this is not the case, as in staff augmentation. It does not include systems integration activities.


App Store

Apple’s download service for iTunes mobile applications, developed using the iPhone software development kit (SDK) for the iPhone and iPod touch. Generically the term has come to refer to a variety of mobile application services, including Android Market, Ovi Store, Windows Marketplace for Mobile and BlackBerry App World.


APR-DRG (advanced payer revised DRG)

An enhanced diagnosis-related group (DRG) scheme that provides more granular, appropriate groupings.


APS (advanced planning and scheduling)

A subcomponent of supply chain planning, contextually describing manufacturing planning and scheduling.



  1. In reference to computers, software or networks, the overall design of a computing system and the logical and physical interrelationships between its components. The architecture specifies the hardware, software, access methods and protocols used throughout the system.
  2. A framework and set of guidelines to build new systems. IT architecture is a series of principles, guidelines or rules used by an enterprise to direct the process of acquiring, building, modifying and interfacing IT resources throughout the enterprise. These resources can include equipment, software, communications, development methodologies, modeling tools and organizational structures.


ARAD (architected rapid application development)

ARAD has developed from object-oriented analysis and design tools, and incorporates analysis and design patterns and frameworks. Typically, organizations can generate 50% to 70% of source artifacts from the patterns, frameworks and (optional) models. Increasingly, organizations are blending traditional iterative methods used with ARAD with agile principles and practices to create a hybrid approach.


ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)

The ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, was a pioneering long-haul network funded by the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). It served as the test bed for many areas of internetworking technology development and testing, and acted as the central backbone during the development of the Internet. The ARPANET was built using packet-switching computers interconnected by leased lines.


ARPU (average revenue per unit/user)

Average revenue per connection, per month.


ARQ (automatic repeat request)

An error control technique that requires retransmission of a data block which contains detected errors.


ARS (automatic route selection)

Provides automatic routing of outgoing calls over alternative customer facilities based on the dialed long-distance number.


ASG (access service gateway)

WiMAX network element that aggregates feeds from a number of base stations and connects them to the core network.


ARU (audio response unit)

A device that provides prerecorded spoken responses to digital inquiries from a telephone caller once the connection is established. Also called voice response unit (VRU).


AS (ambulatory suite)

An application suite consisting of practice management, contract management, and ambulatory computer-based patient record (A-CPR) application components.


AS (autonomous system)

An administrative domain. All members of an AS that share route information can handle traffic to and from any destination.


ASA (average speed of answer)

A standard quantitative method for measuring the speed at which call center calls are answered.


ASC (Accredited Standards Committee)

An organization, certified by the American National Standards Institute, that produces standard communication protocols for electronic data interchange.


ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

A standard table of seven-bit designations for digital representation of uppercase and lowercase Roman letters, numbers and special control characters in teletype, computer and word processor systems. Some IBM systems use similar code called Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC). Since most computer systems use a full byte to send an ASCII character, many hardware and software companies have made their own nonstandard and mutually incompatible extensions of the official ASCII 128-character set into a 256-character set.


ASD (automated supply dispensing)

An extension of supply chain management capabilities to automated and monitored dispensing of tangible supplies.


ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit)

A chip on which the pattern of connections has been set up exclusively for a specific function.


ASM (abnormal situation management)

The process of and systems supporting the handling of a deviation to the normal procedures involved with the control and management of a manufacturing or other production process.


ASN (advanced shipment notice)

An electronic data interchange (EDI) message sent from the shipper to the receiver prior to the departure of the shipment from the shipper’s facility. The message includes complete information about the shipment and its contents. In today’s environment, this message is more often an “as shipped notice” sent after the departure of the shipment.


ASN (autonomous system number)

A number assigned to a local network, registered into the carrier’s routing community and placed under the umbrella of an administrative domain called an autonomous system (see AS).


ASO (automated system operations)

Often referred to as “lights-out operations.” This is a combination of hardware and software that allows a computer installation to run unattended — that is, without the need for a human operator to be physically located at the site of the installation.


ASP (application service provider)

An enterprise that delivers application functionality and associated services across a network to multiple customers using a rental or usage-based transaction-pricing model. ASP market is defined as the delivery of standardized application software via a network, though not particularly or exclusively the Internet, through an outsourcing contract predicated on usage-based transaction pricing. The ASP market is composed of a mix of service providers (Web hosting and IT outsourcing), independent software vendors and network/telecommunications providers.


ASP (average selling price)

Typical “street” price of any product. In communications research, it generally refers to the typical price of a mobile phone.


asset management

This category includes products that provide one or all of the following: asset discovery; asset management; an asset database/repository; asset portfolio management; and tracking of purchases, leases, contracts and disposal pertaining to IT assets, including hardware and software. Links to general ledger accounting system modules, such as the capital asset ledger, are common. Integration with capacity products, user administration products, and order entry and e-procurement is desirable. When paired with an IT service desk (ITSD), asset management can become part of a complete solution for the business management of an IT department or IT outsourcer.



The ability to link computer-aided design (CAD) data and models together in a manner that allows design changes to be reflected automatically. Unidirectional or downstream associativity permits model changes to automatically change downstream data such as drafting, analysis or computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) data. Bidirectional associativity allows downstream changes, such as in drawings, to change the model.


ASSP (application-specific standard product)

An integrated circuit (IC) dedicated to a specific application market and sold to more than one user. A type of embedded programmable logic, ASSPs combine digital, mixed-signal and analog products. When sold to a single user, such ICs are defined as “application-specific integrated circuits”


ASTN (Automatic Switched Transport Network)


Characterized by not having a constant time interval between successive bits, characters or events. Transmission generally uses one start and one stop bit for character element synchronization (often called start-stop transmission).


asynchronous transmission

A process in which each information character, and sometimes each word or small block, is individually synchronized, usually by the use of start and stop elements.


ATC (ancillary terrestrial component)

Refers to the terrestrial ground segment of a hybrid satellite-terrestrial wireless network where the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) network and the ATC terrestrial network share the same MSS frequencies to communicate with end-user equipment. A hybrid satellite-terrestrial wireless network (MSS/ATC hybrid network) comprises one or more multispot beam satellites (space segments) and a nationwide network of terrestrial cell sites (the ATC) — as yet to be built. The space segment contains a satellite system that employs high-powered antennas, a large number of spot beams, and advanced frequency reuse technology to communicate with user devices on the ground. These dual-mode satellite/terrestrial wireless devices will likely be similar to current cellular/mobile user equipment and will enable a seamless user experience — moving from satellite to terrestrial operation — in a manner similar to traditional terrestrial cell-to-cell operation. Globalstar, MSV, TerreStar, ICO and Inmarsat are among the international mobile satellite operators vying to develop hybrid satellite-terrestrial networks using ATC ground segments. See also space segment, ground segment, MSS, spot beams and frequency reuse.


ATG (advanced technology group)

The role of the ATG is to provide a continuing stream of technology opportunities to the enterprise. It typically takes the lead in prototype and pilot projects.


ATM (Adobe Type Manager)

A program that enables the user to view type of any size with the highest resolution the user’s monitor can provide.


ATM (asynchronous transfer mode)

A wide-area network (WAN) technology, a transfer mode for switching and transmission that efficiently and flexibly organizes information into cells; it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells depends on the required or instantaneous bit rate. Thus, empty cells do not go by when data is waiting. ATM’s powerful flexibility lies in its ability to provide a high-capacity, low-latency switching fabric for all types of information, including data, video, image and voice, that is protocol-, speed- and distance-independent. ATM supports fixed-length cells 53 bytes in length and virtual data circuits between 45 megabits per second (Mbps) and 622 Mbps. Using statistical multiplexing, cells from many different sources are multiplexed onto a single physical circuit. The fixed-length fields in the cell, which include routing information used by the network, ensure that faster processing speeds are enabled using simple hardware circuits. The greatest benefit of ATM is its ability to provide support for a wide range of communications services while providing transport independence from those services.


ATM (automated teller machine)

A public banking machine that is usually hooked up to a central computer through leased local lines and a multiplexed data network.


ATO (assemble to order)

A strategy allowing a product or service to be made to specific order, where a large number of products can be assembled in various forms from common components. This requires sophisticated planning processes to anticipate changing demand for internal components or accessories while focusing on mass customization of the final products to individual customers.



A decrease in the magnitude of the current, voltage or power of a signal in transmission between points because of the transmission medium. Attenuation is usually expressed in decibels.



This metadata file contains the definitions of all the attributes that are allowed on an NTFS volume.



on disk a file is stored as a set of attributes resident / non res



This attribute is used when a file’s attributes won’t fit in a single MFT File Record. It has a list of all the attributes and where they can be found. The $ATTRIBUTE_LIST is always stored in the Base FILE Record.

See also: File Record $MFT Base FILE Record


Audit, Auditing

As part of the security permissions of a file, any actions performed on the file can be recorded. For example a file could be required to log all the people who tried to read it, but didn’t have the permissions to do so.


AUI (autonomous unit interface or attachment unit interface)

Most commonly used in reference to the 15-pin D-type connector and cables used to connect single- and multiple-channel equipment to an Ethernet transceiver.



The use of passwords, tokens (such as smart cards), digital certificates or biometrics (more commonly fingerprint, hand geometry and voice biometrics) to verify the identity of a user and better ensure against fraud.


authentication service

A mechanism, analogous to the use of passwords on time-sharing systems, for the secure authentication of the identity of network clients by servers and vice versa, without presuming the operating system integrity of either (e.g., Kerberos).



A process ensuring that correctly authenticated users can access only those resources for which the owner has given them approval.


automated backup

Delivers the most basic form of storage availability — recoverable data. Most enterprises are struggling with the implementation of this function. It is a conceptually complex and labor-intensive process. Backup design must address multiple elements (e.g., hardware, network, file system and application) across heterogeneous platforms and geographically dispersed sites. Labor intensive, departmental processes are replaced with automated, enterprise-level solutions to increase availability.


automated testing and quality management (distributed and mainframe)

Automated testing applies to commercially or internally developed software or services to assist in the testing process, including functional and load/stress testing. Automated tests provide consistent results and data points. The benefits are ease of maintenance, the ability to efficiently use resources in off-peak hours, and the capability to create reports based on the executed tests. Quality management tools include functionality for test planning, test case management and defect management (the governance piece of quality).


automatic error correction

A transmission system feature that automatically detects and corrects a proportion of errors in a received signal. It performs fault detection and isolation and reconfigures the system, dynamically invoking redundant components without the need to bring the system down.


automatic message-switching center

In a communications network, the location at which data is automatically routed according to its destination.


automatic restart

Also known as “warm recovery,” this is the resumption of operation after a system failure with minimal loss of work or processes (as opposed to a “cold” restart, which requires a complete reload of the system with no processes surviving).



Mechanism to implement the Japanese term jidoka, or automation with the human touch. It is the execution of the principle where a human can stop a production process if there is a quality issue.



Automatic adjustment to differing operating conditions or to transmission type or speed.



A feature of network management systems that automates the creation of a graphical network configuration map.



Software used in technical document control systems to convert certain bitmapped data to geometrical values.



The assurance that an enterprise’s IT infrastructure has suitable recoverability and protection from system failures, natural disasters or malicious attacks.


availability and performance

These tools are software products, including enterprisewide consoles, that are used to monitor and manage the performance and availability of systems, networks (and increasingly storage) mainly beneath the DBMS and application layers. (Management of databases, applications and networks is covered in separate categories with those names.)

The service management category was merged with availability and performance because performance products and service management products were becoming indistinguishable. Performance (and service management) products provide a service-level view and analysis of end-to-end performance (and often of availability). These products are evolving toward a business activity view of the IT and Web infrastructure (BAM). This logical, higher-level management layer will focus on the quality-of-service and service-guarantee issues linked with underlying more-granular network, system, Web and application management. Performance (service) software is sometimes used in-house or is outsourced from a third-party provider, such as a telecommunications carrier or Web hoster.

Performance tools focus on comparing the expected quality of resource availability for a resource or “service” with actual results. The tools use historical data and include features such as baselining, trend analysis, historical usage analysis, service-level reporting, and, in some cases, interfaces to chargeback and billing systems. Included here are service-level agreement tools and customer response time measurement tools. Tools for internal chargeback and capacity planning, as well as tools that design an internetwork, are in this segment. Performance monitoring and analysis products are also included here.



Computer representation of users in a computer-generated 3-D world, used primarily in chat and entertainment Web sites. Potential business applications include customer support, training or sales, where avatars in an enterprise’s Web site may assist potential customers through text or audio links.


AVD circuits (alternate voice/data circuits)

Circuits that have been conditioned to handle both voice and data traffic.


average ARPU (monthly)

This includes all IPTV-related revenue paid by the consumer directly to the IPTV service provider, averaged monthly over the year. These revenues can be in the form of subscriptions and/or pay per use charges, such as VOD fees.


average inventory

In an inventory system, this is the sum of one-half the lot sizes plus the reserve stock in formula calculations.


AVS (address verification service)

A fraud detection method in which the address provided by the buyer at the time of purchase is matched against the address registered with the card issuer. The result of this check (match/mismatch) is sent back to the merchant, but a mismatch does not result in automatic transaction denial. Since there are valid reasons for a mismatch, merchants are left to consider a variety of factors (e.g., size of the transaction) to determine whether to accept the purchase.


AWP (average wholesale price)

Sum of the factory gate price and shipment costs to the top tier of the distribution channel.



B+ Tree

A B+ tree is a variant of the binary tree. Instead of one data element per node, there are many. (In NTFS the actual number depends on the lengths of the names and the cluster size). The B+ tree retains the efficiency of a binary tree and also performs well with large numbers of data elements (because the tree tends to grow wide rather than deep).

See also: Binary Tree and Balanced Tree.


B2B services (integration as a service)

B2B integration capabilities that are hosted in a multitenant environment were traditionally known as “EDI value-added networks (VANs)”; we now call these hosted offerings “integration as a service.” Vendors referred to their integration-as-a-service offerings with a range of labels, including EDI VANs, integration platforms, EDI software as a service (SaaS), EDI services, Web services networks, transaction delivery networks, hosted integration services, business process networks, integration service providers and on-demand EDI. To be considered as an integration service provider, a vendor must offer hosted multienterprise integration and interoperability services. These include some combination of:

  • • Communications services (including multiprotocol support for protocols such as EDI, AS2, RosettaNet and Web services)
  • • Trading partner management services (such as tools to provision connections and manage certificates for security)
  • • Integration services (such as in-line translation and back-end system integration)
  • • Application services (such as order visibility or compliance management)


We do not include B2B project outsourcing – another form of B2B services – within this market because this is regarded as an IT professional services offering.



During chkdsk, if NTFS finds a multi-sector item (MFT, INDEX BLOCK, etc) where the multi-sector header doesn’t match the values at the end of the sector, it marks the item with the magic number ‘BAAD’, and fill it with zeroes (except for a short at the end of each sector…)


“BAAD” == corrupt record

“CHKD” == chkdsk ???

“FILE” == mft entry

“HOLE” == ??? (NTFS 3.0+?)

“INDX” == index buffer

RSTR & ???

See also: chkdsk and fsck.



A high-speed line or series of lines that forms the fastest (measured in bandwidth) path through a network. It often acts as a metanetwork.


backbone network

A high-speed transmission facility, or an arrangement of such facilities, designed to interconnect lower-speed distribution channels or clusters of dispersed user devices.


backbone router

A router designed to be used to construct backbone networks using leased lines. Backbone routers typically do not have any built-in digital dial-up wide-area network interfaces.


back end

The server side of a client/server system.


background task

A task performed by a system during the time when its primary application is idle.



The terrestrial link between an earth station and a switching or data center.


back-off algorithm

The formula used to determine when a second attempt will be made to access a network after an initial failed access attempt.



The physical connection between the interface cards and the data and power distribution buses in a network device such as a router, hub or switch.


backup and recovery software

Backup and recovery software products are designed to provide backup of storage to tape, disk or optical devices and to recover that data when needed. This segment also includes products focused specifically on supporting the recovery process, such as virtual tape libraries. Also included are media management, deduplication and backup reporting products, as well as archiving products that are included with the backup application. Media management activities include allocating, labeling, tracking, recycling and monitoring media, as well as storage pool management.


backup server

A software or hardware system that copies or “shadows” the contents of a server, providing redundancy.



This is the named Data Stream representing bad clusters on a volume.

See also: $BadClus.



This metadata file lists all the unreadable clusters on the volume.


balanced scorecard

A performance measurement and management approach that recognizes that financial measures by themselves are not sufficient and that an enterprise needs a more holistic, balanced set of measures which reflects the different drivers that contribute to superior performance and the achievement of the enterprise’s strategic goals. The balanced scorecard is driven by the premise that there is a cause-and-effect link between learning, internal efficiencies and business processes, customers, and financial results.


Balanced Tree

Often binary trees can become very uneven. By reorganising the data, the tree can be balanced such that no a node has similar numbers of children to it’s left and right.

See also: B+ Tree and Binary Tree.


BAM (business activity monitoring)

BAM is neither a market nor a product. It is a concept, such as quality or knowledge management, and it is not new. BAM solutions focus on cross-business processes rather than on divisional-, departmental- or technology-specific processes. The scope of integration in BAM solutions expands far beyond the four walls of a plant or a division, and real time is not necessarily nanoseconds, but rather it is determined by the requirements of the business process. It brings the near-real-time world of the BI operational data store together with IT operations monitoring and BPM through integration brokers and shared messaging.



  1. The range of frequencies between two defined limits.
  2. In wide-area telephone service (WATS), the specific geographical area in which the customer is entitled to call.



bandpass filter

A circuit designed to allow a single band of frequencies to pass.



  1. The range of frequencies that can pass over a given transmission channel. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit: the greater the bandwidth, the more information that can be sent in a given amount of time. Bandwidth is typically measured in bits per second. Increasing bandwidth potential has become a high priority for network planners due to the growth of multimedia, including videoconferencing, and the increased use of the Internet.
  2. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal is tested within a range of frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency. This range is also called a bandwidth. In the case of videodiscs, it is often 15 kilohertz (KHz) on either side.


bank tier

  • • Tier 1 includes between 20 and 25 global bank assets and/or capital markets price makers with daily trading volume exceeding 50,000 transactions. These banks want software using open architecture on a framework on which they can leverage tools, such as analytics.
  • • Tier 2 constitutes about 200 international and national banks and/or capital markets price takers, as well as trading volume averaging about 30,000 transactions daily. Such banks seek new technology with a complete vertical integration of functions. Cross-asset functionality is not a concern, except for structuring deals because of the specialized focus of their trading businesses. They desire analytics and a front- to back-office suite to improve transparency and risk management.
  • • Tier 3 consists of approximately 1,000 banks, including smaller national and regional banks, and capital markets price takers. These banks want cross-asset platforms, but don’t have the requisite IT resources in-house and must rely on vendors. Their biggest concern is implementation risk.
  • • Tier 4 comprises smaller regional institutions with a primary focus on core banking and limited capital markets trading. Such firms often source their capital markets requirements through third parties and tend to use an ASP approach.


BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface)

A set of documented, server-side interfaces to one or more R/3 processes, from SAP. BAPI packages multiple internal functions to enable programmatic access to such higher-order tasks as checking customer numbers, providing product descriptions, selecting products, creating quotations or creating orders.



Transmitting a signal in its original, unmodulated form. A baseband signal can be analog (e.g., originating from a telephone) or digital (e.g., originating from a computer).

Base FILE Record

If the attributes don’t fit into a single MFT record then the Base FILE Record holds enough information to locate the other records.

See also: $ATTRIBUTE_LIST, FILE Record and $MFT.


base station

Within a mobile radio system, a fixed radio station providing communication with mobile stations and, where applicable, with other base stations and the public telephone network.


batch processing

The processing of application programs and their data individually, with one being completed before the next is started. It is a planned processing procedure typically used for purposes such as preparing payrolls and maintaining inventory records.



A unit of signaling speed. The speed in bauds is the number of discrete changes per second in some aspect of a signal (e.g., voltage in a wire). Transmission speeds are now more commonly measured bits per second (bps), rather than bauds. The two terms were roughly synonymous until modems began to exceed 2,400 bps, after which they diverged more widely as modem speed has increased. Modems now use coding techniques to transmit more than one bit per baud, making their true baud ratings irrelevant.


BCC (block check character)

A control character appended to blocks in character-oriented protocols. Used for determining if the block was received in error in longitudinal and cyclic redundancy checking.


BCD (binary-coded decimal)

A numeric notation in which each of decimal digit is represented by a binary numeral. For example, in BCD notation, the number 23 is represented as “0010 0011” (as compared to the representation “10111” in the pure binary numeration system.


B channel (bearer channel)

One of two 64 kilobit per second data channels in the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (see BRI).


BCM (business continuity manager)

The person responsible for business recovery planning (BRP) and business continuity planning (BCP).


BCP (business continuity planning)

A broad disaster recovery approach whereby enterprises plan for recovery of the entire business process. This includes a plan for workspaces, telephones, workstations, servers, applications, network connections and any other resources required in the business process.


BDLS (bidirectional loop switching)

The ability of fiber rings to be recovered in either of two directions, typically by using two pairs of fiber in the ring.



The comparison between vendor performance and designated benchmark organizations or indexes. An index is a publicly available indicator for a factor that is associated with a pricing element.

  • • Internal benchmarking is the continuous process of measuring a company’s products, services and practices to determine whether the best possible job is performed with the resources at hand. This can include comparing similar functions of different operating units in an organization or comparing the operations of a specific division from one year to the next.
  • • External benchmarking is the continuous process of measuring a company’s products, services and practices and comparing them with those of another company. This can include comparisons with industry peers, functional leaders, or best-in-class performers.


bend loss

Attenuation in fiber cabling resulting from a bend being at too great an angle or from distortion within the cable.


bend radius

The radius of the smallest circle possible when bending a cable, if transmission is not to be faulty.



The superior product within a category of hardware or software. It does not necessarily mean best product overall, however. For example, the best-in-class product in a low-priced category may be inferior to the best product on the market, which could sell for much more. See best-of-breed.



The best product of its type. Enterprises often purchase software from different vendors to obtain the best-of-breed offering for each application area. For example, enterprises may purchase a human-resource package from one vendor and an accounting package from another. Although enterprise resource planning (ERP) vendors offer numerous enterprise applications and claim that their integrated system is a superior solution, all modules in an ERP system are rarely best-of-breed. See best-in-class.


best practice

A group of tasks that optimizes the efficiency (cost and risk) or effectiveness (service level) of the business discipline or process to which it contributes. It must be implementable, replicable, transferable and adaptable across industries.


beta test

The stage at which a new product is tested under actual usage conditions.


BI (business intelligence)


BIA (business impact analysis)

BIA identifies the cost (financial and nonfinancial) of a set of business processes that are not functioning correctly. It is one of the early steps required for preparing a disaster recovery plan (DRP) or a business continuity plan (BCP). Without this step, it is difficult for the business continuity manager to balance the cost of the DRP or BCP against the potential loss.


BICC (business intelligence competency center)

A business intelligence competency center (BICC) develops the overall strategic plan and priorities for BI. It also defines requirements, such as data quality and governance and fulfills the role of promoting the use of BI.



  1. An attempt to gain control over a line in order to transmit data, usually associated with the contention style of sharing a single line among several terminals.
  2. A vendor’s proposal to win a contract.


BI IDA (business intelligence information delivery architecture)

A key element of business intelligence (BI) implementation planning deals with the means and mechanisms for providing the needed data and information to users. Information delivery via desktop databases, intermediate servers, client/server database applications, or Web server interaction presents a challenge to most enterprises and many users. The BI IDA provides a framework and implementation model for evaluating and prioritizing users’ needs as well as matching those needs to the evolving delivery approaches and technologies.


bill-of-material processor

Computer applications supplied by many manufacturers for maintaining, updating and retrieving bill-of-material information on direct-access files.


binary code

Maths carried out in base two. In this documentation, certain flags fields are represented in binary, for the sake of clarity. e.g. 000010002, 0100000002.

See also: Decimal, Hex and Units.


Binary Tree

This is an efficient way of storing sorted data in order. Each node in the tree represents a data element. The left child node is a collection of all the elements that come before it. The right child node is a collection of all the elements that come after it.

See also: B+ Tree and Balanced Tree.



A database used by a workstation or network operating system to store internal data such as user or node definitions.


biometric authentication

A form of user authentication based on a physical (e.g., fingerprint, iris, face or hand) or behavioral (e.g., signature or voice) characteristic. Because it is based on something the person “is,” biometric authentication can provide a higher level of security that something a person “knows” (e.g., password, PIN or mother’s maiden name) or something a person “has” (e.g., a card, key or hardware token). Biometrics can be used to verify a person’s claimed identity or to identify a user from a database of candidates. To use a biometric system, the user must enroll by providing several samples of the biometric, from which the system creates a template for that user. At the time of verification or authentication, the live sample of the biometric is compared against the stored template.



A biometric characteristic, or a biometric trait, is a measurable physiological or behavioral trait of a living person, especially one that can be used to determine or verify the identity of a person in access control or criminal forensics. Most real adoption of biometric technologies during the next five years will come from government applications (for example, immigration, social security and surveillance), although corporate adoption will continue to grow slowly until biometric readers are routinely embedded in hardware, such as notebooks. Typical biometric measures include fingerprints, retinal recognition, facial thermograms and voice recognition.


BIOS (basic input/output system)

The part of an operating system that links the specific hardware devices to the software. It obtains the buffers required to send information from a program to the hardware/desktop receiving the information.


BI platforms

BI platforms provide the infrastructure and tools to enable users to build applications that facilitate decision making and help organizations learn, understand and improve their business. A BI platform is defined as a software platform that delivers most of the following capabilities under three overarching categories of functionality:

  • • Integration (BI infrastructure, metadata management, development, and workflow and collaboration)
  • • Information delivery (reporting, dashboards, ad hoc query and Microsoft Office integration)
  • • Analysis (online analytical processing [OLAP], advanced visualization, predictive modeling and data mining, and scorecards)


Please note that for software to be qualified as a BI platform, it must fill a majority of the criteria above. For example, we do not consider a stand-alone solution of integration, metadata and collaboration to be a BI platform.


B-ISDN (Broadband ISDN)

A high-speed (greater than ISDN primary rate), asynchronous, time division multiplexed transmission facility, or an arrangement of such facilities, designed to provide a wide range of audio, video and data applications in the same network.


bit (binary digit)

The minimum unit of binary information stored in a computer system. A bit can have only two states, on or off, which are commonly represented as ones and zeros. The combination of ones and zeros determines which information is entered into and processed by the computer. See also: Units


bit interleaving

A method of time-division multiplexing where inputs are sampled so that the sequence and number of bits are maintained, facilitating synchronization.



This metadata file keeps track of which clusters are in use on the volume.



This attribute keeps track of which records are in use in an index.



Composed of a vast number of picture elements, or pixels, which are displayed in a pattern that forms an image on a video screen.


black belt

Designation in Six Sigma of a practitioner who has achieved mastery of Six Sigma techniques and is qualified to lead others in developing Six Sigma skills.


blanking interval

The area in a video signal that falls between frames. It is often used to accommodate data such as synchronizing information.


blended premises/services approach

This type of solution tightly integrates on-premises and service offerings, and has its roots in a range of network-based service solutions. Service offerings, until now, have largely remained as un-unified, stand-alone communications services, or as all-in-one bundles that lack critical enterprise functions. Fully featured and integrated on-premises service UC solutions are only beginning to enter the market.


BLERT (block error rate test)

A test conducted by transmitting a known blocked bit pattern, comparing the pattern received with the pattern transmitted, and counting the number of blocks containing errored bits.


BLOB (binary large object)

A generic term used to describe the handling and storage of long strings of data by database management systems. A BLOB is a category of data , characterized by large size (including media formats such as audio and video), which can place extreme demands on storage systems and network bandwidth.



A group of bits or bytes treated as a unit. In Linux terminology, this is a cluster. Block device In Linux terminology, this is a storage unit. Cluster The minimum allocation unit. Clusters are a fixed power of 2 of the sector size (called the cluster factor), and their size can be between 512 bytes and 4 KB (Sometimes 64 KB, but 4 KB is the largest cluster size that the current NTFS compression engine can operate with. That limit may be related to the 4 KB page size used on the Intel i386 CPU). This size can be set with the Windows NT format utility, whose default is: Volume size Cluster size 1 to 512 MB Sector size 512 MB to 1 GB 1 KB 1 GB to 2 GB 2 KB more than 2 GB 4 KB


block down conversion

The conversion of a full satellite band to a lower frequency (e.g., from SHF to UHF or VHF).


block error rate

In data communications testing, the ratio between the total number of blocks transmitted in a given message and the number of blocks in that message received in error; a measure of the quality of a data transmission.



The inability to connect two lines in a network because all possible paths between them are already in use.



Low-power wireless networking technology operating in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. There are two classes of Bluetooth device – Class 1 devices have higher output power and a range of about 100 meters, and Class 2 devices have lower power and a range of about 10 meters. Bluetooth enables ad hoc networking of up to eight devices (supporting voice and data). The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was founded in 1998 by IBM, Intel, Ericsson, Nokia and Toshiba, and is supported by more than 2,500 organizations. The Bluetooth v.1.0 specification was ratified and published in 1999 and supported data rates of up to 1Mbps. Bluetooth Version 2.1, along with its enhanced data rate (EDR) specification, was ratified in March 2007, supporting data rates of up to 3Mbps, and simplified “pairing” – the process used for securely linking one Bluetooth device to another. It also reduced power consumption, doubling the battery life of headsets and other mobile devices for which the Bluetooth radio consumes a large percentage of the power budget. Version 3.0 (“Seattle”) was adopted by the SIG in April 2009, and the specification included Wi-Fi as an alternative transport layer for large volumes of data, supporting data rates of up to 24 Mbps. The SIG also adopted “Bluetooth low energy,” a new ultra-low-power variant, previously referred to as Ultra Low Power (ULP) Bluetooth and Wibree. See also ZigBee and ultrawideband (UWB).


Bluetooth LE (low energy)

Specification adopted by the Bluetooth SIG in April 2009 that enables low-power peripherals with a battery life of months to years to communicate with Bluetooth in handsets or other devices. Bluetooth LE opens up a new range of devices and applications such as on-body medical sensors and sports and fitness equipment. LE arose from a technology called Wibree (owned by Nokia) and was previously called ULP Bluetooth.


BMIT (business management of IT)

A framework developed to help managers focus on the key issues affecting each area or stage of an IT strategy and how these issues impact the business or organizational side of the enterprise. Each stage requires measurement of IT costs, operations, efficiency and effectiveness. The six-stage management process focuses on risk and investment criteria across four major BMIT management practices: people, money, infrastructure and strategic-process architecture.


BOI (business object interface)

Application programming interfaces (APIs) published by Baan to permit access to functions within its enterprise resource planning (ERP) system.


BOL (bill of lading)

A contract of carriage between a shipper and carrier to consign a load for delivery to another party.


BOM (bill of materials)

A structured list of the raw materials, parts and assemblies that constitute a product to be manufactured, typically used as part of a manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) system.



Pointer to an Internet address kept within a Web client (browser).



This metadata file points at the boot sector of the volume. It contains information about the size of the volume, clusters and the MFT.



To start a computer system. A boot from a power-off condition is called a “cold boot,” while merely reinitializing the system is called a “warm boot.”


BOSS (billing and operational support system)

Generic term that refers to the key back-office software systems required to run a cellular network. More commonly known as business support system (BSS)/operations support system (OSS). See also BSS and OSS.



The operation with the least capacity in a total system with no alternative routings; the total system can be effectively scheduled by simply scheduling the limiting operation.



The return of an undeliverable e-mail.


BPA (business process automation)

The automation of complex business processes and functions beyond conventional data manipulation and record-keeping activities, usually through the use of advanced technologies. It focuses on “run the business” as opposed to “count the business” types of automation efforts and often deals with event-driven, mission-critical, core processes. BPA usually supports an enterprise’s knowledge workers in satisfying the needs of its many constituencies.


BPA (business process analysis) tools

Business process analysis (BPA) tools are primarily intended for use by business end users looking to document, analyze and streamline complex processes, thereby improving productivity, increasing quality, and becoming more agile and effective. These tools also support the roles of business process architect and business process analyst, and enable them to better understand business processes, events, workflows and data using proven modeling techniques. BPA tools permit users to diagram their processes, noting (generally abstracted) rules or specifications to promote understanding, validate this information using standard methodologies and best practices enabled by the software, and ideally, automate the models into deployable applications that leverage their analytical efforts and comply with the business process rules. BPA tools feature the following functionality:

  • • Business model drawing and development
  • • Ease of use in operation, development and administration
  • • Business model analysis
  • • Integration and automation
  • • Multiuser support/versioning and extensibility
  • • Methodology and use
  • • Performance and scalability
  • • Vertical-industry and horizontal cross-industry template support


bpi (bits per inch)

A measurement used to calculate the number of bits stored in a linear inch of a track on a disk, tape or other recording surface.


BPM (business process management)


BPM (business process modeling)

A process that links business strategy to IT systems development to ensure business value. It combines process/workflow, functional, organizational and data/resource views with underlying metrics such as costs, cycle times and responsibilities to provide a foundation for analyzing value chains, activity-based costs, bottlenecks, critical paths and inefficiencies.


BPM pure-play software

The term “BPM pure play” describes tools that delivered an application-independent approach to coordinating business. BPM pure-play products provide a set of services and tools for explicit process management (that is, process analysis, definition, execution, monitoring and administration), including support for human- and application-level interaction. BPM pure-play software includes commercially available software products that have all these features:

  • • Process orchestration engine
  • • Modeling environment
  • • Human-to-human workflow
  • • Monitoring and analysis capabilities
  • • Offline simulation
  • • System-to-system integration
  • • Business process performance reporting


Only general-purpose, cross-industry BPM pure-play software is included in this category. There are many vertical-industry-specific BPM pure-play software products that are not covered here.


BPMS (business process management suite)

BPM is a technology-enabled discipline, which causes the confusion between the BPM discipline and BPM technologies. A number of technologies could be used for BPM, but BPMSs represent the most-evolved and comprehensive approach to BPM at present. A BPMS is a complete set of integrated composition technologies for managing all aspects of process – people, machines, information, business rules and policies supporting full process discovery, analysis, design, development, execution, monitoring and optimization cycle, in which business professionals and IT collaborate as peers. A BPMS makes the business process explicit (visible and independent of its implementation), using business process models. A BPMS makes these models executable; they are not just documentation.

A BPMS must include the following 10 component capabilities:

  • • Process execution and state management engine
  • • Model-driven development environment
  • • Document and content interaction
  • • User and group interaction
  • • Basic system connectivity
  • • Business events, BI and business activity monitoring (BAM) support
  • • Online and offline simulation and optimization
  • • Business rule management
  • • System management and administration
  • • Process component registry/repository


BPO (business process outsourcing)

BPO is defined as “the delegation of one or more IT-intensive business processes to an external provider that, in turn, owns, administrates and manages the selected processes based on defined and measurable performance metrics.” Examples of business processes that are outsourced to an ESP include logistics, procurement, HR, finance and accounting, CRM, or other administrative or customer-facing business functions.


BPR (business process re-engineering)

Business process re-engineering, where “as-is” and “to-be” process activities are defined and improvement generally takes the form of a complete redesign BPR analytical techniques

Mathematical, graphical, logical and managerial algorithms for describing and modeling business processes, information systems or management decision-making systems.


BPR methodology

An integrated set of management policies, project management procedures, and modeling, analysis, design and testing techniques for analyzing existing business processes and systems; designing new processes and systems; testing, simulating and prototyping new designs prior to implementation; and managing the implementation process.


BPR tools

Combinations of techniques and software products that allow electronic capture, analysis, testing, simulation, reconfiguration and persistent memory of business and systems models


bps (bits per second)

Measure of the capacity or throughput of a communication channel. The ability to achieve a particular bps depends on the bandwidth, frequency and modulation technique. See also bandwidth.


BR (business routing)

A category of call routing used for sales or service functions. The general objective is to determine, as transparently as possible, the caller’s needs, business value and relationship, and ultimately to automate the call’s routing to a resource. The process is usually driven by multiple databases, with each factor considered becoming a decision or value point.


brand and product management

These applications enable trade promotion, product development management and market research.


brand service company

Similar to the in-sourcing model, a company that is built to provide services to a large organization or a group of business-oriented companies. Services provided (which may include non-IT services and business processes) are carefully compared against the market, and the services company leverages external services providers (ESPs), selectively outsourcing part of their services.


BRE software

A BRE is a specific collection of design-time and runtime software that allows an enterprise to explicitly define, analyze, execute, audit and maintain a wide variety of business logic, collectively referred to as “rules.” A BRE allows IT and/or business staff to define rules using decision trees, decision tables, pseudo-natural language, programminglike code or other representation techniques. Unlike traditional AD approaches, a BRE isolates the rule representation from the executing business logic – providing for explicit rule management. A BRE provides features to analyze rules for rule conflicts, rule consistency and other quality issues. A BRE allows auditing of the rule execution path and firing order, and it provides a rule repository and related features to maintain and enhance the rule base. A BRE may simply provide rule externalization capabilities (separating rules from programming code), or it may provide higher-level rule-processing capabilities, such as inferencing (forward chaining, goal-directed backward chaining), case-based reasoning and advanced heuristics. Many BRE vendors are increasing their business rule management technologies and “ecosystems” and are creating comprehensive business rule management systems that add capabilities to the basic BRE technology.

Only general-purpose, cross-industry BRE software is included in this category. There are many vertical-industry-specific BRE software products that are not covered here.



An interruption to a transmission; frequently a provision permitting a controlled terminal to interrupt the controlling computer.


BREW (binary runtime environment for wireless)

Application ecosystem designed by Qualcomm to support application development, provisioning, marketing and billing of handheld wireless data applications, predominantly for consumers.



Channels carried on coaxial or fiber-optic cables that have a wider bandwidth than conventional telephone lines, giving them the ability to carry video, voice and data simultaneously. Cable modems and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies are examples of broadband connectivity.


broadband access

The access function enables end users to connect to a network. It provides the initial customer interface and plays a critical role in determining the customer “experience.” The access part of a network tends to account for a large share of network investment because of customers’ diverse needs and locations, and the high cost of the customer premises equipment (CPE). It is also the most expensive part of the network from an operations perspective.

Broadband access includes the following fixed broadband access technologies:

  • • Fiber to the home (FTTH).
  • • Generic digital subscriber line (xDSL), including all DSL flavors (also the so-called fiber to the curb [FTTC] where the “last mile access” is still based on copper).
  • • Broadband wireless access including all WiMAX but excluding mobile broadband technologies covered under mobile infrastructure. (Mobile WiMAX will be a niche technology and is included in broadband access with the rest of WiMAX.)


broadband aggregation/IP services routers

These routers are a subset of edge routers. They are aggregation and termination systems that accept a high concentration of data traffic from multiple xDSL access multiplexers, cable modem termination systems, wireless headends, dial-access concentrators and routers. In addition to aggregation and termination, these systems offer the following subscriber management services:

  • • Differentiated classes of service, different priority levels for different classes of network user, dynamic selection and delivery of network services, QoS for data, voice and video applications, and user-based billing.


Security and random authentication, troubleshooting and remote diagnostics, network management, managed firewalls and secure VPNs.

Broadband aggregation system vendors and their products include:

  • • Cisco: 7200, 7300, 7600, 10000 Series.
  • • Juniper Networks: E-series.
  • • Redback Networks: SMS and SmartEdge families.



  1. Delivery of a transmission to two or more stations at the same time, such as over a bus-type local network or by satellite.
  2. Protocol mechanism whereby group and universal addressing is supported.


broadcast storm

Excessive one-to-many or many-to-many transmissions, especially troublesome on Ethernet networks.



The middleware that mediates communication between applications (including external legacy applications and packaged applications) and enables them to share information.



In response to heavy demand, main system voltages are sometimes lowered, leading to brownouts in which power is not lost but reduced.



A software program used to locate and display information on the Internet or an intranet. Browsers are most often used to access Web pages. Most can display graphics, photographs and text; multimedia information (e.g., sound and video) may require additional software, often referred to as “plug-ins.”



The near-random search for content on the Internet.


BRP (business recovery planning)

Planning for the recovery of an enterprise’s systems in the event of a major outage.


BRTI (Badan Regulasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia)

Telecommunications regulator in Indonesia.


BRU (business requirement unit)

A unit of measure developed to compensate IS organizations for performing up to business requirements. The unit cost to deliver server environments to the enterprise can then be calculated by accumulating all the delivered BRUs and dividing them by the total cost to operate the environment. BRUs are determined based on IS functions delivered by the IS organization, weighted by importance, scaled for size and added together to provide a total.


BSC (base station controller)

Network element that controls and monitors a number of base stations and provides the interface between the cell sites and the mobile switching center (MSC).


BSC (Binary Synchronous Communications)

A half-duplex, character-oriented data communications protocol originated by IBM in 1964. It includes control characters and procedures for controlling the establishment of a valid connection and the transfer of data. Also called Bisync. Although still in use, it has largely been replaced by IBM’s more efficient protocol, Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC), which is under Systems Network Architecture (SNA).


BSP (business service provider)

A domain of enterprise application outsourcing best suited for confined processes with a few, well-defined interfaces to other business processes of the enterprise. BSP is the extension of the application service provider (ASP) model into business process management. A BSP manages and operates standardized business processes on behalf of its customers, delivering its service across a network to multiple customers using a “pay as you go” payment model.


BSS (base station subsystem)

Base transceiver station (BTS) and BSC parts of the radio access elements of a mobile network. The abbreviation BSS can also be used for business support system and basic service set.


BSS (business solution server)

A platform for development and execution of complete line-of-business (LOB) applications. A unit of BSS development abstraction is a business process, not a program. Architecturally, a BSS is a framework of business processes. Technologically, BSSs may rest on a variety of technologies, exposed to developers via business application programming interfaces.



Business support system.


BTA (basic trading area)

Geographic area designation that was used for the allocation of 800MHz cellular licenses to mobile service providers in the U.S., which determines where they can operate. Each metropolitan trading area (MTA) is made up of several BTAs. There are 493 BTAs and 51 MTAs in the U.S. See also metropolitan service area or metropolitan statistical area (MSA), MTA and rural service area (RSA).


BTS (base transceiver station)

Fixed radio transceiver in any mobile network. The BTS connects mobile devices to the network. It sends and receives radio signals to mobile devices and converts them to digital signals that it passes on the network to route to other terminals in the network or to the Internet.



A storage device used to compensate for a difference in rate of data flow, or time of occurrence of events, when transmitting data from one device to another.



An unexpected problem with software or hardware. Typical problems are often the result of external interference with the program’s performance that was not anticipated by the developer. Minor bugs can cause small problems like frozen screens or unexplained error messages that do not significantly effect usage. Major bugs may not only affect software and hardware, but could also have unintended effects on connected devices or integrated software and may damage data files.



Packaging multiple features and products together for a single price.



In data communications, a sequence of signals counted as one unit in accordance with a specific criterion or measure.



Data that is transmitted in uneven spurts.



  1. Physical transmission path or channel. Typically an electrical connection with one or more conductors, wherein all attached devices receive all transmissions at the same time.
  2. Local network topology, such as that used in Ethernet, where all network nodes listen to all transmissions, selecting certain ones based on address identification. It involves some type of contention-control mechanism for accessing the bus transmission medium.



business consulting

Business consulting services are limited to business operations consulting services that typically preface, enable or influence the adoption of IT. These business consulting services include business process transformation, business process redesign or re-engineering, business performance improvement, corporate compliance, risk management, governance and sourcing advisory. These services may be sold or sourced as discrete projects, or as preludes to outsourcing engagements. Regardless of how they are sold and delivered, business consulting services will directly affect IT. This distinguishes them from other types of business consulting, such as strategy consulting or corporate finance that may sometimes influence IT.


business intelligence

Business intelligence (BI) is defined as the general ability to organize, access and analyze information in order to learn and understand the business. BI is an umbrella term that includes the applications, infrastructure and tools, and best practices that enable access to and analysis of information to improve and optimize decisions and performance…


business IP telephones segmentation

The business IP telephone handset market is defined according to the following segmentation scheme:

  • • One- or two-line IP telephones.
  • • Graphical display IP telephones.
  • • PC softphones.
  • • Mobile softphones.
  • • 802.11 WLAN IP telephones.


business process

An event-driven, end-to-end processing path that starts with a customer request and ends with a result for the customer. Business processes often cross departmental and even organizational boundaries.


business process management (BPM)

Business process management (BPM) is defined as a management discipline that treats business processes as assets that directly improve enterprise performance by driving operational excellence and business agility…


business process outsourcing (BPO)

BPO is defined as “the delegation of one or more IT-intensive business processes to an external provider that, in turn, owns, administrates and manages the selected processes based on defined and measurable performance metrics.” Examples of business processes that are outsourced to an ESP include logistics, procurement, HR, finance and accounting, CRM, or other administrative or customer-facing business functions.

BPO services are characterized by multiyear, contractual relationships, with appropriate SLAs that deliver full business processes to the service recipient. Typically, BPO services include the delivery of the people and process workflows, as well as the underpinning technology that supports them. Additionally, gradients of process — and pieces of subprocesses — can be outsourced as discrete BPO contracts, or full end-to-end, comprehensive arrangements. In all cases, the inherent risk for the business process in scope is the responsibility of the service provider, as outlined in the contract’s statement of work. This is what differentiates BPO from, for example, application outsourcing.

At the core of  BPO forecasts are process management services, but other product support, consulting, and development/integration services can also be delivered through BPO contracts. This is because the typical life cycle of a BPO contract will follow design-build-and-run phases, during which consulting, implementation and management services are being delivered. That said, the cornerstone of any BPO deal is the process management revenue, which represents the ongoing, steady-state phase of the deal, once the processes are fully transitioned to the service provider.


bus topology

An equal-access network design in which all devices are connected to a single linking cable with two distinct ends.


buy side

A process enabling companies to purchase products that include requisitioning, product catalogs, approvals, user identification, purchase order creation, payment processing and integration with other systems.


BWA (broadband wireless access)

Generic term for services based on a wireless broadband MAN; sometimes referred to as wireless broadband access.



Any of several configurations of alternative transmission arrangements whose purpose is to avoid the local telephone company switched network. “Service” bypass involves using the telephone company’s own (cheaper) facilities, while “facilities” bypass involves privately owned fiber or radio transmission.


byte (binary table)

A group of eight bits handled as a logical unit. In text files, a byte is equivalent to a single character such as a letter, number or punctuation mark. See also: Units


byte code

The intermediate code compiled and executed by a virtual machine (VM). Byte code can be used unchanged on any platform on which the VM operates.





The programming language created by Dennis Ritchie at the former Bell Laboratories in 1972. C provides very precise control of the computer’s operation.



An extension to the C language defined by Bjarne Stroustrop at Bell Laboratories in 1986. As a superset of C, it provides additional features for data abstraction and object-oriented programming. C++ can be used to develop programs for almost all computers. Together, C and C++ are the among the most common programming languages in use today.


CA (certification authority)

Also known as a “certificate authority,” this is an internal or third-party entity that creates, signs and revokes digital certificates that bind public keys to user identities. A repository or directory stores digital certificates and certificate revocation lists (CRLs) to allow users to obtain the public keys of other users and determine revocation status. Typically, the repository is a traditional X.500 directory or a database that supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).


cable service provider

An entity that owns cable  infrastructure and provides cable TV (and increasingly telecom services). Examples include, Comcast, Time Warner Cable.


CAC (connection admission control)

A function in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks that checks whether network resources are available to support the quality of service and traffic parameters of an incoming connection. Also known as “call admission control.”


CAC (context-aware computing)

Context-aware computing (CAC) centers around the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction with the end user. The term “context-enriched services” describes software that uses information about an end user’s environment, community, process and identity to enrich a core function. These services are one of CAC’s fundamental building blocks. Enterprises can leverage CAC to better target prospects, increase customer intimacy, and enhance associate productivity and collaboration.



A temporary storage area for instructions and data near a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), usually implemented in high-speed memory. It replicates information from main memory or storage in a way that facilitates quicker access, using fewer resources than the original source. Because data is closer to the CPU, it can be retrieved more quickly.


caching server

A device that efficiently stores frequently requested data from protocols such as Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and has the ability to “prefetch” additional data at preset intervals. A network caching server has the ability to listen on the network and intercept protocol requests on its associated Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ports. This alleviates the need to have the enterprise’s browser configured to “know” where the server sits on the network.


CAD (computer-aided design)

High-speed workstations or personal computers that use specialized software and input devices such as graphic tablets and scanners for specialized use in architectural, electrical and mechanical design. With few exceptions, CAD systems rely extensively on graphics.


CADAM (Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing)

A computer-aided design program by IBM consisting of three-dimensional construction, modification, analysis and display (geometrical representation) of mechanical parts, including a control system for automated machine tools to manufacture the parts.


CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing)


CADD (computer-aided design and drafting)

Interactive graphic programs that automate the methodologies of drafting and design layouts. A few programs are successful enough so that it is difficult to justify designing layouts manually. Applications include integrated circuits and printed circuit boards.


CADDY (Computer-Aided Dossier and Data Supply)

An electronic dossier interchange and archiving format used in registering agrochemical products, such as pesticides .


CAE (computer-aided engineering)

An area of automated manufacturing and design technology for building end products that had its roots in finite element methods, but today it includes all types of performance systems, e.g., heat transfer, structural, electromagnetic, aeronautics and acoustic analysis. Major improvements have been in the architecture, mechanical, electronic and electrical-engineering disciplines.


CAGR (compound annual growth rate)

The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is the annualized average rate of revenue growth between two given years, assuming growth takes place at an exponentially compounded rate. The CAGR between given years X and Z, where Z – X = N, is the number of years between the two given years, is calculated as follows:

CAGR, year X to year Z = [(value in year Z/value in year X) ^ (1/N)-1]

For example, the CAGR for 2006 to 2011 is calculated as:

CAGR, 2006 to 2011 (X = 2006, Z = 2011, N = 5) = [(value in 2011/value in 2006) ^ (1/5)-1]


CAI (common air interface)

Technical parameters of control and information signals are passed between a radio transmitter and receiver so that equipment manufactured by different companies can communicate.



In networking, a call is any demand to set up a connection. In telecommunications, it is a unit of telephone traffic.


call accounting system

A device that tracks outgoing calls and records data for reporting. See call detail recording (CDR) and station message detail recording (SMDR).


call center

A group or department where employees receive and make high volumes of telephone calls. Call centers can have internal customers (e.g., help desks) or external customers (e.g., customer service and support centers). The call center uses a variety of technologies to improve the management and servicing of the call (see call center suite). A center that use both phone- and non-phone-based communication channels (e.g., e-mail or the Web) is known as a “contact center” (see separate entry).


call center suite

A product that offers a suite of integrated components to support a call center (e.g., a help desk or a customer service and support center). In the past, integrating these components often required the services of an independent integrator; however, as call center functions move to open software platforms, many vendors now offer bundled suites of call center functionality.

An all-in-one call center suite provides a complete set of call center functions as a single platform, within the control of a single administrative view. Components include:

  • • An open computing platform (usually Windows NT or Unix)
  • • Telephone switch functionality and computer-telephony integration (CTI)
  • • Intelligent routing, based on business rules or agent skills
  • • Automatic call distribution (ACD), interactive voice response (IVR) and voice mail functions
  • • Outbound (e.g., predictive) dialing
  • • Application integration interfaces and tools
  • • “Cradle to grave” contact reporting, and component administration


A multifunction call center suite differs from an all-in-one suite in that it does not require switching integration. Instead, the switch functionality can be on a separate platform, controlled via CTI links and administered separately.


caller ID

A telephone service that records the telephone numbers of incoming calls; it is a form of automatic number identification (ANI). Caller ID systems can be integrated with customer databases to streamline call management processes. This integration gives the agent receiving a call instantaneous access to relevant information about the caller. For example, when a customer calls, that customer’s name immediately appears on the agent’s computer screen. The screen might include information about the product a customer purchased and the purchase date. The system could also display the client’s previous call history, information about other products the customer owns and price promotions on products that might also be appealing to that caller, based on a profile in the database.


call information logging

Automatic recording of information on chargeable calls made on a private branch exchange (PBX) system, including the extension number, exchange line number, time, call duration and digits dialed. This can be used for call accounting or billing.


call processing

The sequence of operations performed by a switching system from the acceptance of an incoming call through the final disposition of the call.


call record

All recorded data pertaining to a single call.


CALS (Continuous Acquisition and Life Cycle Support)

A joint project of industry and the U.S. Department of Defense to exchange technical-support information in digital form. (The acronym originally stood for “Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Systems,” and is now sometimes expanded as “Commerce at Light Speed.”) It has become a common set of programs for integrating electronic commerce initiatives, intended to enhance the development of pro forma and de facto standards (particularly for graphics exchanges) and to drive new methods for concurrent manufacturing in the automotive, aerospace, electronics and heavy-equipment industries. CALS is a useful way for manufacturing enterprises to combine a number of productivity-enhancing initiatives under one umbrella.


CAM (computer-aided manufacturing)

The manufacturing of goods controlled and automated via computer and robot. Frequently used in conjunction with computer-aided design (CAD).


CAMA (centralized automatic message accounting)

An automatic message accounting system that is located at an exchange but that serves various adjacent exchanges.


campaign management and lead management

Campaign management applications help organizations segment, target and manage multichannel marketing messages. Elements of functionality include data mining, customer segmentation, customer-event triggering, next-best-action recommendation engines and campaign optimization. Lead management applications encompass lead generation, centralized lead collection, lead qualification, lead prioritization, lead augmentation and enhancement, lead distribution, and closed-loop measurement and analysis.


CAP (carrierless amplitude phase modulation)

A multilevel, multiphase encoding method for transmitting data over twisted pair lines. It is a superset of the legacy protocol used by analog modems. It is simple to implement in silicon, uses less power than discrete multitone (DMT), is supported by Paradyne and a number of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) providers, and is currently in use in several Internet service providers’ digital subscriber line (DSL) services.


CAPE (concurrent art-to-product environment)

CAPE represents the third wave of design. It requires a wide variety of synergistic applications to work together, including visualization, rapid prototyping, analysis, materials selection, machining and cost estimation. Key to CAPE are application frameworks, data management and product geometry exchanges, so that any person who is involved in product design and approval can participate in the process.

Seven elements comprise the technological foundation of the CAPE system architecture:

  • • Hardware independence
  • • Software architecture
  • • Framework incorporation
  • • Application integration
  • • Data exchange
  • • Data management
  • • Enterprise pricing policies


Beyond these base elements, CAPE systems include technological components targeted to specific application areas. These application-specific elements are grouped into three markets – mechanical design, process plant design and electronics design – which account for the majority of industrial design activity.


CAPP (computer-aided process planning)

Application software used to develop work instructions and product manufacturing or assembly steps in discrete manufacturing operations.


CAR (committed access rate)

A metric used Internet quality of service (QOS) agreements to classify and limit customer traffic and manage excess traffic according to the network policy.



A removable board that carries the necessary circuits for a particular computer function; such cards (or boards) are designed to fit expansion slots provided by computer manufacturers.


card cage

A frame for holding circuit cards in a midsize computer system. Also referred to as a card chassis.


carrier alarm

An alarm condition that occurs when excessive zeros or all zeros are transmitted.


carrier frequency

The frequency of a carrier wave, measured in cycles per second, or Hertz, that is modulated to transmit signals.


carrier loss

An alarm condition that occurs when 32 consecutive zeros are transmitted.


carrier network infrastructure

Carrier network infrastructure can be defined as a combination of the following basic functions:

  • • Voice switching, control and applications
  • • Optical transport
  • • Service provider routers and switches
  • • Mobile core
  • • Mobile radio
  • • Fixed access


carrier signaling

Any of the signaling techniques used in multichannel carrier transmission. The most commonly used techniques are in-band signaling, out-of-band signaling and separate channel signaling.


carrier system

The means of obtaining a number of channels over a single path by modulating each channel on a different carrier frequency and demodulating at the receiving point to restore the signals to their original frequency.


cascade control

A control strategy that uses the output of one controller as the set point for another.


cascading faults

Network faults (outages) that generate other faults.


cascading hubs

A hierarchy of hubs enabling many local-area network (LAN) segments to be connected to a backbone efficiently but without great expense.


CASE (computer-aided software engineering)

An umbrella term for a collection of applications development tools designed to increase programmer productivity. They include technologies such as application generators and PC-based workstations that provide graphics-oriented automation of the front end of the development process.


CASE analysis and design tools

Graphical, interactive tools for the analysis and design phases of application software development.


CASP (content and applications service provider)

Includes providers focusing primarily on information and media services, content, entertainment and applications services. Examples include, Yahoo, Google.



Data sets grouped and placed permanently in a storage device for use when required.


catalog content management

Processes, services and applications used to allow electronic catalog creation and updating in an e-commerce environment.


CAU (controlled access unit)

An intelligent hub on a token ring network.



Refers to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum allotted for satellite transmissions in the 4GHz to 8GHz frequency range. C-band satellite antennas are used frequently in areas of the world where signals can become degraded due to heavy rain or other intense climate-related conditions. As a rule, C-band satellite antennas range in size from 1.8 meters to 2.4 meters. C-band satellite communications suffer less from rain attenuation, but they require larger antennas and typically are used in Asia, Africa and Latin America. See also antenna, frequency bands, Ka-band, Ku-band and satellite dish.


CBD (component-based development)

A set of reuse-enabling technologies, tools and techniques that allow applications development (AD) organizations to go through the entire AD process (i.e., analysis design, construction and assembly) or through any particular stage via the use of predefined component-enabling technologies (such as AD patterns, frameworks, design templates) tools and application building blocks.


CBL (Common Business Language)

Commerce One’s Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema development effort.


CBP (constraint-based programming)

A technique that looks for a workable solution by reducing the search space (i.e., possibilities) by processing the necessary conditions to be satisfied. Configuration engines, planning and scheduling systems are among its most successful applications.


CBQ (class-based queuing)

A mechanism that defines various levels of service for access to the Internet and can be used with or without Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). CBQ divides traffic into queues and assigns each a specific amount of network bandwidth.


CBR (case-based reasoning)

An artificial-intelligence problem-solving technique that catalogs experience into “cases” and correlates the current problem to an experience. CBR is used in many areas, including pattern recognition, diagnosis, troubleshooting and planning. These systems are easy to maintain in comparison to rule-based expert systems.


CBR (constant bit rate)

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) service category, defined by the ATM Forum, that guarantees a constant bandwidth with low delay, jitter and cell loss. Circuit emulation is a typical application.


CBR (content-based retrieval)

Search methodology for retrieving information based on words or phrases in the text.


CC (control code)

A multibit code reserved for controlling hardware, such as printers.


CCA (Compatible Communications Architecture)

A protocol for transmission of asynchronous data over X.25 lines.


CCD (charge-coupled device)

A semiconductor device capable of both photo-detection and memory, which converts light to electronic impulses. One-and two-dimensional CCD arrays are used in scanners to perform the first stage in converting an image into digital data. They are particularly attractive because they can step the signals from each detector across the array in response to a clock signal, permitting each scan line to be read through a single electrical connection.


CCD+ (Cash Concentration and Disbursement plus addenda)

One of the primary message formats necessary for enterprise-initiated payments to traverse the U.S. national banks’ clearinghouse system. The format is limited to a single addendum record (one invoice, one payment), and many banks can process it.


CCIR (Comite Consultatif International des Radio Communications)

Abbreviation of the French name for the International Radio Communications Consultative Committee, now part of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).


CCIS (Common Channel Interoffice Signaling)

An electronic means of signaling between any two switching systems independent of the voice path.


CCL (common-carrier line)

A type of access charge paid by interexchange carriers (IXCs) to local-exchange carriers (LECs). A usage-sensitive portion is included, even though the actual costs to the LECs are not usage-sensitive.


c-commerce (collaborative commerce)

Collaborative, electronically enabled business interactions among an enterprise’s internal personnel, business partners and customers throughout a trading community. The trading community could be an industry, industry segment, supply chain or supply chain segment.


C conditioning

A type of line conditioning that controls attenuation, distortion and delay distortion so they lie within specific limits.


CCOW (Clinical Context Object Workgroup)

A group that defines standards for collaboration among visual (GUI-based) applications on clinical workstations. Originally an independent consortium, CCOW is now technical committee of the Health Level Seven (HL7) standards organization.


CCP (Certified Computer Professional)

A technology credential issued by the Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP). To receive CCP certification, applicants must have four years of industry experience and pass a series of core and specialty exams.


CCS (hundred call seconds)

A metric used in calculating call center enquiry volume or efficiency.


CCSA (common control switching arrangement)

An automatic switching arrangement in which the control equipment necessary for the establishment of connections is shared, being associated with a given call only during the period required to accomplish the control function.


CCSA access

The provision of inward and outward service between the private branch exchange (PBX) and the Common Control Switching Arrangement (CCSA) network.


CD (carrier detect)

A signal indicating that a connection has been made. Also known as a received line signal detector (RLSD) signal.


CDIF (CASE Data Interchange Format)

The primary interchange standard for computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools.


CDLA (Computer Dealers and Lessors Association)

A trade association of North American-based computer dealers and lessors. The principal purpose of the organization is to promote professional integrity among its members. It also promotes alternate instruments for computer financing.


CDM (Common Data Model)

A metadata rendering of the data elements used within i2 Technologies products.


CDMA (code division multiple access)

Spread-spectrum technology standard that assigns a pseudo-noise code to all speech and data bits, sends a scrambled transmission of the encoded speech over the air and reassembles the speech in its original format. By assigning a unique correlating code to each transmitter, several simultaneous conversations can share the same frequency allocation.



Commercial name for the IMT-2000 CDMA Multicarrier (MC-CDMA) standard developed through the 3GPP2 standards organization of the ITU. It is an evolving family of cellular networking specifications that offers enhanced voice and data capacity over cdmaOne. The family includes 1xRTT, EV-DO, EV-DO Rev. A, EV-DO Rev. B and EV-DO Rev. C. See also IMT-A.


CDN (content delivery networks)

Pay-TV and VOD services are both delivered to homes using some form of content delivery network (CDN) that the carrier deploys over its core, aggregation and broadband access networks. The CDN usually takes the form of a managed IP network overlay that links the user’s STB to the subscriber management server, VOD streaming servers and multicast TV headend. In the case of broadcast channels, the CDN needs to be able to multicast hundreds of channels from the headend without too much jitter or packet loss. In the case of on-demand services, the CDN must have the capacity and intelligence to handle bandwidth-intensive unicast streams, all carrying different content to different customers.

A CDN is necessary to ensure that high quality of service (QOS) requirements for video are met. Customers will not pay for TV services that are erratic or of poorer quality than what they are used to with traditional technologies.


CDO (care delivery organization)

A legal entity whose primary mission is the delivery of health care related products and services.


CDPD (cellular digital packet data)

Cellular data that is transmitted over a cellular network. In early deployments, packet data moved at 19.2 Kbps over ever-changing unused intervals in the voice channels. Modern deployments use dedicated data channels. CDPD is an IP-based network with RC4 encryption that allows cellular networks to offer remote and mobile computing.


CDR (call detail recording)

A means of capturing telephone system information on calls made, including who made the call, where it went and what time of day it was made, for processing into meaningful management reports. With such information, it is easier to spot exceptions to regular calling patterns such as out-of-hours calling, international calls, significant variances from previous reporting periods and call destinations that do not reflect normal calling patterns for the enterprise. Also known as station message detail recording (SMDR).


CDR (clinical data repository)

A database for storage of clinical information in a computer-based patient record (CPR).


CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory)

A version of the standard compact disc intended to store general-purpose digital data. CD-ROMs can store a wide variety of data such as music, video and graphics. CDs are often used by software companies to deliver programs like word processing or spreadsheet applications, because they store significantly more data (650 megabytes) than a typical floppy disk.


CD-RW (compact disc rewritable)

A drive that permits the user to back up data to compact discs (CDs).


CDSS (clinical decision support system)

An application that enhances decision making by health caregivers by providing context-sensitive advice relating to clinical situations.


CE (concurrent engineering)

A collaborative, team-based approach for designing products that combines multiple departments and disciplines into a project team.


CEBP applications segmentation

There are many ways in which enterprises could integrate communications with business processes – click-to-call and dial-by-directory are the simplest examples – but they do not easily demonstrate significant business benefits. This is because the personal productivity improvement associated with this type of application is difficult to evaluate. We have also seen early traction in customer-service applications such as proactive alerts of flight delays or changes in the travel sector, account-balance notifications and potential credit card fraud alerts via Short Message Service (SMS). These can be viewed as customer enhancements, but not as having a positive impact on business processes, because alerts that do have a positive impact on business processes have to be actionable and not just purely sent for information purposes only.

There are three key segments of CEBP application integrations. These segments demonstrate a positive impact on the efficiency of business processes and they provide a greater cost-justifiable rate of return, rather than focusing on less tangible personal productivity improvements. They are:

  • • Contextual presence.
  • • Flexible media and conferencing switching.
  • • Notification services.



Area covered by one fixed BTS in a cellular radio network. It may vary in size from less than a 0.5-km radius to more than a 120-km radius, depending on technology, capacity, atmospheric conditions and power.


cell controller

A supervisory computer used to sequence and coordinate multiple machines and operations.



Cell-Fi devices combine cellular and Wi-Fi capabilities, potentially enabling voice and data users to roam seamlessly across public or private 802.11 wireless networks and public GSM or CDMA cellular networks. Some Cell-Fi handsets are available, but commercial and technical limitations (such as completion of the 802.11r standard) will delay widespread use until 2009. See also 802.11r.


cell relay

A transmission mode that utilizes fixed-length cells as the bearer mechanism, as with asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), which uses 48 bytes of payload plus five overhead bytes as the standard cell size.


cell site

Entire set of equipment needed to receive and transmit radio signals for cellular voice and data transmission; typically includes transmitters, receivers, power amplifiers, combiners, filters, a digital signal processor, a power supply and network interface modules.


cell splitting

A means of increasing the capacity of a cellular system by subdividing or splitting cells into two or more smaller cells.


cell transfer delay (see CTD)



Wireless services in the 800 megahertz (MHz) radio spectrum.


cellular radio

Method of increasing the number of simultaneous radio conversations that can be supported by a fixed number of radio frequency (RF) channels by limiting the range of transmitters to a single cell, to which a proportion of the available channels is allocated. Adjacent cells are allocated to a different set of RF channels to avoid interference and conversation blocking. Frequencies can be reused in cells at intervals sufficient to avoid interference.


center of excellence

A central clearinghouse for knowledge capital that is used across all business transformation projects.


CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)

A group formed in 1998 by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency — and coordinated through Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute (SEI) — to research and report on Internet-related security problems. SEI’s CERT Coordination Center publishes security information and advisory bulletins through its Web site at


certificate chaining

Recognition by one certificate of the root key of a different certification authority.


CEX (capabilities exchange)

A method whereby applications “understand” device attributes such as screen size, color vs. monochrome, resolution, amount of storage and bandwidth available.


CFI (Computer-Aided Design Framework Initiative)

A nonprofit organization formed to develop framework standards to facilitate the integration of CAD tools, particularly in the electronics design arena.


CGI (Common Gateway Interface)

A data-passing specification used when a Web server must send or receive data from an application such as a database. A CGI script passes the request from the Web server to a database, gets the output and returns it to the Web client.


change integration

Occurs at the back end of the change management process to coordinate and schedule requested changes, with the goal of reducing downtime and risk.


change management

Automated support for development, rollout and maintenance of system components (i.e., intelligent regeneration, package versioning, state control, library control, configuration management, turnover management and distributed impact sensitivity reporting).



A channel is defined by a combination of three factors: A target device, for example, a mobile phone, personal digital assistant (PDA) or a PC; an interaction paradigm, for example, a graphical user interface (GUI), e-mail, voice response or video; and business practices, that is, channel-specific elements of business that may include payment services, shipment processes, taxation, customer support and authentication.


channel analytics

A superset of Web analytics (see separate entry), channel analytics are not restricted to Web channels, but include direct mail, the customer contact center, mass media, store or branch locations, and all other distribution or customer-contact channels. The different elements of business — for example, payment and shipment processes, and customer support and authentication — need to be measured and analyzed. Channel analytics examine costs, usage, efficiency, integrity, integration with other systems and the value of each channel, separately and in relation to each other.


channel assembly

A sales channel initiative aimed at offloading much of the system assembly task from the initial manufacturers to an intermediate dealer or distributor. The reseller or distributor then assembles the system to the buyer’s specifications.


channel bank

The equipment typically used in a telephone central office that performs multiplexing of lower-speed, digital channels into a higher-speed composite channel. The channel bank also detects and transmits signaling information for each channel and transmits framing information so that time slots allocated to each channel can be identified by the receiver.


channel capacity

An expression of the maximum data traffic that can be handled by the channel.


channel integration

Strategies aimed at consolidating – either physically or logically – customer information and its use to provide an all-encompassing view of the customer.


check digit

A number added to each character in a coded system which allows for the detection of errors; through the use of a mathematical formula, recording errors such as number reversals can be noted. See parity bit.



This is a DOS and Windows utility to check and repair filesystems. Its name is an abbreviation of check disk.

See also: fsck.



A value calculated from a block of data, used to detect errors in transmitted data.


CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System)

An ongoing research project at the University of Wisconsin focused on providing seriously ill patients with free computers loaded with educational software, access to databases with information about their diagnosed illnesses and access to support groups.


CHIME (College of Healthcare Information Management Executives)

An organization formed in 1992 to advocate more effective use of information management in healthcare, and to meet the professional-development needs of healthcare CIOs.


CHIN (community health information network)

An encompassing term to describe any community-based network open to (and perhaps required for) all healthcare organizations.



An integrated circuit that is the foundation of computer processing and data storage. It holds the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that run all types of computers. Chips are used in everything from watches and calculators to personal computers (PCs) and high-performance computers.


chip cards

Smart cards and memory cards. A smart card includes embedded microcontroller silicon. A memory card includes embedded silicon memory and possibly other functions, such as cryptography, but no microprocessor.


choke packet

A packet sent to a transmitter which informs it that congestion exists and requests that it reduce its sending rate.


cHTML (compact HTML)

Proprietary microbrowser system, designed for use on i-mode services. See also i-mode.


CI (competitive intelligence)

Analysis of an enterprise’s marketplace to understand what is happening, what will happen and what it means to the enterprise. CI business goals may be offensive — positioning the company in the marketplace, plotting a course for future positioning, and allocating short- and long-term resources. Goals may also be defensive — knowing what is happening, what may happen and how to react.


CI (Computer Interconnect)

The local-area network (LAN) used in a Virtual Address Extension (VAX) cluster.


CIC (circuit identification code)

An end-point identifier (ISDN term).


CIDR (classless interdomain routing)

The successor to class-oriented domains for Internet routing, it allows for better allocations of Internet addresses. It combines a number of Class C Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to reduce the burden on routing tables in the Internet.


CIF (customer information file)

A system that consolidates customer account information and combines it with basic demographic information to create a current snapshot of a customer relationship. CIFs are often a central component of integrated banking application packages and are primarily used to support operational activities with current, as opposed to historical, data. See MCIF.


CIFS (Common Internet File System)

A remote file system access protocol that allows groups of users to work together and share documents via the Internet or their corporate intranets. CIFS is an open, cross-platform technology based on the native file-sharing protocols built into Microsoft Windows and other operating systems, and is supported on numerous platforms, including Unix. Microsoft submitted a preliminary draft of the CIFS 1.0 protocol specification to the Internet Engineering Task Force in December 1997.


CIM (Common Information Model)

A modeling schema that describes managed system, hardware, and software objects. CIM is a component of the Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) initiative, an emerging Web-oriented systems management standard controlled by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF).


CIM (computer-integrated manufacturing)

The integration of manufacturing operations by integrating human systems, information systems and manufacturing systems. The goal of such systems is to combine electronically the systems and functions necessary to manufacture products more effectively.


CIM (customer information management)

The systematic support of business strategy through customer knowledge.


CIMA (customer information management and application)

A six-step process starting with a business plan followed by a technology plan. The six steps are:

  1. planning
  2. information acquisition
  3. information compilation, storage and maintenance
  4. information analysis
  5. information application
  6. information distribution


CIO (chief information officer)

The person responsible for planning, choosing, buying and installing a company’s computer and information-processing operation. Originally called data-processing managers, then management information system (MIS) directors, CIOs develop the information technology (IT) vision for the company. They oversee the development of corporate standards, technology architecture, technology evaluation and transfer; sponsor the business technology planning process; manage client relations; align IT with the business; and develop IT financial management systems. They also oversee plans to reinvest in the IT infrastructure, as well as in business and technology professionals. They are responsible for leading the development of an IT governance framework that will define the working relationships and sharing of IT components among various IT groups within the corporation.


CIR (committed information rate)

In a frame relay network, the minimum speed to be maintained between nodes.



  1. A continuous electrical connection between any two points.
  2. The means of two-way communication between two or more points.
  3. A group of electrical/electronic components connected to perform a specific function. See channel.


circuit board

A flat card with connections for electronic components; part of an electronic system.


circuit grade

The data-carrying capability of a circuit; the grades of circuit are broadband, voice, subvoice, and telegraph.


circuit switching

Temporary direct connection of one or more channels between two or more points to provide the user with exclusive use of an open channel with which to exchange information. A discrete circuit path is set up between the incoming and outgoing lines, in contrast to message switching and packet-switching, in which no such physical path is established. Also called line switching.


CIRP (cyber incident response plan)

Also known as a “computer incident response plan,” this is formulated by an enterprise to respond to potentially catastrophic, computer-related incidents, such as viruses or hacker attacks. The CIRP should include steps to determine whether the incident originated from a malicious source – and, if so, to contain the threat and isolate the enterprise from the attacker. (See cyber incident and CIRT.)


CIRT (cyber incident response team)

Also known as a “computer incident response team,” this group is responsible for responding to security breaches, viruses and other potentially catastrophic incidents in enterprises that face significant security risks. In addition to technical specialists capable of dealing with specific threats, it should include experts who can guide enterprise executives on appropriate communication in the wake of such incidents. The CIRT normally operates in conjunction with other enterprise groups, such as site security, public-relations and disaster recovery teams. (See cyber incident and CIRP.)


CISC (complex instruction set computer)

A computer in which individual instructions may perform many operations and take many cycles to execute, in contrast with reduced instruction set computer (RISC).


CISO (chief information security officer)


CISSP (Certified Information Systems Security Professional)

A certification program administered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC2).


Citizen Developer

A “Citizen Developer” is defined as a user operating outside of the scope of enterprise IT and its governance that creates new business applications for consumption by others either from scratch or by composition. In the past, end-user application development (EUAD) mostly meant Excel spreadsheets and Access databases. Next-generation Citizen Developers leverage shared services and 4GL-style development platforms, sometimes delivered as cloud computing services. This shift enables end users to unlock tacit knowledge and release IT resources to do what each does best, if IT leaders allow it.


CKO (chief knowledge officer)

Articulates and champions the knowledge management (KM) vision, provides the enterprise level leadership to implement and sustain KM, and is the ultimate focal point for knowledge creation, sharing and application.


CLA (Corporate License Agreement)

A licensing agreement option under Novell’s “Customer Connections” program. It offers an alternative for midsize organizations that cannot qualify for Novell’s Master License Agreement (MLA).



In fiber-optic cable, a colored, low refractive index material that surrounds the core and provides optical insulation and protection to the core.


claims analytics

“Claims analytics” is defined as the use of business intelligence, reporting solutions, dashboards, data mining, and predictive modeling technologies to improve, manage and analyze claims data and performance. Overall, three processes are supported in claims analytics tools: claims analysis, reporting and predictive modeling.



A computer system that weighs less than 3 pounds and opens lengthwise to expose a keyboard and screen.



A specification that defines the operations and the data attributes for a set of objects.


CLI (Common Language Infrastructure)

A platform-independent development system from Microsoft that enables programs written in different programming languages to run on different types of hardware. CLI is part of Microsoft’s .NET platform and is expected to become an ECMA standard. The CLI includes the Common Type System (CTS) and Common Language Specification (CLS). No matter which programming language they are written in, CLI applications are compiled into Intermediate Language (IL), which is further compiled into the target machine language by the Common Language Runtime (CLR) software. See CLS, CTS, .NET and IL.


clicks and bricks

The combining of e-business channels and network-based processes with selective investment in physical locations to control local markets, distribution channels, and critical labor accessibility.


clickstream analysis

A form of Web analytics (see separate entry), clickstream analysis is the tracking and analysis of visits to Web sites. Although there are other ways to collect this data, clickstream analysis typically uses the Web server log files to monitor and measure Web site activity. This analysis can be used to report user behavior on a specific Web site, such as routing, stickiness (a user’s tendency to remain at the Web site), where users come from and where they go from the site. It can also be used for more aggregate measurements, such as the number of hits (visits), page views, and unique and repeat visitors, which are of value in understanding how the Web site operates from a technical, user experience and business perspective.



Term applied to the act of clicking with a mouse button on a Web page advertisement, which brings the user to the advertiser’s site.



A system or a program that requests the activity of one or more other systems or programs, called servers, to accomplish specific tasks. In a client/server environment, the workstation is usually the client.


client appliance

A type of computing appliance that provides end-user access to applications. Examples include network computers and certain handheld computers. See computing appliance.


client computing hardware services

This segment includes PC services and workstation services.

  • • Personal computer services – PCs are single-user systems and include desk-based, notebook and ultraportable PCs. This also includes workstations which are single-user systems based on high-end Intel or reduced instruction set computer (RISC) CPU architectures with high-performance graphics, OSs and system architecture.



The splitting of an application into tasks performed on separate computers connected over a network. In most cases, the “client” is a desktop computing device (e.g., a PC) or a program “served” by another networked computing device (i.e., the “server”). There are five styles of client/server computing, based on how presentation, application logic and data management functions are partitioned between the client and server device — see separate definitions for “distributed presentation,” “remote presentation,” “distributed function,” “remote data management” and “distributed data management.”



  1. Loss of parts of words or of syllables in the operation of voice-actuated devices.
  2. Distortion of a signal that has reached the limit of its modulation parameter (e.g., amplitude) and can no longer be effectively modulated.


clock, clocking

Repetitive, regularly timed signals used to control synchronous processes.


closed-loop MRP (closed-loop material requirements planning)

A system built around MRP that also includes production planning, master production schedule, and capacity requirements planning. Once the planning phase is complete and the plans have been accepted as realistic and attainable, the execution functions come into play. These include the shop floor control functions of input/output measurement, detailed scheduling and dispatching, as well as anticipated delay reports from both the shop and vendors, purchasing follow-up and control, and other functions. The term “closed loop” implies that not only is each of these elements included in the overall system, but also that there is feedback from the execution functions so the planning can be kept valid at all times.



The “cloud” is identified as a purely abstract concept, originating in the presentation representations of the Internet and networks for many years. The cloud comes into existence when one or more cloud services is delivered to one or more customers.


cloud communications service provider

An entity that leverages the cloud environment to provide telecommunication and other services.


cloud computing

Cloud computing is defined as a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered ‘as a service’ to external customers using Internet technologies. First and foremost is the concept of delivering services (that is, results as opposed to components).


cloud engineering

Cloud engineering is defined as the process of designing the systems necessary to leverage the power and economics of cloud resources to solve business problems.


cloud service brokerage (CSB)

A cloud service brokerage is a model (including a set of activities) for conducting cloud service governance (CSG) and integration as a service (IaaS). A CSB is a business that conducts cloud service brokering. A cloud service broker is a piece of technology (for example, software or an appliance) that’s used to deliver CSG or IaaS. A CSB brokers a relationship between a service consumer and a service provider. It’s also a business that delivers brokering as a service.



This is the smallest unit of disk that NTFS uses and it is a multiple of the sector size. It is determined when the volume is formatted and cannot be altered afterwards.

See also: Sector, $Boot and Volume.


cluster controller

A device that handles the remote communications processing for multiple (usually dumb) terminals or workstations.


clustered system

An architecture that ties together uniprocessor, symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and/or massively parallel processing (MPP) systems with all nodes sharing access to disks. Also called a shared-disk system.



The capability to define resources on one or more interconnected midrange systems as transparently available to users and applications from within the specified group of loosely coupled systems in a local-or metropolitan-area network.


CLV (constant linear velocity)

One of two standards for rotating storage media, in which the disk spins at a higher speed on the outside tracks than on the inside tracks (where the circumference is smaller), so that all data moves past the head at the same rate. The other standard is constant angular velocity (CAV), in which the disk spins at the same rate at all times.


CM (configuration management)

CM software includes both stand-alone products and suites of products that can initially provision/configure desktops, servers or mobile devices, and then manage the change of configuration settings, software, and increasingly the files and data on those elements on an ongoing basis. Included in this category are stand-alone products for software distribution, various discovery requirements, remote control, software packaging, personality migration, software usage metering and mobile device management. Also included here are product suites that lead with provisioning and CM but may include features such as asset discovery, automated backup, bare-metal boot, self-healing functionality, data synchronization, security, virtualization — both application and hosted virtual desktops (HVD) — or even help desk features. When these features are sold as stand-alone products, revenue is counted in other categories. There are many tools that offer one or more of the functions above, and these are included as well. Some solutions for servers, for instance, offer robust configuration auditing and remediation, and others have more-targeted solutions with deep configuration auditing and reporting to meet a variety of auditing requirements (such as security, regulatory, Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, “gold” or trusted configuration baselining). This category also contains CM database tools and supporting technology to discover and populate them, which includes IT service dependency mapping tools.

CM is for production systems only. CM is distinct from software configuration management (SWCM), which is used by programmers to manage the change and configuration of development systems. Some SWCM and CM vendors are partnering to provide a linkage between systems. Finally, the CM category does not include vendors that position products primarily as electronic software distribution or as content distribution used in Internet distribution scenarios (B2B or business-to-consumer [B2C]).


CM (content management)

A broad term referring to applications and processes to manage Web content, document content and e-commerce-focused content.


CM (course management)

The administrative module that is used to place a structure around computer-based training (CBT) content to:

  1. Create a recommended set and order of courses based on job description, skills assessment results or regulatory requirements.
  2. Provide a “registrar” function, where students “sign in” to take classes they need.
  3. Perform tracking and reporting, keeping track of the results of the course taken, how well the student performed in the course, and what the student should take next. This information would be stored and forwarded to other human resources (HR) systems.


CMC (common messaging calls)

A set of calls developed by the X.400 API Association (XAPIA) for use on top of any existing messaging system. Programmers developing applications using these calls may request services of whatever messaging system is accepting the call. The number of calls is limited to the most popular messaging and directory lookup functions. CMC is similar to simple Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) in its breadth of services, but provides greater portability of applications.


CME (corporate and major enterprise)

An organization with more than 500 employees.


CMMS (computerized maintenance management system)

Application software used to provide for work and materials management of maintenance activities in a manufacturing organization. See EAM.


CMNS (Connection Mode Network Service)

Extends local X.25 switching to Ethernet, token ring or Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) networks.



A proprietary network management draft developed jointly by 3Com and IBM that specifies using Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) over Logical Link Control (LLC) to provide network management of devices on mixed-media local-area networks (LANs).


CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)

A semiconductor technology that uses less power and generates less heat (enabling higher circuit density), but is typically slower than bipolar technologies.



Use of the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) to manage gateways in a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network.


CMP (Cellular Multi-Processing)

A heterogeneous server technology from Unisys that can run any combination of operating systems.

  • • that are part of more comprehensive facilities management or network planning applications.


CMS (campaign management system)

An application used by marketers to design multichannel marketing campaigns and track the effect of those campaigns, by customer segment, over time.


CMV (controlled medical vocabulary)

An approved list of terms coded in a fashion that facilitates the use of the computer. Controlled vocabularies are essential if clinical applications are to function as intended. Widely used systems include the American College of Radiology (ACR) Code, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9).


CMYK (sometimes YMCK or “process color printing”)

A subtractive color model used in color printing. This color model is based on mixing pigments of the following colors to make other colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.


CNP (Certified Network Professional)

An information technology certification by the Network Professional Association (NPA) requiring two years of experience, two vendor certifications and a passing grade on the core fundamentals exam.


CNS (converged network services)

The delivery of voice, data, video and other forms of network services with the following characteristics:

  1. Services are usually from a customer premises-based access concentrator, owned by a network service provider (NSP) that converts traffic to an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or Internet Protocol (IP) stream
  2. Service is delivered via one means of access, transmitted via one facility, with one switching infrastructure


coaxial cable

Cable consisting of an outer conductor surrounding an inner conductor, with a layer of insulating material in between. Such cable can carry a much higher bandwidth than a wire pair.


COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology)

An auditing standard developed by the Information Security Audit and Control Association for assessing information security risk.


CoDA (context delivery architecture)

CoDA is defined as an architectural style that builds on service-oriented architecture (SOA) and event-driven architecture (EDA) interaction and partitioning styles, and adds formal mechanisms for the software elements that discover and apply the user’s context in real time. CoDA provides a framework for solution architects that allows them to define and implement the technology, information and process components that enable services to use context information to improve the quality of the interactions with the user. The technologies may include context brokers, state monitors, sensors, analytic engines and cloud-based transaction processing engines.


Codd’s Rule Zero

Ted Codd, whose theoretical work on relational databases stimulated today’s plethora of relational products, defined a fundamental “Rule Zero” for classifying relational database management systems (RDBMSs). The intent of this rule was to help enterprises focus on the requirement for a consistent integrity layer in the RDBMSs they evaluated: “For any system that is advertised as, or claimed to be, a relational database management system, that system must be able to manage databases entirely through its relational capabilities, no matter what additional capabilities the system may support.”


codec (coder/decoder)

A device used to convert analog signals, such as speech, music, or television, to digital form for transmission over a digital medium, and back again to the original analog form. One is required at each end of the channel.


cognitive radio

Dynamically identifies how spectrum is being used and chooses appropriate frequencies, protocols and modulation to coexist with other devices. Cognitive radio builds on the principles of SDR and generally requires changes in legislation controlling how spectrum is allocated and exploited; thus, it’s unlikely to be mainstream before 2012. See also SDR.


COL (Component Object Library)

The object library in Microsoft’s Component Object Model (COM).


COLD (computer output to laserdisc)

Microfiche replacement system. COLD systems offer economies as a replacement medium when rapid or frequent access to archived documents is necessary. Typically, a 12-inch optical-disc platter holds approximately 1.4 million 8.5-by-11-inch pages of information, equal to 7,000 fiche masters.


COM (communications port)

A port that allows an application to access a modem.


COM (Component Object Model)

A component architecture in Microsoft’s desktop operating system. A distributed version of COM (i.e., DCOM — the Distributed Component Object Model) enables the development of applications in which components are distributed over several computers (e.g., a client and one or more servers).


COM (computer output to microfilm or microfiche)

A system in which digital data is converted into an image on dry processed microfilm.


co-management processes

Co-management processes are “a set of shared processes that enable internal and external IT service providers and business clients to continuously align IT service delivery to changing internal and external conditions.” Co-management processes are the visible aspect of a governance framework.


commerce platform servers

Commerce (B2B and B2C) software servers and tools are used to build systems that sell, service, market and buy products to customers and businesses through the Web and channel partners. These servers build systems for enterprises to automate their Web sales process and customer experience, gain insight into customer behavior and preferences, improve visibility into channel activities and performance, and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. This market segment is made up of servers and tools that are used to build and sell these solutions, not the applications themselves.


communications as a service (CaaS)

This is communications functionality that may include telephony, messaging, conferencing, presence and notification, based on assets owned, managed and co-located by third parties.


communications service provider (see CSP)



A constantly changing group of people collaborating and sharing their ideas over an electronic network (e.g., the Internet). Communities optimize their collective power by affiliation around a common interest, by the compression of the time between member interactions (i.e., communicating in real time), and by asynchronous “postings” that potentially reach more participants and permit more reflection time than real-time interactions.


community antenna television (see CATV)


community of practice

People associated and interlinked in a communication or knowledge network because of their shared interest or shared responsibility for a subject area. Examples are people who hold similar job functions (project managers, department managers, team leaders or customer service agents); all the people on a project team; and people interested in specific technologies (e-commerce or network management). Communities continually emerge and dissolve, and their membership, processes and knowledge continually change and evolve.



The combination of a compressor at one point in a communications path, for reducing the volume range of signals, followed by an expandor at another point, for restoring the original volume range. It is designed to improve the ratio of the signal to the interference entering the path between the compressor and expandor.


compass technology

A digital compass, or magnetometer, which is a sensor measuring the Earth’s magnetic field to determine the direction to the magnetic poles. Critical for mobile devices is the implementation of 3-axis compasses or magnetometer sensors in combination with accelerometer sensors to provide tilt compensation when the device is not held horizontally.


competency center

An organizational structure used to coordinate IT skills with an enterprise. Competency centers provide expertise for project or program support, acting both as repositories of knowledge and resource pools for multiple business areas. Skills-based competency centers, the most common type in an information services organization, are used for application development, software language skills, data management, Internet development and network design. Within the enterprise, it is increasingly common to find competency centers (or shared services) for travel, finance and human resources. Repository-based competencies act exclusively as sources of information.



Technically, a dynamically bindable package of functionality that is managed as a unit and accessed through documented interfaces that can be discovered at runtime. Pragmatically, components tend to fall into two major groups: technical components, which perform a technology-specific task that is application-independent (e.g., a graphical user interface control), and business components, which encapsulate a piece of business functionality.


composite application

An emerging applications architecture in which functionality and data from multiple applications are exploited to present an integrated user interface. A composite application is one that has the appearance of a single application (from the point of view of the end user) but is, in fact, composed of multiple, independently designed applications. They defragment the end user’s view into data, providing, for example, a “customer-centric” perspective in which all relevant information on a customer is accessible from a single user interface. The enabling software required for a composite application is essentially a hub for connections between back-end (often legacy) systems and systems designed to interact with end users (e.g., Windows clients, Web servers and integrated computer-telephony systems).


composite content applications (CCAs)

Composite content applications is the term used to define frameworks and templates that are built on enterprise content management and/or business process management platforms. CCAs describe the orchestration of people, process and content based on repeatable solutions delivered by vendors and their domain expert partners in vertical and horizontal application development.



NTFS supports file- and directory-level compression. The compression is performed transparently when the file is read or written. Any new files in a compressed directory will automatically be compressed.

See also: Compression Unit


Compression Unit

Each file marked to be compressed is divided into sixteen cluster blocks, known as compression units. If one of these blocks cannot be compressed into fifteen clusters or less it is left uncompressed. This division also helps accessing a file randomly, ie it isn’t necessary to decompress the whole file.


computing appliance

A computing device that provides pre-defined services, and that has its underlying operating (OS) software hidden beneath an application-specific interface. Computing appliances offer reduced complexity (e.g., installation, administration and maintenance) and faster deployment by hiding the operating software and embedding the application within the device. A computing appliance may be based on a general-purpose OS (e.g., Windows, Solaris or Linux) if the OS’s complexity is hidden and the ability to load arbitrary services is removed.

Computing appliances can provide one or more services; however, they not general-purpose devices in that they are not flexible in the services they provide. Administrators do not need platform expertise — just limited application and appliance-specific expertise.

There are four fundamental types of computing appliances – see separate entries for server appliance, storage appliance, network appliance and client appliance.


computing platform products

Computing platform products are defined as follows:

  • • Server systems – The server segment comprises all multiuser systems. Please note that supercomputers and mainframes are no longer classified as discrete segments. As the technology, use and positioning differentiation between the server segments has eroded, all multiuser systems are now classified as general-purpose servers.
  • • Workstations – Workstations are single-user systems including high-end, midrange, and entry-level workstations. Workstations are typically high-end complex instruction set computer (CISC), explicitly parallel instruction computing or RISC-based CPU architectures with high-performance graphics, OS and system architecture. In general, workstations must include integrated floating-point processing, integrated networking, a 32-bit or 64-bit multitasking OS, as well as configurations that support high-resolution graphics capabilities and 3D graphics functionality. The workstation market includes traditional Unix workstations, such as Linux and workstations running Windows 2000/XP or other advanced OSs. Workstations are classified by the primary market for which they are designed and bases its data collection on desktops branded as workstations. Systems shipped with Windows Media Center Edition are generally counted as PCs and not included in the workstation category and, because they are not branded as workstations, neither are Apple Macintosh desktops. Examples of x86-based workstations are IBM’s IntelliStation family, Dell Precision Workstations and HP Workstations. Note that the Intel-compatible 32-bit CPU (x86-32) category refers to Intel Architecture (IA)-compatible, x86-based workstations and covers a variety of chipset and processor designs not offered by Intel. Note also that the Itanium processor family of CPUs, such as Itanium2 and 64-bit extensions to CISC architecture, including as AMD’s Opteron- and Athlon64-based workstations, will be listed separately under the titles of IA-64 and (Intel-compatible 64-bit CPU) x86-64, respectively.
  • • PCs — PCs are single-user systems including x86 (Intel-compatible CPU) server, desk-based and mobile PCs. A PC is a general purpose computer that is distinguished from other computers by its adherence to hardware and software compatibility. This compatibility drives high-unit volumes of commoditylike products that do not require on-site technical support. High-performance features, such as networking, graphics and a virtual multiuser/multitasking OS, are normally optional and not integral system features. IBM/IBM-compatible and Apple PCs are two platforms in this product segment. A single-user PC’s resident OS is typically Windows, Mac OS and Linux. PCs have a performance ceiling that is lower in system compute performance, input/output (I/O) channel speed and disk speed than advanced workstations. Standard graphics are in the 1024 x 768 to 1280 x 1068-pixel range, and optional high-end graphics are limited compared with workstations. A PC system is viewed as a single unit, which includes a CPU, a monitor, a mouse and a keyboard. Furthermore, this definition does not include thin-client terminal.



A device that merges many low-speed asynchronous channels into one or more high-speed synchronous channels to achieve economies of data transmission.


concurrent backup

A system-level facility to allow a database or disk file to be backed up to another disk or to magnetic tape while it is still open for application access.


concurrent database restore

A system-level facility to allow a database or portion thereof to be restored while the database is still open for application access.


concurrent use

A way to measure the usage of software licenses. Software can be licensed in one of the following ways: individual (it cannot be shared with other users); site (a limited number of people can use the software); concurrent use (usage is limited to a maximum number of users at a particular time). The software vendor usually sets the guidelines on the type of software license. Monitoring is facilitated by the vendor or by the user. When software usage is measured by the user, the vendor can require a user to supply detailed reports or can rely on the user’s pledge. Enterprises can avoid liability and save money by accurately measuring the number of users.



A procedure that restricts transmission impairments of a circuit to certain specified limits.



  1. Any equipment, such as a wire or cable, that can carry an electric current.
  2. One wire of a multiwire cable.



A unique, active service access point to a network. This includes machine-to-machine network access as well as human access. In mobile networks, this may be taken to refer to an active subscriber identity module (SIM). A single subscriber may operate several different cellular connections and multiple connections may be associated with one customer or one mobile device.



The interconnection model in which communication takes place without first establishing a connection.


connectionless service

In a connectionless service, no fixed path is set up between sender and recipient. Every unit of data that is exchanged is self-contained in that it contains all the necessary control and address information to ensure correct delivery, e.g., packet switching.


connection-oriented service

A service in which a connection (real or virtual) is set up and maintained for the duration of the communication. See circuit switching.


connect time

The amount of time that a circuit, typically in a circuit switched environment, is in use. See holding time.



The part of a computer used for communicating between the user and the system. A cathode ray tube (CRT) terminal with mouse and keyboard is the most common type.


consumer broadband access revenue

This is revenue from retail broadband services provided to residential customers. The revenue here reflects only that generated from providing the physical broadband access connection into the home. Revenue generated from providing Internet access services over this connection are not counted under this segment but rather under the Internet access revenue segment, even though it is very common for customers to pay a single charge for both services as a single non-transparent fee. That said, there are plenty of markets where consumers buy broadband access and Internet access separately and sometimes from different providers. In markets where broadband access and Internet access are sold as a bundled single product, we calculate the relative revenue splits between the two services, primarily by using broadband access wholesale rates offered by carriers to ISPs for resale as a guide.

Broadband access is divided into four areas:

  • FTTH/FTTP/Ethernet revenue — This segment includes services provided to residential customers that involve FTTH and FTTP combined with Ethernet in the last mile. This revenue includes the monthly recurring price for service (including the modem lease cost if there is any) and initial installation and activation/provisioning charges.
  • DSL revenue — This revenue segment includes xDSL services provided to residential customers. This category comprises all variants of DSL but, in the main, refers to asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), ADSL2/ADSL2+ and very high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL). Any access line that has any variety of xDSL (such as FTTN) in the last mile is counted as a DSL. DSL revenue includes the monthly recurring fee for the DSL services (including the modem lease cost if any) and a one-off charge for initial installation and activation/provisioning.
  • Cable modem revenue — This revenue segment includes consumer retail revenue from residential cable modem and hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) services. The revenue forecast includes the monthly service cost for the cable modem. Initial installation and provisioning charges are also included in the revenue.
  • Other high-speed access revenue — This revenue segment includes all consumer retail revenue from all other consumer broadband technologies in use to the home, where they are used as a mostly static fixed-line replacement technology for the main types of broadband access. They include fixed wireless (multichannel multipoint distribution service [MMDS], local multipoint distribution service [LMDS], proprietary and standards-based Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access [WiMAX]), satellite broadband and power lines. Wireless PC cards/dongles are not included in this forecast; they are included in the mobile forecast. The revenue forecast includes the lease cost of the customer premises equipment (CPE), where applicable.


consumer broadband connections

A broadband connection is a direct path between two termination points, one of which is in the consumer’s home, the other at the carrier’s central office (CO) or local broadband aggregation node. In the case of wireless broadband access, it is a wireless connection between the home and the aggregation node. The number of connections is equal to the number of in-service lines that are subscribed to by consumers.


consumer broadband services

  • • A broadband line is a connection between a consumer’s home and a carrier’s network that provides data access services of at least 256 Kbps. In most cases this is a physical connection using copper-based DSL, cable modem or FTTH/FTTP with Ethernet in the last mile in a building. However, other emerging access technologies are also included, such as wireless broadband, satellite and power lines when they are used as replacement technologies for residential fixed-line broadband.
  • • Broadband services revenue includes all the retail revenue associated with providing broadband access to consumers. This does not include IP services revenue — especially Internet access revenue — that is commonly bundled with the broadband line. Broadband access and Internet access are two different services, and Internet access revenue is reflected in the Internet segment.


consumer Internet access revenue

This is total consumer revenue produced by ISPs for providing Internet access services. Subscriptions are provided over a dial-up or broadband connection. Revenue associated with the broadband connection is not included at this point; it is included in the broadband subscription segment. Internet access revenue does not include value-added ISP services such as e-mail accounts, filtering and security.


consumer Internet services

  • • Consumer Internet services are data services provided by ISPs that connect subscribers to the Internet using either a dial-up connection over a PSTN line or over a broadband connection. Typically, these are flat rate or metered services based on time or data usage.
  • • Consumer Internet accounts represent the number of active fee-paying individual consumer accounts that can be associated with commercial ISPs. In general these accounts service subscribers who are connecting from home.


consumer NAS (consumer network attached storage)

A consumer NAS is defined as a centralized, multifunction storage system for the home network. It can function as a file server with remote access to multiple PCs and media players, a print server, a media server, a backup and archive system, and temporary storage for Internet downloads or video-on-demand.


consumer voice access lines

Consumer voice access lines is the sum of PSTN (including consumer channel counts for consumer Integrated Services Digital Network [ISDN]) and VoIP connections. Note that “virtual” VoIP connections used for voice communications, usually via a broadband connection to the Internet or some other IP network. The “virtual” line has to be associated with a telephone number that allows it to receive incoming PSTN calls.


consumer voice revenue

Revenues from all PSTN and VoIP retail voice lines are combined into one total consumer revenue forecast. The components of this one line are made up of domestic and international calling and connection usage attributed to each type of voice line.

Consumer voice revenue is the sum of:

  • • Revenue from retail domestic and international consumer usage that can be identified as having taken place over the PSTN or via VoIP; including revenue for charges paid for on a per-minute basis or bundled/flat rate calling plan charges. Calling packages that are bundled into the monthly charges – for example, unlimited or 1,000 minutes – are also reflected here.
  • • Flat-rate revenue received by a service provider (PSTN or VoIP) on a monthly basis for providing the connection/line dial tone service, telephone number and any recurring voice value-added services. Revenue also includes one-off charges relating to the line, such as one-time installation changes.


consumer voice services

Voice service revenue and connections are made up of the sum of PSTN and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) connections and their associated revenue. For clarification, IP-based voice “virtual” connections (VoIP) are those calls delivered over a broadband Internet connection or other IP network. A VoIP virtual line needs to be associated with a telephone number and be identifiable to the consumer as a VoIP-grade service. A VoIP line and PSTN line are not mutually exclusive — indeed, most consumers with VoIP lines still have a PSTN line.


contact center

Also called a “customer contact center,” this includes all customer contact channels, including telephone, interactive voice response (IVR), speech recognition, e-mail, Web and fax. This is an inbound and outbound service-based environment in which customer service representatives handle all types of contacts regarding sales, customer service and support (CSS), marketing and other functions.


contact center customer service software

These applications or functions are designed to enable employees or agents of a company to support clients directly, usually within a call or contact center, typically with nonproduct support focused on service that is business-related (such as dissatisfaction and problems with shipment and billing).


contact center infrastructure

This infrastructure includes software and hardware designed to run a contact/call center. This includes automatic call distributors, integrated voice response units, computer-telephony integration, and universal communications or universal queue management, integrating any of these multiple channels for a call/contact center.


contact center suite

This contains all the components of a call center suite (see separate entry) with additional functions to support non-phone-based inquiry channels such as Web and e-mail communication. This added functionality includes:

  • • Web contact functions (e.g., Web chat and collaborative browsing)
  • • E-mail response management system (ERMS) functions
  • • Unified messaging
  • • Tools for integration with front- and back-office applications, or with applications that support customer relationship management (CRM) strategies


In this definition, the CRM applications that support marketing, sales, customer service and support, or field service and dispatch are not considered part of the suite. However, contact center suite functionality is often included with CRM applications and sold as a bundled CRM suite.

(See call center, contact center, ERMS and CRM.)


contact center systems

Contract center systems are defined as computer-based systems that provide call and contact routing for high-volume telephony transactions, with specialist answering “agent” stations and a sophisticated real-time contact management system. The definition includes all contact center systems that provide inbound contact handling capabilities and automatic contact distribution, combined with a high degree of sophistication in terms of dynamic contact traffic management.

Contact center systems are defined as follows:

  • • They are software applications typically residing on an adjunct server or switch-based processor system, located either at a customer’s premises or at a third-party site. For routing phone calls, the system providing the call control may be an application-specific resource or may support a dual-function PBX/automatic call distributor installation. Newer architectures will support contact center call routing business rules on an “application server” which can direct and monitor calls through a telephony gateway using SIP or other softswitch protocols. The infrastructure may also be provided as an on-site “managed service;” as an off-site, dedicated “hosted service” solution; or as an off-site shared resource “software as a service” (SaaS) solution.
  • • They provide intelligent routing of an incoming communication (that is, a call, e-mail, text chat, Web collaboration or facsimile) to the appropriate resource (that is, agent-assisted or self-service) through an algorithm more sophisticated than simple hunt groups.
  • • They provide the ability to generate historical activity reports (covering at least 30 days) as well as supervisory capabilities including, but not limited to, real-time monitoring and reporting of a system’s workload, agent status lookups, viewing the number of contacts in the queue, and the ability to change agent status.


contact center technical support software

These applications or functions are designed to enable employees or agents of a company to support clients directly, usually within a call or contact center, typically focused on clients’ product use, implementation and problem resolution.


contact center workforce optimization

A workforce optimization solution integrates disparate contact center technologies — including contact center performance management, e-learning, interaction analytics, quality management and workforce management — which execute against a high-level framework encompassing strategic contact center planning; agent recruitment, deployment, monitoring, evaluation, improvement and motivation; and corporate accountability and contribution.


contact chips

Chips used in smart cards that are inserted into a reader to conduct transactions or pass information from the card to the reader. Contactless chips can perform a function by being passed near a reader. Contactless chips are often preferred for use in applications where speed is essential.


contact database

A database containing names, addresses and other information on sales contacts , used for contact tracking and management purposes.


contactless card

Chip-based Near Field Communication (NFC) card based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies that use RFs to transmit data, and which needs no physical contact to be read by readers or terminals. Contactless cards are waved near the reader to record transactions or to identify the user. Systems are either passive, with the readers generating the frequency, or active, in which case the card activates the reader. Sony’s FeliCa chip card technology (which has been integrated into mobile phones for m-banking and m-commerce in Japan) is an example.



In commercial publishing, content refers to individual documents that can be graphic, textual or illustrative in nature, or amalgamations of documents that can be combined into individual articles or complete publications. On the Internet, the term refers to the content of Web sites.


content aggregation

The presentation of content from multiple sources at a single Web location for review by the customer.


content analytics

content analytics refers to applications that process unstructured data to derive answers to specific questions. It may consist of a single function — for example, fact or concept extraction — or a series of functions that pass results in a sequence from one operation to the next. It does not consist solely of new information access components, but it does depend on newer approaches to how processing steps are serialized and information is passed from one application to the next.


content-based retrieval (see CBR)


content, communications and collaboration

The content, communications and collaboration software market sector comprises software products, tools and hosted services to organize, access, use and share content. Content management and/or collaboration initiatives involve managing and interacting with a multitude of content types, including documents, records, images, forms and, increasingly, digital media. Included in this market sector are enterprise content management (ECM), e-mail and calendaring, Web conferencing and shared work spaces/team collaboration, IM, e-learning suites, information access with search, and ECM systems.

For the enterprise application software segment, content, communications and collaboration software does not include products targeted at specific business functions or processes, such as engineering design or customer service and support, in which some form of collaboration and knowledge management capability is included as part of the packaged application.


content management (see CM)


content provider

An enterprise with information-based (i.e., content) products; it also includes services to access and manage the content.



A method of line control in which the terminals request to transmit. If the channel in question is free, transmission proceeds; if it is not free, the terminal must wait until it becomes free.



Refers to meanings that are clear to the sender or receiver (e.g., application or person), either because they are stated elsewhere in the message or because they have been predefined (e.g., the number “30” means “30 pounds of flour” in one message and “30 cases of orange soda” in another message). Sender and receiver may have different interpretations of meaning (i.e., different context). For example, “customer” could be the party that pays the freight bill in a billing application, but the receiver of the item (which might not be the payer) in a warehousing application.


context delivery architecture (see CoDA)


Context-aware computing

Context-aware computing is defined as the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. Context-aware computing is about improving the user experience for customers, business partners and employees by using the information about a person or object’s environment, activities, connections and preferences to anticipate the user’s needs and proactively serve up the most appropriate content, product or service. Enterprises can leverage context-aware computing to better target prospects, increase customer intimacy, and enhance associate productivity and collaboration. From a software perspective, context is information that is relevant to the functioning of a software process, but is not essential to it. In the absence of this additional information, the software is still operational, although the results of the software’s actions are not as targeted or refined.


context delivery architecture

An architectural style that builds on service-oriented architecture (SOA) and event-driven architecture (EDA) interaction and partitioning styles, and adds formal mechanisms for the software elements that discover and apply the user’s context in real time. CoDA provides a framework for solution architects that allows them to define and implement the technology, information and process components that enable services to use context information to improve the quality of the interactions with the user.


context-enriched services

Context-enriched services are defined as those that use context to form compelling, situation-aware and intuitive functions that anticipate and react to end users’ immediate needs.


context management engine

A core enabling technology for effective portals, this application collects, analyzes and distributes personalization and customization information.


contextual presence

Contextual presence is a context-specific list that is created according to specific and current needs. Contextual presence allows users such as medical staff, technical assistants and financial brokers to determine who is available to assist with a specific customer request. Contextual presence lists can be integrated with location services.


contingent workforce

An on-demand workforce staffing strategy using contract workers, agency staffing, independent contractors and people who will work directly for an enterprise on an on-call basis.


continuity check

In common-channel signaling, a test performed to check that a path exists for speech or data transmission.


Continuous Acquisition and Life Cycle Support (see CALS)


continuous improvement

A manufacturing methodology used to improve overall quality by continuously increasing precision in parts specification.


continuous moves

Normally used in conjunction with private truck fleets in process industries to keep the trucks moving with different loads and driver crews on regular routes with just-in-time materials. This concept is being adopted by public fleets to utilize their assets more effectively.


continuous operations

Those characteristics of a data-processing system that reduce or eliminate the need for planned downtime, such as scheduled maintenance. One element of 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week operation.


continuous process improvement (see CPI)


continuous production

A production system in which the productive units are organized and sequenced according to the steps to produce the product. The routing of the jobs is fixed, and setups are seldom changed.


continuous quality improvement (see CQI)


control character

A character inserted into a data stream to signal the receiving station to perform a function or to identify the structure of the message. Newer protocols are moving away from character-oriented control procedures toward bit-oriented control procedures.


control charts

A time series chart showing performance against upper and lower control limits (also known as tramline charts) that is generally associated with the practice of statistical quality control (SQC) or statistical process control (SPC).



A permanent code placed in a file on a computer’s hard disk by a Web site that the computer user has visited. The code uniquely identifies, or “registers,” that user and can be accessed for number of marketing and site-tracking purposes.


cooperative processing

The splitting of an application into tasks performed on separate computers. Physical connectivity can occur via a direct channel connection, a local-area network (LAN), a peer-to-peer communication link or a master/slave link. The application software can exist in a distributed processing environment, but this is not a requirement.


coordination mechanics

A term coined by Coordination Technology’s founder, Anatole Holt. It generally refers to a class of workflow that is heuristic in nature; i.e., a higher form of workflow concentrating on human behavior.


COPICS (Communications Oriented Production Information and Control System)

A mainframe material requirements planning product from IBM.


CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)

An Object Management Group (OMG) interoperability standard for object-oriented applications communicating over heterogeneous networks.


CORE (COMPARE Operational Readiness Evaluation)

CORE risk assessment and reporting steps are used to define business operational risks, to report risks to management, investors, regulators and customers in a consistent form, and to determine when contingency and recovery strategies are required.


core banking systems

The back-end data processing applications for processing all transactions that have occurred during the day and posting updated data on account balances to the mainframe. Core systems typically include deposit account and CD account processing, loan and credit processing, interfaces to the general ledger and reporting tools.


core storage management

Products in the core storage management segment provide basic data organization functions, such as file system and volume management, storage virtualization software, thin provisioning, disk utilities, access and path management, and emerging technologies that do not fit into one of the other segments. Storage virtualization software, whether on a server or in the storage network or in the disk array, creates an abstraction layer that separates physical storage from logical storage, masks complexities to simplify storage management and enables storage resource optimization via pooling. Network file systems, file systems that are part of the core OS or essential for the operation of the storage device, and high-availability (such as clustering) software products are not included.


COS (class of service)

An Internet service provider (ISP) offering that prioritizes which traffic is delivered before other traffic. With COS, when an ISP’s network is not congested, all traffic is treated equally. When the network is congested, however, traffic that has been designated as a higher priority will be delivered first, while lower priority traffic will be held in a queue until the higher-class traffic has been transmitted.


COSE (Common Open Software Environment)

A now-defunct vendor consortium, which was formed to promote interoperability and portability across Unix platforms. The group’s first project was the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) specification.


country code

In direct distance dialing, a code characterizing a particular country. Codes corresponding to the world numbering plan start with a single digit that identifies a particular geographical area. This can be followed by one or two extra digits.


CPA (comprehensive production architecture)

Enables simultaneous and cost-effective production and archiving in print and Internet formats by integrating five key processes: document creation and retrieval, assembly and formatting, internal archiving, prepress and printing and Internet publishing.


CPC (collaborative product commerce)

An e-business strategy for exploiting new Web-based commerce opportunities across product development and product life cycle processes. CPC opportunities include both inbound (business-to-business) and outbound (business-to-consumer) commerce such as collaborative product development, customer driven design, collaborative product and component sourcing, manufacturing/supply-chain collaboration, and product maintenance self-service portals.


CPC (cost per click)

An online advertising metric which refers to advertising spending divided by the number of recipients who click on the message (e.g., a banner ad on a Web site or a link embedded in e-mail message).


CPE (customer premises equipment)

Any telephone apparatus — including telephone handsets, private branch exchange (PBX) switching equipment, key and hybrid telephone systems, and add-on devices — that is physically located on a customer’s property, as opposed to being housed in the telephone company’s central office or elsewhere in the network.


CPE business DSL router with embedded DSL modem

This is a business-class router similar to an external xDSL modem, but including additional routing functions. It can be a wired device or include a wireless access point.


CPEMH (computer-aided patient-entered medical history)

A system that presents a series of questions, thereby collecting data that traditionally would require a receptionist, a “traditional clipboard,” a nurse and a doctor. These systems use knowledge management and branching logic to tailor each session to the individual patient. Once the data is collected, it can be parsed, translated and highlighted. The clinician then has access to data prior to seeing the patient and can better direct the encounter.


CPE external stand-alone modem

This modem does not go inside a PC, but has its own external casing and power supply, and is connected to a PC using a cable.


CPE internal modem

This modem is placed inside a PC. It is not a PC Card.


CPGA (cost per gross add)

Typically, the cost of sales and marketing, advertising and handset subsidies over total gross adds.


CPI (continuous process improvement)

A methodology for improving production, driven by formal metrics and measurement programs, including methodology upgrades.


CPM (corporate performance management)

CPM is an umbrella term that describes the methodologies, metrics, processes and systems used to monitor and manage the business performance of an enterprise. Applications that enable CPM translate strategically focused information to operational plans and send aggregated results. These applications are also integrated into many elements of the planning and control cycle, or they address BAM or customer relationship optimization needs.

CPM must be supported by a suite of analytical applications that provide the functionality to support these processes, methodologies and metrics.


CPM (critical path method or critical path management)

Critical path method is a project planning and management methodology that focuses on activities that control the total duration of a project.


CPMS (corporate property management software)

Software whose basic functionality is to produce basic rent rolls and feed to general ledger; to track simple information about leased or owned property (e.g., renewal dates, term dates, amount of square footage and basic breakdown of divisions or departments in space for space allocation); and to capture data regarding parties to agreement and basic contract information.


CPM suites

The main application components of a CPM suite are defined as follows:

  • • Budgeting, planning and forecasting — These applications support the development of all aspects of budgets, plans and forecasts. They encompass short-term financially focused budgets, longer-term plans and high-level strategic plans. These applications should deliver workflow capabilities to manage budget/plan creation, submission and approval, as well as provide the ability to dynamically create forecasts and scenarios. They also should support the development of an enterprisewide planning model that links operational plans with financial budgets. In addition, they must be capable of sharing data with domain-specific applications, such as SCP.
  • • Profitability modeling and optimization — This includes activity-based costing (ABC) applications that determine and allocate costs at a highly granular level, and activity-based management applications that provide capabilities to enable users to model the impact on profitability of different cost and resource allocation strategies. Some applications have moved beyond the “traditional” ABC focus to enable revenue to be allocated in addition to costs to model packaging, bundling, pricing and channel strategies.
  • • Scorecard applications — A scorecard is a generic BI capability that includes the functionality of dashboards but that also has the capability to link key performance indicators (KPIs) to a strategy map, with a hierarchical cause-and-effect relationship among the KPIs. Scorecards are often used in conjunction with a particular methodology, such as the balanced scorecard, European Foundation for Quality Management, value-based management or Six Sigma.
  • • Financial consolidation — This type of application enables organizations to reconcile, consolidate, summarize and aggregate financial data based on different accounting standards and federal regulations. These applications are a fundamental part of CPM because they create the audited, enterprise-level view of financial information that must be shared with other CPM applications to analyze variance from targets.
  • • Statutory and financial reporting — CPM applications require specialized reporting tools that can format output as structured financial statements, and they may also need to support specific generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) presentation rules, such as U.S. GAAP or International Financial Reporting Standards. They also include visualization techniques that are specifically designed to support the analysis of variance from budgets or targets, such as hyperbolic trees.


CPP (commercial parallel processing)

The use of parallel-processing systems for complex commercial applications.


CPR (computer-based patient record)

A system that contains electronically maintained information about an individual’s health status and care. It focuses on tasks directly related to patient care, unlike other healthcare information systems that support providers’ and payers’ operational processes (which may, however, serve as source or feeder systems for the CPR). The CPR completely replaces the paper medical chart and thus must meet all clinical, legal and administrative requirements.


CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface)

An industry cooperation between Ericsson, Nortel, NEC, Siemens and Huawei to define an open and published interface between radio equipment control and the radio equipment. Although open and freely available, this interface is not defined by 3GPP and is targeting WCDMA.


CPS (certification practice statement)

A document defining all the operational practices that will be used to maintain the required level of public-key infrastructure (PKI) security. To prove that issued certificates are valid, an enterprise must demonstrate (usually through an audit) adherence to its CPS. The Internet Engineering Task Force’s (IETF’s) request for comment (RFC) 2527 contains draft guidelines for the format and content of a CPS.


CPT (Current Procedural Terminology)

A widely used controlled medical vocabulary authored by the American Medical Association, this system describes medical and surgical procedures in a hierarchical format with six major sections and more than 7,300 codes. A series of two-digit modifiers are used to increase specificity, allowing the reporting of a procedure under specific circumstances.


CPU (central processing unit)

The component of a computer system that controls the interpretation and execution of instructions. The CPU of a PC consists of a single microprocessor, while the CPU of a more powerful mainframe consists of multiple processing devices, and in some cases, hundreds of them. The term “processor” is often used to refer to a CPU.


CQI (continuous quality improvement)

A methodology for to continuous improvement of the quality of an enterprise’s products, services or internal processes.


CRC (cyclic redundancy check)

An error detection technique using a polynomial to generate a series of two 8-bit block check characters that represent the entire block of data. These block check characters are incorporated into the transmission frame and then checked at the receiving end.


critical-path scheduling

A project-planning and monitoring system used to check progress toward the completion of a project by scheduling events, activities, milestones, etc.


critical ratio

A dispatching rule that calculates a priority index number by dividing the time to due date remaining by the expected elapsed time to finish the job. Typically ratios of less than 1.0 are behind, ratios greater than 1.0 are ahead, and a ratio of 1.0 is on schedule.


CRL (certificate revocation list)

A “hot lists” that identifies certificates that have been withdrawn, canceled or compromised or that should not be trusted because of other identified reasons. CRLs should be replicated to all subscribing servers to a specific root certification authority.


CRM (customer relationship management)

CRM (customer relationship management) is a business strategy whose outcomes optimize profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing around customer segments, fostering customer-satisfying behaviors and implementing customer-centric processes.


CRM analytics

A set of analyses that support customer relationship management (CRM) on both an individual-customer and an aggregate level, including the real-time monitoring of day-to-day operations. A significant aspect of performing true CRM analytics (as opposed to product or channel analytics) is the capability to integrate data and analyses across various distribution channels and business units, creating a holistic understanding of relationships.


CRM printing

A subset of CRM publishing, CRM printing is enabled by the combination of digital, low-to-high-volume printing devices and technology-enabled marketing techniques. The latter provide the data necessary for the former to produce personalized materials.


CRM publishing

The concept of using CRM techniques to micro segment prospective, current and former customers and to deliver targeted marketing and sales information based on the recipients’ requirements and preferred delivery method(s).



A process by which two enterprises are able to recognize and trust each other’s digital certificates.



A program that translates instructions from a high-level language on one computer to the machine language of another computer – the one on which the program is to be run.



The planning of warehouse “put away” assignments so that inventory can be moved from one shipment to another on a dock without movement to a rack or warehouse location. Although this type of inventory movement may violate lot and code date movement parameters, cross-dock planning is used frequently to minimize labor costs and handling in warehouses and distribution centers.



Interference caused by two or more carriers interacting in a transmission system.


CRP (capacity requirements planning)

The process of specifying the level of resources (facilities, equipment and labor force size) that best supports the enterprise’s competitive strategy for production.


CRUD (create, retrieve, update, delete)

Guidelines for defining how different people or communities within an organization deal with data elements owned by the organization.


CSD (circuit-switched data)

Data transmission over a wireless network using circuit switching rather than packet switching. Once a connection is established, the user is charged for the use of a dedicated circuit.


CSD (consolidated service desk)

The hub where the needs of support groups, distributors, suppliers and customers are consolidated, and where network and systems management (NSM) tools are integrated. The CSD has become the integration point for multiple management disciplines, the single point of contact for providing multiple IS services to the end users, and the source of automation for multiple workflow processes.


CSF (critical success factor)

A methodology, management tool or design technique that enables the effective development and deployment of a project or process.


CSP (communications service provider)

Includes all service providers offering telecommunication services or some combination of information and media services, content, entertainment and applications services over networks, leveraging the network infrastructure as a rich, functional platform. CSPs include the following categories: Telecommunications carrier, content and applications service provider (CASP), cable service provider, satellite broadcasting operator, and cloud communications service provider.


CSS (customer service and support)

Once known as the “complaint department,” CSS is responsible for retaining and extending customer relationships once a product or service is sold. Due to the increasing complexity of customer interactions, customer service organizations need a complex technological infrastructure that is flexible, extensible and scalable and that integrates front-office applications with back-end processes and data. The components of CSS include

  • • Call management — The core functionality of CSS applications. This component is used to log all incoming telephone calls and transactions and to manage the transaction from initiation through closure.
  • • Internet-based customer service suites — Also known as e-service suites, these applications and tools empower customers, partners and prospects for self-service and interactions with the enterprise via the Web, an intranet or an extranet.
  • • Field service and dispatch (FS/D) systems — FS/D has become an essential element of complete CSS suites and is an important element of customer relationship management (CRM). FS/D software is evolving from solely back-office functionality to an enterprise system that tightly couples the back office with the front-office servicing systems.
  • • Contact centers — Traditional call centers handle voice-only customer contact, whereas contact centers include all types of channels of customer contact, including voice (e.g., telephone, IVR, speech recognition and voice verification), the Web, fax, video kiosks and e-mail. This is an inbound and outbound service-based environment in which agents handle all types of contacts regarding sales, customer service, marketing, telemarketing, collections and other functions.


CSU (channel service unit)

A device found on digital links that transfers data faster than a modem (in a range from 56 kilobits per second to 1.5 megabits per second) but does not permit dial-up functions. It also performs certain line-conditioning and equalization functions, and responds to loop-back commands sent from a central office. A CSU is the link between digital lines from the central office and devices such as channel banks or data communications devices.


CTI (computer-telephony integration)

The intelligent linking of computers with switches, enabling coordinated voice and data transfers to the desktop.


CTO (chief technology officer)

The CTO has overall responsibility for managing the physical and personnel technology infrastructure including technology deployment, network and systems management, integration testing, and developing technical operations personnel. CTOs also manage client relations to ensure that service objective expectations are developed and managed in the operations areas.


CTQ (critical to quality)

Critical to quality are those aspects of a product or service that a customer deems as must-have features to be satisfied.


CTR (click-through rate)

The number of times a Web page advertisement is clicked, compared to the number of times it is displayed. Royalties are often based on CTR. This term is also used in reference a Web site’s ability to persuade a visitor to “click through” to another site.


CTX (clear to send)

A control circuit that indicates to the data terminal equipment that data can or cannot be transmitted.


CTX (corporate trade exchange)

An electronic-commerce standard format that allows for inclusion of 9,999 “addenda” records in addition to the primary financial records (i.e., amount being moved, bank routing number and checking-account number).


CU (compliance unit)

A logical partition of applications and data to be upgraded together.


CUG (closed user group)

A set-up that restricts access to and from one or more terminals to other members of the user group (found on packet switched systems, e-mail, etc.).


cumulative lead time

The longest length of time involved to accomplish the activity in question. For any item planned through material requirements planning, it is found by reviewing each bill-of-material path below the item, and whichever path adds up to the greatest number defines cumulative material lead time.


current loop

A transmission technique that recognizes current flows rather than voltage levels. It was traditionally used in teletypewriter networks incorporating batteries as the transmission power source.


customer communications management (CCM)

Customer communications management (CCM) is a strategy and a market fulfilled by different applications to improve the creation, delivery, storage and retrieval of outbound and interactive communications. CCM supports the production of marketing collateral, new product introductions, and transaction documents (for example, renewal notifications, insurance claims correspondence, payment notifications). These interactions can happen through a wide range of media and output, including print, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), and Web pages and customer self-service. CCM solutions support enterprises’ communications with distributors, partners, regulatory bodies and customers. CCM is sometimes implemented as a composite content application. One technology descriptor common to most vendors is “document composition.”


customer experience

Customer experience is defined as “the customer’s perceptions and related feelings caused by the one-off and cumulative effect of interactions with a supplier’s employees, systems, channels or products.”


customer experience management

Customer experience management is defined as “the practice of designing and reacting to customer interactions to meet or exceed customer expectations to increase customer satisfaction, loyalty and advocacy.”


customer self-service and support

Customer self-service and support is a blend of customer-initiated interaction technologies that are designed to enable customers to service themselves. It includes electronic records management systems, chat and knowledge bases.


customized network management

Tools to allow assignment of levels of network management functions and capabilities to selected nodes throughout the network. With this, the degree of centralization vs. decentralization of network management can be varied depending on the environment.


custom key set

Specialized multibutton telephones designed expressly for a particular private branch exchange (PBX). Unlike the locking buttons on normal key telephones, the buttons on a custom key set are used to communicate with the system and are typically nonlocking buttons. Custom key set buttons can be arranged to activate specific features such as speed dialing and executive override, as well as to select lines.


cyber library

An electronic version of a physical library that is implemented on behalf of workers for information self-service.


cycle time

The time it takes to complete a process or service operation, including all value-adding and non-value-adding time.




DAB (digital audio broadcasting)

DAB transmits digital signals rather than the analog audio signals traditionally used in broadcast radio. DAB is broadcast on terrestrial networks, with future prospects for satellite broadcasting. Apart from receiving high-quality audio entertainment via the radio, programs can be accompanied by text, such as lyrics. The DAB-IP variant used by Virgin U.K. can support video.


DAB+ (digital audio broadcasting plus)

DAB+ is an extension of DAB to support new and more efficient codecs with better error correction. This will, however, introduce challenges for backward compatibility with older DAB radios.



A Unix process initiated during system boot and activated automatically to perform a particular task.



The connection of multiple devices in a serial fashion. An advantage of daisy-chaining is savings in transmission facilities. A disadvantage is that if a device malfunctions, all of the devices daisy-chained behind it are disabled.


DAP (Directory Access Protocol)

A protocol for working among X.500 Directory Service Agents.


DAP (Distributed Application Platform)

An application framework introduced in 1997 by Visigenic (later acquired by Borland International).


DAPP (data analysis and provider profiling)

DAPP vendors are those that provide healthcare value-added analytic applications to support analysis of administrative data for the purposes of network management, actuarial and underwriting functions, medical management and performance measurement — including Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) reporting.


dark fiber

Fiber-optic cable deployments that are not yet being used to carry network traffic. (The word “dark” refers to the fact that no light is passing through the optical fibers.)


DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

The U.S. government department that developed the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) ARPANET protocol architecture.


DAS (distributed antenna system)

System that uses passive (non-powered) or active (powered) networking equipment, such as antennas, fiber-optic, coaxial cable and other technologies to extend RF coverage (of any technology) inside a building.


DAS (dual-attached station)

In Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), a device that is attached to both the primary and secondary rings.


DASD (direct-access storage device)

Generic nomenclature for a storage peripheral that can respond directly to random requests for information; usually denotes a disk drive.



This subset of reporting includes the ability to publish formal, Web-based reports with intuitive interactive displays of information, including dials, gauges, sliders, check boxes and traffic lights. These displays indicate the status of an item or the state of a performance metric compared with a goal or target value. Increasingly, dashboards are used to disseminate real-time data from operational applications.


DAT (digital audiotape)

A magnetic tape that stores audio data converted to digital form.


DAT (dynamic address translation)

The change of a logical storage address to an actual storage address.


data center

The data center is the department in an enterprise that houses and maintains back-end information technology (IT) systems and data stores – its mainframes, servers and databases. In the days of large, centralized IT operations, this department and all the systems resided in one physical place, hence the name data center.


data center outsourcing

Data center outsourcing is a multiyear or annuity contract or relationship involving the day-to-day management responsibility for operating server/host platforms, including distributed servers and storage. Services include any combination (or all) of the product support and professional services as they specifically relate to the ongoing management of the computing and storage resources. Minimally, data center outsourcing contracts always include services encompassed by the computing platform of the operation services segment. Help desk management services are included only to the extent that problem determination and resolution is at the computing hardware level or the infrastructure software or OS software level. Application management services are included only to the extent of the infrastructure software or OS software level. Information management software and system management tools may be provided and used by the outsourcer or the enterprise client. Services may be provided at the client site or off-site. IT assets may be owned by either the client or the ESP, or a third party. Contracts may include the transfer of client employees, IT assets and facilities to the ESP.


data integration tools

The discipline of data integration comprises the practices, architectural techniques and tools for achieving the consistent access and delivery of data across the spectrum of data subject areas and data structure types in the enterprise to meet the data consumption requirements of all applications and business processes.

Data integration tools have traditionally been delivered via a set of related markets, with vendors in each market offering a specific style of data integration tool. In recent years, most of the activity has been within the ETL tool market. Markets for replication tools, data federation (EII) and other submarkets each included vendors offering tools optimized for a particular style of data integration, and periphery markets (such as data quality tools, adapters and data modeling tools) also overlapped with the data integration tool space. The result of all this historical fragmentation in the markets is the equally fragmented and complex way in which data integration is accomplished in large enterprises — different teams using different tools, with little consistency, lots of overlap and redundancy, and no common management or leverage of metadata. Technology buyers have been forced to acquire a portfolio of tools from multiple vendors to amass the capabilities necessary to address the full range of their data integration requirements.

This situation is now changing, with the separate and distinct data integration tool submarkets converging at the vendor and technology levels. This is being driven by buyer demands as organizations realize they need to think about data integration holistically and have a common set of data integration capabilities they can use across the enterprise. It is also being driven by the actions of vendors, such as those in individual data integration submarkets organically expanding their capabilities into neighboring areas, as well as by acquisition activity that brings vendors from multiple submarkets together. The result is a market for complete data integration tools that address a range of different data integration styles and are based on common design tooling, metadata and runtime architecture.

The data integration tool market comprises vendors that offer software products to enable the construction and implementation of data access and delivery infrastructure for a variety of data integration scenarios, including:

Data acquisition for BI and data warehousing – Extracting data from operational systems, transforming and merging that data, and delivering it to integrated data structures for analytic purposes. BI and data warehousing remains a mainstay of the demand for data integration tools.

Creation of integrated master data stores – Enabling the consolidation and rationalization of the data and representing critical business entities, such as customers, products and employees. Master data management (MDM) may or may not be subject-based, and data integration tools can be used to build the data consolidation and synchronization processes that are key to success.

Data migrations and conversions – These were traditionally addressed most often via the custom coding of conversion programs, but data integration tools are increasingly addressing the data movement and transformation challenges inherent in the replacement of legacy applications and consolidation efforts during merger and acquisition activities.

Synchronization of data between operational applications – Similar in concept to each of the prior scenarios, data integration tools provide the capability to ensure database-level consistency across applications, both on an internal and interenterprise basis, and in a bidirectional or unidirectional manner.

Creation of federated views of data from multiple data stores – Data federation, often referred to as EII, is growing in popularity as an approach for providing real-time integrated views across multiple data stores without physical movement of data. Data integration tools are increasingly including this type of virtual federation capability.

Delivery of data services in an SOA context – An architectural technique, rather than a data integration usage itself, data services are the emerging trend for the role and implementation of data integration capabilities within SOAs. Data integration tools will increasingly enable the delivery of many types of data services.

Unification of structured and unstructured data – This is also not a specific use case itself, and it is relevant to each of the above scenarios. There is an early but growing trend toward leveraging data integration tools for merging structured and unstructured data sources as organizations work on delivering a holistic information infrastructure that addresses all data types.

The following describes the different functional capabilities that are included in data integration tools:

  • • Data integration adapters – Data integration adapters provide simplified connectivity and access to databases, files and other data structures to enable applications and other data integration tools to perform read and update operations. Using adapters, applications and tools can reach into a variety of database types to access data for a range of purposes. This technology is commonly used to make legacy data accessible to more-modern applications and processes.
  • • Data federation – Federation technology, sometimes referred to as EII, executes distributed queries across multiple databases to create a “virtual data layer.” By leaving the data in place, this approach provides integrated views of data without creating a physical database to house them. These integrated views can be consumed and manipulated by applications, other integration infrastructure components, or query and reporting tools via SQL interfaces, XML or Web services. The data view is virtual in the sense that it resides only in memory or cache (that is, it generally is not persisted for long-term storage and is not backed up in its intermediate form). Data federation tools leave the application data in place, in contrast to ETL tools, which perform data movement to create a new copy of data. Federation tools can access a range of heterogeneous data sources on different platforms. Data may be cached for performance reasons and thus may not be entirely virtual. The early usage of data federation products tends to be simplistic, generally not addressing complex transformations, data cleansing or updates. This is typically because of the performance challenges inherent in delivering large-scale federated views.
  • • Data replication/synchronization – Data replication/synchronization technology enables the creation and ongoing maintenance of multiple copies of data. Replication/synchronization is generally focused on real-time consistency of transactions between databases. Although most replication/synchronization scenarios tend to be between homogeneous DBMSs and schemas, some replication/synchronization technology supports heterogeneous environments as well. A common use pattern for replication/synchronization technology is maintaining consistency of data between multiple, geographically dispersed instances of an operational application.
  • • ETL – ETL technology supports the acquisition and integration of data from multiple-source databases and provides the ability to change the syntax and semantics of that data and then deliver it to one or more target databases. ETL technology typically supports the movement of data for batch-oriented data integration processes, often in the context of building an integrated data structure, such as a data warehouse or master data store. BI-oriented data integration has been the traditional focus of ETL vendors; however, there is a trend toward broader use of the tools, particularly for implementing batch-oriented data consistency integration patterns between operational applications. ETL technology is well-suited when low-latency delivery of data is not a requirement and rich set-based transformation capabilities are important.


data mining

The process of discovering meaningful correlations, patterns and trends by sifting through large amounts of data stored in repositories. Data mining employs pattern recognition technologies, as well as statistical and mathematical techniques.


data quality tools

The market for data quality tools has become highly visible in recent years as more organizations understand the impact of poor-quality data and seek solutions for improvement. Traditionally aligned with cleansing of customer data (names and addresses) in support of CRM-related activities, the tools have expanded well beyond such capabilities, and forward-thinking organizations are recognizing the relevance of these tools in other data domains. Product data – often driven by MDM initiatives – and financial data (driven by compliance pressures) are two such areas in which demand for the tools is quickly building.

Data quality tools are used to address various aspects of the data quality problem:

  • • Parsing and standardization – Decomposition of text fields into component parts and formatting of values into consistent layouts based on industry standards, local standards (for example, postal authority standards for address data), user-defined business rules, and knowledge bases of values and patterns
  • • Generalized “cleansing” – Modification of data values to meet domain restrictions, integrity constraints or other business rules that define sufficient data quality for the organization
  • • Matching – Identification, linking or merging related entries within or across sets of data
  • • Profiling – Analysis of data to capture statistics (metadata) that provide insight into the quality of the data and aid in the identification of data quality issues
  • • Monitoring – Deployment of controls to ensure ongoing conformance of data to business rules that define data quality for the organization
  • • Enrichment – Enhancing the value of internally held data by appending related attributes from external sources (for example, consumer demographic attributes or geographic descriptors)


The tools provided by vendors in this market are generally consumed by technology users for internal deployment in their IT infrastructure, although hosted data quality solutions are continuing to emerge and grow in popularity. The tools are increasingly implemented in support of general data quality improvement initiatives, as well as within critical applications, such as ERP, CRM and BI. As data quality becomes increasingly pervasive, many data integration tools now include data quality management functionality.

data replication

The data replication segment includes a set of data replication products that reside in the disk array controller, in a device in the storage network or on a server. Included are local and remote replication products, migration tools, and disk imaging products. Also included are replication products specifically targeted as an alternative to backup applications. Not included are database replication products, log-based DBMS replication products or application-based replication products.


Data Runs

Non-resident attributes are stored in intervals of clusters called runs. Each run is represented by its starting cluster and its length. The runs map the VCNs of a file to the LCNs of a volume.

See also: Attribute, Cluster, LCN, VCN and Volume.


data synchronization

A form of embedded middleware that allows applications to update data on two systems so that the data sets are identical. These services can run via a variety of different transports but typically require some application-specific knowledge of the context and notion of the data being synchronized.


data warehouse

A storage architecture designed to hold data extracted from transaction systems, operational data stores and external sources. The warehouse then combines that data in an aggregate, summary form suitable for enterprisewide data analysis and reporting for predefined business needs. The five components of a data warehouse are production data sources, data extraction and conversion, the data warehouse database management system, data warehouse administration and business intelligence (BI) tools.


database design

This includes logical (entity relationship) and physical (table, column and key) design tools for data. Physical data modeling is becoming almost mandatory for applications using relational database management systems (RDBMSs). Strong support for physical modeling is paired with facilities to manage multiple models, to submodel or extract from larger models, and to reverse-engineer a database design from established tables. Data architects/analysts and database designers/administrators are the primary targeted users of these tools, although developers are a secondary market often targeted with a subset of the complete functionality.


DBMS (database management system)

A DBMS is a product used for the storage and organization of data that typically has defined formats and structures. DBMSs are categorized by their basic structures and, to some extent, by their use or deployment.


DBMS management

Included here are tools for monitoring and diagnosing problems with databases, analyzing and improving the performance of databases, and routine administration of databases, including configuration changes. Examples include database management monitors, SQL tuners, space tuners, reorganization tools, utilities, loaders and unloaders, and many other tools, as well as suites that may include several of the above.


DBS (direct broadcast satellite)

Type of satellite used for consumer services, primarily the transmission of radio and TV programs. A direct broadcasting satellite is similar to a fixed-service satellite (FSS); however, it offers a higher power output, requiring smaller antennas to receive the signal. Typical DBS services offer digital programming, digital audio services and, increasingly, high-definition TV (HDTV).


DDBMS (distributed database management system)

A DBMS that enables end users or application programmers to view a collection of physically separate databases as one logical single-system image. The concept that is most fundamental to the DDBMS is location transparency, meaning the user should not be conscious of the actual location of data.


DDL (data definition language)

A language used to describe the data model for a database, i.e., the names and access paths for the data and how they are interrelated. In some software products, the DDL describes the logical, not the physical, data. Other products use it to describe both.



Maths carried out in base ten. In this documentation, numbers that are neither in hex, nor binary, are in decimal, e.g. 16 (sixteen), 23 (twenty-three).

See also: Binary, Hex and Units.


demand-driven value network (DDVN)

A demand-driven value network is a business environment holistically designed to maximize value across the set of processes and technologies that senses and orchestrates demand based on a near-zero-latency signal across multiple networks of employees and trading partners.


Deming PDCA cycle

Continuous improvement model of “Plan, Do, Check, Act.” Often represented as the four quadrants of the rim of a circle to reflect the fact that once all four elements have been accomplished, the cycle repeats.



Deployment services support the implementation and rollout of new applications or infrastructure. Activities may include hardware or software procurement, configuration, tuning, staging, installation and interoperability testing.


desktop outsourcing

Desktop outsourcing is a multiyear or annuity contract or relationship involving the day-to-day management responsibility for operating desktop/client platforms. Services include any combination (or all) of the product support and professional services as they specifically relate to the ongoing management of the desktop resources (including desktop peripherals). Minimally, desktop outsourcing contracts always include services encompassed by the computing environment of the operation services segment. Help desk management services are included only to the extent that problem determination and resolution is at the computing hardware level or the infrastructure software or OS software level. Application management services are included only to the extent of the infrastructure software or OS software level. A desktop system can include any client system (including a notebook) and may include the client systems of remote employees, such as telecommuters and mobile staff. Services may be provided at the client site or off-site. IT assets may be owned by either the client, the ESP or a third party. Contracts may include the transfer of client employees, IT assets and facilities to the ESP.


desktop virtualization

Desktop virtualization is not a single market category, but rather is made up of four distinct markets that address different requirements – virtualization software, hosted virtual desktops, application virtualization and portable personality solutions.


DEVA (document-enabled vertical application)

A concept that applies integrated document and output management (IDOM) technologies in specific industries for support of vertical (or sometimes horizontal) processes. Examples of industries and related processes include insurance (claims processing), engineering (technical document management), pharmaceuticals (new drug application), financial services (retirement processing) and cross-industry applications (call-center support).


development and integration services

Development and integration services support the implementation and rollout of new network infrastructure, including consolidation of established network infrastructure. Activities may include hardware or software procurement, configuration, tuning, staging, installation and interoperability testing.


device resource management

Storage subsystems and SAN infrastructure component software products provide configuration utilities and agents that collect capacity, performance and status information, usually for a single device type or a set of devices from a single vendor. Most of the products in this segment are called element managers.


DFSS (design for Six Sigma)

Design for Six Sigma is a technique that prescribes a specific approach to product design emphasizing variability reduction and quality.


DFX (design for X)

Design for “x,” where “x” can be manufacturing, service, quality, maintenance, etc.


DGT (Directorate General of Telecommunications, Taiwan)

Regulator for telecommunications, broadcast radio and TV in Taiwan, an agency of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications.


DIF (Data Interchange Format)

A file format developed for VisiCalc, the first electronic spreadsheet. Still used today as a means for transferring files to and from spreadsheets.



Signal transmission that conveys information through a series of coded pulses representing 1s and 0s (binary code).


digital copiers

Image capture using digital scanning and image transfer using electronic impulse in which the image is scanned from the platen and digitized into electronic data. The electronic data is processed to enable the image to be transferred to the photoconductor. The electronic image data is then transferred to a print engine, which may utilize a number of different technologies, such as laser, LED or solid ink.


digital dial tone

A term describing the combination of XML and Internet transport protocols – such as HTTP, SMTP and FTP – to create a ubiquitous capability to exchange structured information. The metaphor relies on the contrast between previous business to business (B2B) message exchanges – such as electronic data exchange (EDI) using X12, EDI for Administration, Commerce and Transportation (EDIFACT) and various vertical-industry-specific standards – and the unstructured communications media of telephone and fax. The former required considerable investment and the interposition of a private network – or substantial bilateral negotiation – to achieve interoperability, while the latter are ubiquitous and broadly interoperable. With the Internet and ubiquitous software to implement Internet transport protocols, business partners can reduce the cost, delay and risk of implementing B2B messaging.

Internet transport protocols by themselves do not constitute a complete digital-dial-tone solution. For secure application messaging to occur over the Internet, communicating systems must be programmed to additional specifications in key areas such as security, routing and access control. Ubiquity will not be achieved until integration products agree on standards for meeting these requirements.


digital divide

The gap in opportunities experienced by those with limited accessibility to technology, especially the Internet. This includes, but is not limited to, accessibility challenges in the following areas:

  • • Cultural (e.g., membership of a community that prohibits or restricts access to technology)
  • • Physical (e.g., having a disability that make it difficult or impossible to use a computer)
  • • Economic (e.g., being unable to afford a computer)
  • • Educational (e.g., not knowing how to use a computer)


digital forensics

Digital forensics is defined as the use of specialized, investigative techniques and technologies to determine whether illegal or otherwise inappropriate events have occurred on computer systems, and provide legally defensible information about the sequence of those events.


digital loopback

A technique for testing the digital processing circuitry of a communications device. It can be initiated locally or remotely via a telecommunications circuit; the device being tested will echo back a received test message (after first decoding and then re-encoding it) the results of which are compared with the original message.


digital modem

A system component that enables communication over digital access facilities with a remotely located system connected to the public network over analog facilities.


digital network

A network incorporating both digital switching and digital transmission.


digital signature

A core function of a public key infrastructure (PKI). A digital signature can prove identity because it is created with the private key portion (which only the key holder should access) of a public/private key pair. Anyone with the sender’s widely published public key can decrypt the signature and, by doing so, receive the assurance that the data must have come from the sender (nonrepudiation of the sender) and that the data has not changed (integrity). The data that is encrypted with the private key is not the entire message, but a short, fixed-length block of data that is computed from the message using a so-called “hash” function.


digital switching

The process of establishing and maintaining a connection under stored program control where binary-encoded information is routed between an input and an output port.



To convert or express an analog form in a digital format.


DIP (document image processing)

A technology used to scan, digitize and store documents (e.g., checks or invoices) as images.


DIP (dual in-line package)

A method of packaging electronic components for mounting on printed circuit boards.


direct channel

This is a channel through which hardware, software and peripherals are sold by the manufacturer directly to the end user:

Direct sales force – This is a channel through which products move directly from the manufacturer or vendor to the end user, usually by a professionally trained field sales force.

Direct fax/phone/Web – This is a channel through which manufacturers sell their own products directly to end users through the use of the telephone, Web, fax, fax back and mail, including e-mail and catalog.

Direct retail – These are storefront operations owned and managed by the vendor, typically a manufacturer of computer systems. Direct stores are more common in Europe and Japan than in other parts of the world.


directed speech recognition

A system that uses a script-like dialog instead of complete, free-form natural language. For each question asked, there are a limited number of valid responses. With this approach, accuracy rates may go up dramatically on less-expensive hardware.



An NTFS directory is an index attribute. NTFS uses index attributes to collate file names. A directory entry contains the name of the file and a copy of the file’s standard information attribute (time stamp information). This approach provides a performance boost for directory browsing because NTFS does not need to read the files’ MFT records to print directory information.


directory services

Middleware that locates the correct and full network address for a mail addressee from a partial name or address. A directory service provides a naming service and extends the capabilities to include intelligent searching and location of resources in the directory structure.


“dirty” protocols

Many Internet Protocol (IP) applications assume that direct IP connectivity exists between hosts. In today’s Internet or extranets, this is often not true. The problems of limited IP address space have caused many enterprises to use private Request for Comment (RFC) 1918 addresses. These addresses cannot be routed and, for enterprises to connect to the Internet or to communicate in an extranet, address translations or application proxies must be used. For applications that exchange their IP addresses between the client and the server, these “dirty” IP address are not valid when one or both of the end systems exist on an RFC 1918 network. In addition, without using special techniques, applications like File Transfer Protocol (FTP) will not work when an enterprise uses private RFC 1918 addresses.


disciplined multisourcing

The disciplined provisioning and blending of business and IT services from the optimal set of internal and external providers in the pursuit of business goals.


discrete manufacturing

The production of a discrete category of goods (e.g., automobiles, aircraft, computers or component assemblies).


discretionary security controls

An operating-system security rating of C2 or higher based on U.S. Department of Defense trusted computer system evaluation criteria.


discussion database

A database designed specifically for the capture, exchange and storage of ideas (e.g., Lotus Notes).


distributed computing

A form of computing in which data and applications are distributed among disparate computers or systems, but are connected and integrated by means of network services and interoperability standards such that they function as a single environment. See DCE (distributed computing environment).


distributed database

A database whose objects (tables, views, columns and files) reside on more than one system in a network, and can be accessed or updated from any system in the network.


distributed data management

A form of client/server computing in which some portion of the application data executes on two or more computers.


distributed function

A form of client/server computing in which some of the application program logic executes on one computer, possibly with a database, and the rest of the application resides on another computer, possibly along with presentation services.


DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control)

“Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control”; a problem-solving methodology associated with Six Sigma process improvement.


DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting)

Technology that can transmit digital video to mobile devices. It developed out of the DAB standard, which established itself as the best terrestrial radio system for delivering CD-quality, digital stereo sound in fixed, portable and mobile reception conditions.


DMI (data management and integration)

Data management and integration is defined as the practices, architectural techniques and tools for achieving consistent access to and delivery of data across the spectrum of data subject areas and data structure types in the enterprise, to meet the data consumption requirements of all applications and business processes.


document management

Document management is a function in which applications or middleware perform data management tasks tailored for typical unstructured documents.


document management hardware services

This segment includes copier and printer services.

  • • Copier services – Copiers perform image capture and transfer. This category includes analog (optical technology) and digital (digital scanning and printing technology) copiers.
  • • Printer services – A printer is the peripheral output device of a computer system for producing computer-generated images on paper using various marking technologies. To be classified in this segment, the device needs to be capable of using plain or coated papers with a minimum size of International Organization for Standardization A4, U.S. size A (letter) or continuous forms with an 8-inch print width or greater, but it excludes products that support paper widths above A2 or U.S. size C (17 inches x 22 inches). The definition also excludes other classes of application-specific printers, such as point-of-sale printers, airline ticket printers, video printers and dedicated photo printers.


DoJa (DoCoMo Java)

The DoJa profile is the NTT DoCoMo Java environment specification for i-Mode mobile phones, used mainly for i-Mode games.



  1. A group of nodes on a network forming an administrative entity.
  2. On the Internet, a part of the naming hierarchy that refers to groupings of networks based on organization type or geography.


domain name

A unique identifier for an Internet site or Internet Protocol (IP) network address, consisting of at least two segments separated by periods. Enterprises must register top-level domains with the Web Internet Registry and pay a yearly fee to maintain the registry.


DOS File Permissions (see File Permissions)


Dot, Root Directory

Root directory of the disk



Satellite communication link that involves signal transmission or retransmission from in-orbit satellites to earth stations or other receiving terminals on the ground. See also uplink.



The process of bringing a file down to a computer through a network and typically from a server, or some other computing device. Download times can be greatly effected by the method of connection to the network.



The total time a system is out of service.


DPMO (defects per million opportunities)

A critical measure associated with Six Sigma-based quality management.


DPO (defects per opportunity)

A measure of quality that reflects whether a specific product or service has any defects.


DPU (defects per unit)

A measure of quality that measures how many defects are associated with a single product or service unit.


DR (disaster recovery)

  1. The use of alternative network circuits to re-establish communications channels in the event that the primary channels are disconnected or malfunctioning.
  2. Methods and procedures for returning a data center to full operation after a catastrophic interruption (e.g., including recovery of lost data).


DR (distributed request)

A single read-only request to multiple data sources.


DRAM (dynamic random-access memory)

A computer memory chip that requires electronic refresh cycles to preserve data stored for manipulation by logic chips.


Drive (See Volume)


DRM (digital rights management)

Trusted exchange of digital information over the Internet whereby the user is granted only the privileges that the document sender allows.


DRM (distributed resource management)

An evolving discipline consisting of a set of software, hardware, network tools, procedures and policies for enabling distributed enterprise systems to operate effectively in production. DRM embraces solutions for the daily monitoring, resource planning, system administration, change management, operations, performance and other initiatives that are needed to maintain effective productivity in a distributed networked computing environment.


DRP (disaster recovery planning)

Planning to ensure the timely recovery of information technology assets and services following a catastrophe, such as fire, flood or hardware failure.


DRP (distribution requirements planning)

The process of assessing from which location products and services should be deployed, and determining the stock-keeping unit (SKU) and location-level replenishment plan.


drum, buffer, rope

A constraint-aware workflow control process in which the “drum” beat sets the pace of production based on the constraint’s capacity, the “buffer” provides a contingency, and the “rope” controls the flow of work.


DSL (digital subscriber line)

A technology for high-speed network or Internet access over voice lines. There are various types, including asymmetric DSL (ADSL), high-bit-rate DSL (HDSL), symmetric DSL (SDSL) and very-high-bit-rate DSL (VDSL). The whole group is sometimes referred to as “xDSL.”


DSL/cable-sharing residential/small-office gateway/router

This device can be wired or wireless. Similar to a residential gateway/router, this device does not have an integrated DSL modem. It is distinguished by its ability to work with different types of broadband distribution network, such as cable or DSL, and, therefore, has a port allowing for a connection with the output of an external modem (either DSL or cable).


DSM (distributed systems management)

A technology for managing the interconnected parts of a system. As managed items – i.e., components of applications, nodes, links or subsystems – become active, they must notify their manager of their status. DSM tools are capable of dealing with a limited number of distinct elements and require a strong directory.


DTH (direct to home)

TV and broadcasting industries that deliver by satellite services directly to consumer households enabled by individual reception systems (antenna/dish and satellite Integrated Receiver-Decoder (IRD)/receiver). DBS satellite providers deliver a form of direct-to-home service. See also DBS and IRD.



Mobile device that supports voice and data communications conforming to one bearer technology, such as GSM, but on two different sets of frequencies. For example, to support additional mobile network operators or to provide additional capacity and coverage, many European and Asia/Pacific countries/markets have licensed deployment of GSM networks on both 900MHz and 1,800MHz spectrum. A dual-band GSM phone enables the user to roam automatically across networks on either frequency. Most GSM phones sold in these countries are dual-band. A tri-band phone is required to roam among operators in Asia/Pacific, Europe and North America, because GSM has been deployed in 1,900MHz spectrum in North America. See also tri-band.


dual-band network

Cellular radio system that operates in two different frequency bands in which network elements conform to identical network architectures and radio interfaces.


dual mode

Mobile device that functions on two different bearer technologies, such as GSM and WCDMA, or 1x and WCDMA. Most 3G phones are dual-mode and tri- or quad- band to enable users to roam onto 2G networks when they are outside the 3G coverage area. See also tri-band.


dumb terminal

A terminal that does not performing local processing of entered information, but serves only as an input/output device for an attached or network-linked processor.



To transfer all information from a record to another storage medium, e.g., copying from memory to a printer.


duplex channel

Two-way radio communications channel.


DVB-H (digital video broadcasting – handheld)

Technology standard for systems that transmit digital multimedia data to mobile devices in the form of IP datagrams. It is a development from the Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (DVB-T) standard, which was intended mainly for portable and stationary reception using rooftop antennas.


DVB-RCS (digital video broadcasting – return channel via satellite)

Technical standard that defines a complete air interface specification for two-way satellite broadband very small aperture terminal (VSAT) systems. The technology is being used as part of a low-cost VSAT system to provide highly dynamic, demand-assigned transmission capacity to residential and commercial/institutional users. DVB-RCS enables the near-equivalent speeds of asymmetric digital subscriber line or cable Internet connections without the need for local terrestrial infrastructure. Depending on satellite link budgets and other system design parameters, DVB-RCS-based systems can dynamically provide up to 20 Mbps to each terminal on the downlink, and up to 5 Mbps or more from each terminal on the uplink. The standard is published by ETSI as EN 301 790. See DVB Project and VSAT.


DVB-SH (digital video broadcasting – satellite services to handheld)

Transmission system standard designed to deliver video, audio and data services to small handheld devices via satellite using S-band frequencies. DVB-SH aims to take advantage of the characteristics of higher frequency S-band, where there is less congestion than in an ultrahigh frequency spectrum. DVB-SH’s key feature: it is a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system enabling the use of a satellite to achieve coverage of large regions or a whole country. In areas where direct reception of the satellite signal is not possible, a terrestrial gap filler system, such as an ATC system, can be used to provide coverage. DVB-SH systems are designed to use frequencies below 3GHz, typically around 2.2GHz. DVB began work on the DVB-SH specifications in 2006. The system and waveform specifications have been published as ETSI standards TS 102 585 and EN 302 583. See also DVB Project, DVB-H, ETSI, and S-band.


DVB-T (digital video broadcasting – terrestrial)

Standard used in Europe and Asia to transmit and decode digital television signals. North America, parts of Latin America and South Korea have adopted the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standard. See also DVB-H.


DXC (digital cross-connect)

DXCs are used at major network nodes to cross-connect a number of inbound and outbound circuits. The cross-connecting of circuits is done when circuits are provisioned, but, typically, cross-connects are also used to implement various schemes for protection switching and network restoration. In the SDH market, the abbreviation “DXC” is used for digital cross-connects, whereas they are referred to as “DCSs” in the SONET world.


dye sublimation

An output device that prints one line at a time, using an electrically heated element to produce images. Instead of spraying jets of ink onto a page as inkjet printers do, dye sublimation printers apply a dye from a plastic film. This takes the form of a roll or a ribbon, similar to that used by thermal wax printers, usually containing consecutive panels of cyan, magenta, yellow and black dye.


dynamic adaptive routing

Automatic selection and use of alternative communications paths among two or more midrange systems of the same supplier in the event of a congested, faulty or downed circuit within the preferred data path.


dynamic application security testing and static application security testing

Web application and source code security vulnerability scanners are technologies identifying application or code conditions that are indicative of an exploitable vulnerability.


dynamic bandwidth allocation

The process of determining current traffic loads over a channel, and automatically increasing or decreasing the bandwidth of the channel to optimize overall utilization efficiency.


dynamic content

Web site content that is continually refreshed to provide new or updated information to attract new viewers and to keep prior viewers returning to the site.


dynamic database restructuring

The ability to change the relational-database structure, table capacities and security without unloading and reloading the database.


Dynamic Disk

Dynamic disk SDS, win2k


dynamic routing

A method of wide-area network transmission that uses a router to select the most appropriate path for each section of data packet transmission along a network.


dynamic Web application tools

The dynamic Web application tool market includes tools that support interpreted and dynamic languages, such as Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby and ECMAScript. These tools are focused primarily (although not exclusively) on combining traditional integrated development environment features with Web design features.





European equivalent of T1; a common carrier-provided point-to-point digital line service used in private data networks and cellular, Wi-Fi and fixed-network backhaul. An E1 delivers 2.048 Mbps capacity that can be split into multiple 64 Kbps channels, and is typically charged by distance. See also T1 and T3.


EA (enterprise architecture)



This attribute is used to implement the HPFS extended attribute under NTFS. It is only used for OS/2 compatibity.



This attribute is used to implement the HPFS extended attribute under NTFS. It is only used for OS/2 compatibity.


EAM (enterprise asset management)

Evolving from computer(ized) maintenance management system applications that encompass work and material management for fault repair, regular preventive maintenance and service, EAM systems have been a key tool in asset care, maintenance, repair and overhaul. EAM applications are not limited to manufacturing; they also apply to utilities, facilities, transportation and other activities in which equipment subject to wear, failure or repair is used. EAM is a part of a strategy to increase plant capacity, using IT in lieu of new construction in large, asset-intensive enterprises. It integrates key plant control systems and ERP with maintenance activities and functions to reduce downtime and minimize maintenance spending. In its most complete form, EAM equates to an ERP solution for a nonmanufacturing environment, such as a utility, mining, defense or transportation operation. EAM functionality includes, but is not limited to:

  • • Record assets (asset management)
  • • Capital construction
  • • Planned maintenance of assets
  • • Reactive work management
  • • Disposal of assets
  • • Maintenance, repair and operations materials management
  • • Resource scheduling (people)
  • • Analytics and BI
  • • Condition monitoring
  • • Mobile workforce support
  • • Reliability-centered maintenance


EAP (extensible authentication protocol)

Extensible framework and transport for other network access authentication protocols. The original dial-up Point-To-Point Protocol (PPP) provided only basic security by using Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP). EAP was added to support more-sophisticated authentication, particularly on wireless networks. See also Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP).


EAO (enterprise applications outsourcing)

EAO divides into four major domains: IT outsourcing (ITO), business process outsourcing (BPO), application service provider (ASP) and business service provider (BSP). Each domain reflects a different approach to outsourcing with respect to the degree of business responsibility transferred to the external services provider (ESP) and the autonomy of the enterprise in adjusting the application and business processes to its needs.


earth station

Collection of equipment installed on the earth’s surface that enables communications over one or more satellites. Earth stations consist of a reflector antenna (or parabolic dish), a feed system to send and receive the RF carrier, data handling equipment and mechanical tracking equipment to keep the satellite within the antenna’s data send/receive area. Earth stations are typically owned by the company receiving the data from the satellite network, thus must operate within certain specified parameters to maintain the network’s stability. Earth stations are part of a satellite network’s ground segment, which consists of all earth stations operating in a satellite system. These can be connected to the end user’s equipment directly or via a terrestrial network. See also antenna and satellite dish.


EBIS (enterprise business intelligence suite)

A suite that offers multiple styles of common business intelligence functionality, including ad hoc query, reporting, charting, multidimensional viewing (OLAP) and light analysis (e.g., trending).


e-cash (electronic cash)

Describes currency that can be loaded onto smart cards, PCs, remote servers or handheld devices and used to purchase goods and services. It is typically used for low-value purchases and enables anonymous purchasing. Such smart cards may be referred to as stored value cards.


e-commerce sell-side

B2B and B2C enterprise software applications offer manufacturers and retailers the ability to sell, service and market their products to customers through the Web and channel partners. Sell-side software solutions also enable enterprises to automate the Web sales process and customer experience, gain insight into customer behavior and preferences, improve visibility into channel activities and performance, and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.


ECM (enterprise content management)


e-coupon (electronic coupon)

Describes applications that enable an electronic version of a coupon to be sent to a consumer’s handheld device or mobile phone. Users can carry the e-coupon in their devices for use at an online store or a traditional business. The coupon may be presented on the device screen as a bar code that can be read by conventional bar-code readers.


e-CRM (electronic customer relationship management)

Integration of Web channels into the overall enterprise CRM strategy. E-CRM involves using the Web to support CRM with the goal of driving consistency within all channels relative to sales, customer service and support (CSS) and marketing initiatives. It can support a seamless customer experience and maximize customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and revenue.


EDA (event-driven architecture)

Event-driven architecture (EDA) is an architectural style in which a component (or multiple components) in a software system executes in response to receiving one or more event notifications. An event is anything that happens, and an event object is a record of that event.


EDGE (enhanced data rates for global evolution)

Part of the 3GPP set of standards and based on GSM and shared media packet data, EDGE uses a different and more efficient modulation scheme: the eight-phase shift key (8-PSK), rather than the Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulation scheme used over the radio interface by GSM and GPRS. This enhanced modulation technique opens up more bandwidth per radio carrier or cell. EDGE supports peak data rates of up to 384 kbps per cell, assuming that all eight time slots are used and that one time slot is not reserved for signaling. As with GPRS, bandwidth is shared by all concurrent users operating in the same cell. EDGE requires higher radio signal quality than that found in an average GSM network before higher data throughput speeds can be reached. EDGE also provides enhanced GRPS capabilities for data using 8-PSK, and when fully integrated with adaptive multirate (AMR), EDGE 2 also provides superior voice capacity to the GSM network.


edge routers and switches

Edge aggregation routers and switches reside in the service provider’s point of presence at the edge of the service provider’s core network, where they aggregate diverse metropolitan and customer-facing ports for transport across the long-haul IP/MPLS backbone. They have variable switching capacity, because they can handle thousands of channelized TDM interfaces to Digital Signal Level 0 (DS-0) circuits and support the delivery of multiple IP services. They handle broadband aggregation, leased-line aggregation, Ethernet services aggregation, convergence and aggregation of multiple traffic types, advanced IP services and VPNs. They support the following service provider router protocols: WFQ, BGP-4, IS-IS, WRED, access control lists, MPLS VPN and IPsec. They have subscriber management, bandwidth management, IP switching and VPN provisioning capabilities. In addition, they support IP/MPLS and Layer 3 traffic aggregation.



E-discovery is the identification, preservation, collection, preparation, review and production of electronically stored information associated with legal and government proceedings. The e-discovery market is not unified or simple – significant differences exist among vendors and service providers regarding technologies, specialized markets, overall functionality and service offerings. Content and records management, information access and search, and e-mail archiving and retention technologies provide key foundations to the e-discovery function. More and more enterprises are looking to insource at least part of the e-discovery function, especially records management, identification, preservation and collection of electronic files. E-discovery technology can be provided as a stand-alone application, embedded in other applications or services, or accessed as a hosted offering.


EDL (Enterprise Definition Language)

EDL defines classes, which are user-specified groupings of storage objects based on a combination of node, path, file name, ownership or other filters. Classes are used to collect, analyze and manage storage resources by application, owner, location, node or some other installation-defined criteria.



$EFS is the named $LOGGED_UTILITY_STREAM of any encrypted file.



EIS (executive information system)

An application program specifically designed for use by the corporate executive. Presentation of material is often structured after the “board briefing book” concept. Detailed information on the summarized charts is often made available by using a concept known as “drilling.” The EIS acts as a usable interface to a database of company information. It automates high-level analysis and reporting, and typically has a user-friendly graphical interface.


EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)

Originally developed as an alternative 32-bit master bus to IBM’s Micro Channel master bus for its PS/2 family of microcomputers. Unlike the Micro Channel, one of the design goals of the EISA bus was to enable the use of add-on cards developed for IBM’s PC and PC/AT computers.


EKA (enterprise knowledge architecture)

The table of contents, or “yellow pages,” for information bases accessible through the information services of the intranet, including e-mail and Lotus notes. It enables an end user to navigate to enterprise resources using a hyperlink to the specific Web page, narrowing the search before launching a search inquiry.



E-learning is the use of Internet technology for learning outside of the classroom. E-learning suites are software solutions that enable automation, administration and training over the Internet. E-learning suites are integrated product collections that comprise learning management systems (LMSs), virtual classrooms, courseware and learning content management systems (LCMSs). An LMS is software that automates the training process and function and includes registration and administration tools, skills and records management, courseware access, and programming interfaces to packaged applications. An LCMS is an integrated set of technology that manages all aspects of learning content. This includes authoring or acquisition, content history, auditing, replacement, and deletion. An LCMS generally works in conjunction with an LMS.


electronic signature

A traceable e-mail or a biometric applied to a message. The biometric may be based on digitized handwriting (handwriting that is converted by cryptography into a digital signature) or a biometric (e.g., a fingerprint that can be combined with a hash or digest of the message to show the signer’s intent). The electronic signature cannot be removed and applied to other documents to forge a signature.


e-mail and collaboration-centric UC approach

This approach grew out of e-mail and Web conferencing solutions. Vendors have added IM and presence products to their portfolios. Other functionality that is becoming increasingly part of these solutions includes audio conferencing, videoconferencing and converged communications clients. The initial versions of the IM and presence products were separate. However, a high degree of integration across the portfolios has been a focus of these solutions, as have integrated voice over IP (VoIP) capabilities, which are typically offered as a “voice chat” option on the IM text-chat product. As more functionality and integration is added, these solutions are shifting toward the UC portfolio approach. Examples of these solutions include the initial versions of IBM’s Lotus Notes, Sametime and Quickr, as well as Microsoft’s Exchange and Live Communications Server (LCS).


e-mail and calendaring

Products in the e-mail and calendaring software market range from workgroups to global enterprise-class platforms. They offer e-mail and calendaring and, increasingly, are components within a larger collaborative platform. These products may also include an integrated directory capability.


e-mail security boundary

These are e-mail security boundary solutions (software, appliance or managed services) that scan or block inbound e-mail at the SMTP gateway for viruses, spam and malicious code. Increasingly, these boundary solutions may also scan outbound e-mail for compliance with internal policies.


EMS (enhanced messaging service)

Standard that uses some features defined in the Short Message Service (SMS) specification to enhance the user experience when sending messages. A thin client is added to the mobile phone and by using standard SMS parameter fields, such as the user data header, binary-encoded and concatenated messages can be sent that display enriched content, such as italicized, emboldened or underlined text, predefined sounds, monophonic tunes and static or animated images.


EMU (electronic messaging utility)

A concept describing a solid base of interworking electronic messaging provided as a utility service like electricity. The EMU is sturdy enough to bear the anticipated increase in number and size of messages, sufficiently generalized to ensure readability of attachments and well-connected to the world beyond the boundary of the enterprise. The EMU provides open interfaces to make its services available to end users and applications.



To imitate one system with another, so that the imitating system accepts the same data, executes the same computer programs and achieves the same results as the imitated system.



The binding and the hiding of the underlying implementation of an object’s data and operations. The data is wrapped in a particular type of protocol header. The set of operations that is accessible is the object’s interface. See tunneling.



The process of systematically encoding a bit stream before transmission so that an unauthorized party cannot decipher it.


endpoint protection platform (consumer)

This category includes stand-alone suites of endpoint security products, including antivirus, anti-spyware, personal firewalls and host-based intrusion prevention systems (HIPSs). Desktop and subscription antivirus sold or rented to the small office/home office segment and consumers only are included in this subsegment.


endpoint protection platform (enterprise)

This category comprises centrally managed suites of endpoint security products, including antivirus, anti-spyware, personal firewalls and HIPSs. Endpoint protection platform suites are being extended with new capabilities, such as disk file encryption, network access control and data loss prevention, but for the time being we will not include revenue for these extended functionalities.


ENS (enterprise nervous system)

A term for the intelligent network that provides unifying connectivity among people, application systems and devices in different locations and business units across a virtual enterprise. The emerging ENS is based on the traditional enterprise network, but it is an evolution of that network, providing value-added functions that elevate the role of the network well beyond that of plain communication. Whereas a conventional network simply aims to transfer data between sending application systems and explicitly defined destinations, an ENS offloads work from the application systems because it:

  • • Offers enhanced quality-of-service for communication
  • • Transforms messages
  • • Redirects messages as appropriate, using logical business rules
  • • May track and control business processes


enterprise application outsourcing

Enterprise application outsourcing is a multiyear or annuity contract/relationship involving the purchase of ongoing application service for managing, enhancing and maintaining custom or packaged application software in the server/host or desktop platforms. Enterprise application outsourcing does not include applications services sold as discrete, project-based services or staff augmentation services. In addition to application management services, application outsourcing isolates the services specifically delivered in a longer-term contract in support of the life cycle of applications such as consulting/advisory services, AD, integration, deployment and support services. Help desk services are limited to user support for enterprise applications. Services may be provided at the client site or off-site. IT assets may be owned by the client, the ESP or a third party. Contracts may include the transfer of client employees, IT assets and facilities to the ESP.


enterprise applications

Software products designed to integrate computer systems that run all phases of an enterprise’s operations to facilitate cooperation and coordination of work across the enterprise. The intent is to integrate core business processes (e.g., sales, accounting, finance, human resources, inventory and manufacturing). The ideal enterprise system could control all major business processes in real time via a single software architecture on a client/server platform. Enterprise software is expanding its scope to link the enterprise with suppliers, business partners and customers.


enterprise application outsourcing

Enterprise application outsourcing is a multiyear or annuity contract/relationship involving the purchase of ongoing application service for managing, enhancing and maintaining custom or packaged application software in the server/host or desktop platforms. Enterprise application outsourcing does not include applications services sold as discrete, project-based services or staff augmentation services. In addition to application management services, application outsourcing isolates the services specifically delivered in a longer-term contract in support of the life cycle of applications such as consulting/advisory services, AD, integration, deployment and support services. Help desk services are limited to user support for enterprise applications. Services may be provided at the client site or off-site. IT assets may be owned by the client, the ESP or a third party. Contracts may include the transfer of client employees, IT assets and facilities to the ESP.


enterprise application software

Enterprise application software includes content, communication, and collaboration software; CRM software; digital and content creation software, ERP software; office suites; project and portfolio management; and SCM software. “Others” categories capture the functionality that is part of a broader offering but that does not fit easily into the following existing subcategories of software:

  • • Content, communication and collaboration – The content, communication and collaboration software market sector comprises software products, tools and hosted services to organize, access, use and share content. Content management and/or collaboration initiatives involve managing and interacting with a multitude of content types, including documents, records, images, forms and increasingly, digital media. Included in this market sector are enterprise content management, e-mail and calendaring, Web conferencing and shared workspaces/team collaboration, instant messaging, e-learning suites, information access with search, and enterprise content management systems. For the enterprise application software segment, content, communications and collaboration software does not include products targeted at specific business functions or processes, such as engineering design or customer service and support, in which some form of collaboration and knowledge management capability is included as part of the packaged application.
  • • CRM – The CRM software sector provides functionality to enterprises in three segments of CRM: sales (including sales force automation), marketing (including campaign management and lead management, and analytics), and customer service and support (including contact center technical support software and field service management software). CRM technologies should enable greater customer insight, increased customer access, more-effective customer interactions, and integration throughout all customer channels and back-office enterprise functions.
  • • Digital content creation (DCC) – DCC software is used for creating or altering visual digital content. The digital content can be computer-generated or transformed from analog means, such as photographs or videos. The main software segments include desktop publishing, graphic and digital imaging, document readers and viewers, digital video and audio editing, and DVD authoring. Not included in this market coverage are other DCC software segments, such as digital asset management, Web content management, and broadcast production technologies used in media, publishing and enterprise markets. Web application development tools are also not included in this category of software.
  • • ERP – ERP is an application strategy focused on several distinct enterprise application suite markets. ERP is typically referred to as a back-office application set, but ERP applications automate and support more than administrative processes and include the support of production and inventory processes, as well as asset management. ERP software category comprises four major business process support areas: manufacturing and operations, human capital management, financial management systems, and enterprise asset management.
  • • Office suites – Office suite software packages bundle office or business management applications that include word processing, spreadsheets, and presentation graphics. Other forms of office suites that are not included in this market definition are database tools, graphics suite, e-mail and calendaring, shared work space and team collaboration tools, and social software offerings that may have content authoring capabilities. Delivery options include licensed and hosted models.
  • • PPM – PPM applications include business processes with functions across multiple domains, such as planning and scheduling, tracking time and progress, program management, resource profiling and allocation, and portfolio analysis and prioritization.
  • • SCM – SCM is a business strategy to improve shareholder and customer value by optimizing the flow of products, services and related information from source to customer. SCM encompasses the processes of creating and fulfilling the market’s demand for goods and services. It is a set of business processes that encompasses a trading partner community engaged in a common goal of satisfying the end customer. Thus, a supply chain process can stretch from a supplier’s supplier to a customer’s customer. At a high level, SCM software is segmented into SCP, supply chain execution, service parts planning, and procurement (includes e-procurement, strategic sourcing, [buy-side] and catalog management) components.


enterprise architecture (EA)

Enterprise architecture (EA) is the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating and improving the key requirements, principles and models that describe the enterprise’s future state and enable its evolution.



A term referring to the ability of a given tool or product to handle complex processes or services.


enterprise computing hardware services

This segment includes server hardware services.

  • • Server hardware services – This category consists of various multiuser systems including supercomputers, mainframes, midrange systems, blades and other servers.


enterprise console

A key component of event-management systems, comprised of applications’ component maps, autodiscovery mechanisms, agents that send information to a manager and a correlation engine (at the agent level, the mid-level manager and the console level).


enterprise content management (ECM)

Enterprise content management (ECM) represents both a strategy to deal with all types of unstructured content and a set of software products for managing the entire content life cycle.


enterprise data services revenue

This segment refers to revenue from data services provided to enterprise customers. Services include:

  • Leased lines: Point-to-point dedicated circuits, typically based on TDM. Service includes access, local and long distance services. It also includes high-speed services based on Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM).
  • Legacy packet: Early generation packet-switched services such as X.25, Frame Relay and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) for WAN connectivity. They are combined in a single category due to declining usage by enterprises.
  • IP VPN: Packet-switched service using IP. It is a corporate-class service running on a dedicated IP backbone network reserved for business use, with quality of service controls backed by service level guarantees. It does not run on the Internet.
  • Ethernet: Revenue combines (but does not split out) Ethernet WAN and Ethernet access services. Ethernet WAN includes all Ethernet variants, but it primarily refers to dedicated/switched Ethernet (commonly referred to as Ethernet private line), and Ethernet over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), which includes virtual private LAN service (VPLS). Ethernet access is used as a high-speed access service for connecting to private corporate networks. Revenues include the monthly recurring charge as well as the initial installation and activation charges (Ethernet access bundled with Internet access are captured separately under the Enterprise Internet services revenues section as broadband access revenues).
  • DSL: Used as an access service for connecting private corporate networks. This service includes the major DSL variants: asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL); symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL); and very high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL). (DSL access bundled with Internet access is captured separately under the enterprise Internet services revenues section as broadband access revenues.) Revenues include the monthly recurring charge, rental cost of modem, if applicable, and the initial installation and activation charges.


enterprise grade

Products that integrate into an infrastructure with a minimum of complexity and offer transparent proxy support.


enterprise information archiving

Enterprise information archiving is the next step in the evolution of archiving that incorporates new products and solutions for archiving user data (e-mail, files on file shares, instant messages, Microsoft SharePoint documents), and, optionally, other content types such as structured data. These products provide features such as single-instance storage across content types, retention management, content indexing and at least basic tools for e-discovery, such as search and legal hold. Due to the complexity associated with managing multiple data types within an archive, enterprise information archiving may more broadly encompass capabilities like federated archive repository management, while delivering common policy management for migration, retention and discovery.


enterprise information management

An integrative discipline for structuring, describing and governing information assets, regardless of organizational and technological boundaries, enabling business insight.


enterprise Internet services revenue

This segment refers to revenue from Internet-related services provided by Internet service providers (ISPs) to enterprise customers. Services include:

  • Broadband access: Refers to revenue from dedicated and broadband access for accessing the Internet. The service is primarily based on xDSL and Ethernet. Revenues are based on the monthly subscription charge, as well as the initial installation and cost of modem rental, if applicable (revenues for the last-mile access are captured separately under enterprise data services revenues, depending on the access technology).
  • Web hosting: Hosting of content, data and Web-based applications within data centers. This revenue includes colocation, dedicated hosting and shared hosting.


enterprise network service provider

An entity (infra or non-infra based) that provides network services to enterprises, SMBs and governments. Managed services and some SI activities are usually included.


enterprise resource planning (ERP)


enterprise social software

Enterprise social software is typically used to enhance social networks, both within the enterprise and across key members of the enterprise’s supply and distribution chains. Implementers view social networks as an important method for enhancing communication, coordination and collaboration for business purposes.


enterprise solutions

Solutions designed to integrate multiple facets of a company’s business through the interchange of information from various business process areas and related databases. These solutions enable companies to retrieve and disseminate mission-critical data throughout the organization, providing managers with real-time operating information.


enterprise telephony

The provision of enterprise voice communications using equipment dedicated for use by a single company. This equipment may be premises-based or hosted in a central office or data center. Includes traditional PBX/key telephone system (KTS), IP-enabled PBX systems and pure IP-PBX technology, but excludes Centrex, IP Centrex and other technologies designed for multi-tenant solutions.


enterprise telephony equipment segmentation

The enterprise telephony market by the number of telephony lines that were shipped, installed and in use according to the following segmentation scheme.

Total Line Shipments:

  • • IP extension lines.
  • • TDM extension lines.
  • • Total Revenue:
  • • IP line revenue.
  • • TDM line revenue.


enterprise unified communications infrastructure

This domain encompasses server-based products and software that provide a central platform for communications for enterprises and other organizations. A key part of the UC proposition is the promise of a more consistent user experience across a wider range of communications channels and features. To achieve this, a critical task is to tightly integrate the server-based communications products and application functionality into a UC infrastructure. This domain is the key battlefield for infrastructure vendors with leadership aspirations in UC.

This domain emerges as a result of convergence in the established separate markets for telephony PBXs, e-mail and calendaring, voice mail, audioconferencing, Web conferencing and the more recent market for IM. It also encompasses some aspects of mobility applications, such as enterprise wireless e-mail software. In addition, we expect that new features and functions will emerge as important elements of an enterprise UC infrastructure portfolio. Examples include: rich presence server applications; multiparty videoconferencing functionality; and improved access to corporate communications features for mobile staff.


enterprise voice services revenue

Revenue from voice services provided to enterprise customers. Revenue comprises two main segments: calling revenue and connection revenue. These segments incorporate and combine public switched telephone network (PSTN) and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) revenues, but do not split the revenue for each of these types of service.

The PSTN includes traditional telephone lines, both analog and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). In the latter case, each channel in use is equivalent to one voice line. A VoIP telephone connection is delivered over a dedicated or broadband access (which can include Session Initiation Protocol [SIP] trunks), connecting to an IP network or the Internet. A virtual line must come with a telephone number assigned for terminating PSTN calls to an IP or SIP phone, a soft-phone (PC), or IP-enabled time division multiplexing (TDM) phone. Details of the revenue segments are as follows:

  • Connection Revenue: revenue associated with monthly recurring fees to connect to services. Included in this line are revenues from fixed monthly connection (or subscription) fees associated with providing a telephone line or connection, telephone number and related value-added services, such as calling line identification and voice mail. In most markets, the connection fee excludes calling charges, which are additional charges, based on usage volume. However, in some markets, the connection fee bundles unlimited calling or limited number of minutes. Under such circumstances, the connection revenue will be inflated, but the calling revenue will be smaller.
  • Calling Revenue: revenue associated with individually tariffed outbound calling made from either a PSTN or VoIP connection, including any supplemental flat rate plans. This will include national and international long distance services. In some markets there are metered calling charges for local calls.


entry-level smartphone

This smartphone is closer to an enhanced phone in specification and usage, but because it runs on an open OS it is classified as a smartphone. The device’s primary focus is on voice communication.


EOC (enterprise operations center)

The concept of managing multitechnology computing platforms. Not necessarily a centralized facility, but rather the organizational and process management of enterprise IT assets and operations.


EOS (electronic output strategy)

An enterprise’s integrated policies, procedures and infrastructure for printing and publishing electronically generated documents.


EOTD (enhanced observed time difference)

Measures the time differences of arrival of a signal from three base stations, and can be implemented without changing the network. Response time is approximately five seconds. See also LBS.


EP (enterprise portal)

Internet technologies that provide windows into enterprise information, applications and processes. EPs go by many names, including corporate portals, business portals and enterprise information portals. There are two types: horizontal enterprise portals (HEPs) and vertical enterprise portals (VEPs).


EPM (enterprise performance management)

The process of monitoring performance across the enterprise with the goal of improving business performance. An EPM system integrates and analyzes data from many sources, including, but not limited to, e-commerce systems, front-office and back-office applications, data warehouses and external data sources. Advanced EPM systems can support many performance methodologies such as the balanced scorecard.


e-purse (electronic purse)

Describes applications that enable value (for example, e-cash) to be loaded onto a smart card or handheld device that can be used to make purchases. A device or card can hold multiple e-purse applications designed for specific uses (for example, an e-purse on a student card or device could be restricted to purchases at a bookstore).



Unit of telecommunications traffic measurement giving the total volume of traffic during one hour. Cellular system capacity depends on the number of channels available for voice and data, the amount of traffic users generate and the grade of service offered to users. Telecommunication engineers use Erlang traffic formulas to understand traffic patterns and to design networks with sufficient capacity to avoid excessive blocked calls. Variations of the formulas are used for call center capacity planning. The unit is named after Danish telecommunications pioneer Agner Krarup Erlang, who first described the traffic volume formula in 1909.


ERP (enterprise resource planning)

ERP (enterprise resource planning) is defined as the ability to deliver an integrated suite of business applications. ERP tools share a common process and data model, covering broad and deep operational end-to-end processes, such as those found in finance, HR, distribution, manufacturing, service and the supply chain.


ESP (external services provider)

An enterprise that is a separate legal entity from the contracting company that provides services such as consulting, software development – including systems integration and application service providers (ASPs) – and outsourcing. ESPs supplement the skills and resources of an in-house IS department.



A baseband local-area network (LAN) originally developed by Xerox and supported by Intel, Digital Equipment (now Compaq Computer) and Hewlett-Packard. It has a bus topology with carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access control. Ethernet is not identical to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3. Related terms include:

  • • Ethernet address: 48-bit code for Layer 2 networking maintained by the IEEE and hardwired into network adapters; also called MAC address.
  • • Ethernet, thick: Ethernet coaxial cable suitable for networks that are medium/large or with widely spaced nodes.
  • • Ethernet, thin: Ethernet coaxial cable suitable only for small networks with closely connected nodes.


ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)

Nonprofit enterprise whose mission is to produce the telecommunications standards that will be used throughout Europe. Standards developed by ETSI may be adopted by the European Commission as the technical base for directives or regulations. ETSI’s main task is to remove all deviations from global standards and to focus on a defined, European-specific set of requirements. ETSI also ensures interoperability among standards, such as Integrated Services Digital Network, GSM and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).


event, fault and log management

Event management (as well as log management and fault management) tools are used to collect, report and help with diagnosis of problems (faults) identified in the environment. This segment also includes IT operations and administration “policy” software, which creates and manages lists of users (in cooperation with security and human resource management system products) and lists of the environment’s elements, determines appropriate access policies to those elements on a per-user or “role” basis, and audits adherence to those policies.

In cooperation with separate security products, event management/fault management products can recognize and trigger a response to breaches in security. Event management tools also collect statistics about events and usage, and they can perform historical trend analysis. System administrators can view analyzed data in near real time and use it to respond to conditions displayed, and to guide the reassigning of resources using separate configuration management (CM) tools.


e-wallet (electronic wallet)

Residing on a device or a server, this software application stores personal information (for example, passwords and shipping addresses), digital certificates and information for a variety of payment instruments (for example, credit cards or e-cash) used for e-commerce transactions. The information can be applied automatically to payment and other Web transactions.


expert system

A software system that can learn new procedures by analyzing the outcome of past events, or that contains a knowledge base of rules that can be applied to new data or circumstances not explicitly anticipated by the developer. Applications include network management, database management and data mining, computer vision and image processing, speech recognition, biometrics and software for complex evaluation in such fields as petroleum geology.\



This metadata directory contains the metadata files: $ObjId, $Quota, $Reparse.


extension line

A unique physical address in a telephone system used for internal stations (extensions) and ancillary services.


external social software

External social software is typically used to create community sites for customers, market influencers and crowd sourcing (as in collecting innovative ideas from the Web at large), as well as to measure overall market sentiments and trends.



A collaborative, Internet-based network that facilitates intercompany relationships by linking an enterprise with its suppliers, customers or other external business partners. Extranets use Internet-derived applications and technology to provide secured extensions of internal business processes to external business partners.




fast-packet switching

A generic term for improved packet-switching technologies such as frame relay and cell relay. Fast-packet techniques feature less functionality than traditional X.25 packet-switching for higher packet-switching speeds and lower processing costs.


fault detection and isolation

Online diagnostics that detect and isolate faults in real time, prevent contamination into other areas, and attempt to retry operations.


FCC (Federal Communications Commission)

The communications regulator in the United States of America (Federal Communications Commission).


FDD (frequency division duplex)

Radio modulation scheme that defines separate uplink and downlink frequencies, enabling users to transmit and receive simultaneously.


FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for 100 megabits per second (Mbps) fiber-optic local-area networks (LANs). Incorporates token processing and supports circuit-switched voice and packetized data.


feature smartphone

This smartphone is optimized in its specification and features to support one or more primary functions like music, video, gaming, pictures, browsing, mobile TV, navigation and messaging. Compared to entry-level smartphones, these devices usually have larger displays, more powerful processors, more embedded memory and better battery capacity. These devices can have a touchscreen to help the manipulation and consumption of content and data input. They can include an enhanced or full qwerty keyboard to support rich messaging. Examples include: Motorola Z8 and Z10, Motorola Q; Nokia 6110, 6210 Navigator, N95 8GB, N96, N77, N90, N91, N93i, N81 8GB, N86, N97, E51, E65, E90, E61i, E70 E71; Samsung SGH-i450, i550, i600, i620, i780, Omnia i900; Sony Ericsson W950, W960 and Xperia X1; Apple iPhone; Research In Motion (RIM) BlackBerry Pearl 81xx, Curve 83xx, 88xx, 87xx and 8900, Bold 9000 and Storm; HTC Touch Diamond, S7xx, S6xx, TyTN II; Palm Centro, Treo 500v, Treo 7xx, Treo 6xx and Pre; LG KT610. See also entry-level smartphone and smartphone.



Contactless NFC integrated circuit card technology developed by Sony that enables users to read and write data by placing the card in close proximity to a card reader. The technology has been adopted widely in Japan and elsewhere in the Asia/Pacific region for train ticket payment and generic e-commerce. Mobile handsets with an embedded FeliCa card are common in Japan; these are called “Osaifu Keitai” (literally “wallet mobile phone”). See also Osaifu Keitai.



Smaller than picocells, these cellular base stations are designed for use in residential or corporate environments that connect to the customer’s broadband connection using an IP link. Advantages include lower cost than microcellular technology, physically smaller units and greater network efficiency. See also picocell.


FHMA (frequency-hopping multiple access)

Spread-spectrum transmission technology that enables simultaneous data or voice communications to share the same communication medium by causing transmitting and receiving stations to change the frequency rapidly in a pseudorandom sequence among many discrete radio channels. Transceivers are synchronized using a hopping sequence calculated from a predefined algorithm. This sequence can be adjusted dynamically to avoid other transmissions and interference in the same frequency band.


fiber optics

A high-bandwidth transmission technology that uses light to carry digital information. One fiber telephone cable carries hundreds of thousands of voice circuits. These cables, or light guides, replace conventional coaxial cables and wire pairs. Fiber transmission facilities occupy far less physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity, which is a major advantage in crowded ducts. Optical fiber is also immune to electrical interference.


field service management software

These applications are designed within a CRM environment that enable field service technicians or dispatchers to diagnose problems categorically, identify the required parts and information, and dispatch them to the client or site. The system identifies the proper tools or materials required for the specific problem and their current location. It includes field service workforce schedule optimization, support for wireless mobile technicians and intelligent device management of equipment. Field service management ties into an overall service resource planning system that includes contract management, warranty, claims, parts management, depot repair, enterprise asset management (EAM) and product life cycle management (PLM) systems.



In the NTFS terminology, a file can be a normal file, directory (like in Linux) or a system file.



This attribute represents the file’s name. A file can have one or more names, which can be in any directory. This is the NTFS equivalent to Unix’s hard links.


Filename Namespace

Not all characters are valid in DOS filenames. For compatibity NTFS stores which namespace the name belongs to.


File Permissions

NTFS supports the standard set of DOS file permissions, namely Archive, System, Hidden and Read Only. In addition, NTFS supports Compressed and Encrypted.

See also: $SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR and Compression


FILE Record

The $MFT is made up of FILE records, so named because of a magic number of FILE. Each record has a standard header and a list of attributes. If the attributes don’t fit into a single record, then more records will be used and a $ATTRIBUTE_LIST attribute will be needed.

See also: Attribute, Attribute List, Magic Number and $MFT.


File Record Segment (FRS)

FRS = MFT File Record


File Reference

Each file record has a unique number identifying it. The first 48 bits are a sequentially allocated number which is the offset in the $MFT. The last 16 bits are a sequence number. Every time the record is altered this number is incremented. The sequence number can help detect errors on the volume.

See also: File Record, $MFT and Volume.


File Runs (See Data Runs)


file server

A computer containing files available to all users connected to a local-area network (LAN). In some LANs, a microcomputer is designated as the file server, while in others it is a computer with a large disk drive and specialized software. Some file servers also offer other resources such as gateways and protocol conversion.


File Size

There are three file sizes that NTFS records. Each of them stores the number of bytes

  • R) Real. The number of bytes of data.
  • A) Allocated. The size taken up on disk.
  • I) Initialised. Size of compressed file.

If the file is compressed, the Initialised Size may be smaller than the Real Size.



The physical structure an operating system uses to store and organize files on a storage unit. A commonly used filesystem is FAT (used by DOS).


financial analytical applications

A subset of business intelligence with a specific emphasis on financial process, including, but not limited to, budgeting, forecasting, expense allocation and cost/revenue analysis.


financial footprint

The amount of money paid, monthly or yearly, to a vendor to support a particular system or application. Because most hardware and software is easily upgradable, financial-footprint management involves managing a stream of recurring payments instead of physical assets.


finished branded product

A completed equipment or device, labeled by a manufacturer that is available for sale to customers. The product can either be new or remanufactured.


finite loading

Conceptually, the term means putting no more work into a factory than the factory can be expected to execute. The term usually refers to a computer technique that involves automatic shop priority revision to level load operation by operation.



An application or an entire computer (e.g., an Internet gateway server) that controls access to the network and monitors the flow of network traffic. A firewall can screen and keep out unwanted network traffic and ward off outside intrusion into a private network. This is particularly important when a local network connects to the Internet. Firewalls have become critical applications as use of the Internet has increased.


first generation (1G or analog)

Wireless networks based on analog frequency division multiple access technologies. Many systems were individually tailored, country-specific solutions, including technologies such as AMPS, Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) and total access communications system (TACS). Although these were the first generation of mobile telephony, they are never referred to as “1G.”


fixed-line carrier

An entity that owns/operates a fixed-line network infrastructure (including fixed wireless).


fixed wireless

Client devices are located at a stationary location and usually require a fixed (main) power supply and an antenna external to the client work platform. The terms “nomadic,” “portable” and “mobile” often vary in definition when used by vendors. See also mobile wireless and semi-mobile wireless.


Fixup (See Update Sequence)


flexible media and conferencing switching

Flexible media and conferencing switching can be used by employees with intensive collaboration requirements. Flexible media and conferencing integrates with contextual presence lists, and communication between various teams and customers can be achieved via IM, audio conferencing, Web conferencing or e-mail.



All activities being undertaken within the lean enterprise at an even rate without delays, interruptions or other batching.


FM (facilities management)

  1. Entering into an agreement with a service supplier to manage internal company facilities such as telecommunications or data-processing services. Facilities management does not involve the transfer of ownership of facilities to the service provider.
  2. For government enterprises, FM is the most prevalent type of contractual relationship where the vendor assumes responsibility for one or more information technology (IT) functions. Unlike outsourcing, it refers to the vendor operating and managing the assets (usually hardware and software), but not taking ownership. In a government-owned, contractor-operated deal, the government owns the equipment and operating systems, and the contractor operates the equipment with its personnel. Usually, the equipment is maintained in a government facility, but it can reside in a vendor-owned facility. In a government-owned, government-operated arrangement, the government owns the equipment and manages the operation using contractor personnel.


FM (frequency modulation)

One of three ways of modifying a sine wave signal to make it carry information. The sine wave or “carrier” has its frequency modified in accordance with the information to be transmitted. The frequency function of the modulated wave can be continuous or discontinuous.


FMC (fixed-mobile convergence)

Device and infrastructure technology trend that enables the transparent use of voice and data applications across fixed and mobile access points. See also fixed-mobile substitution (FMS).


FMEA (failure modes effects analysis)

Failure modes effects analysis; a technique used in product life cycle management activities to predict how a product or process might fail and what the effects of that failure might be.


FMS (financial management systems)

Financial management system (FMS) applications provide visibility into an enterprise’s financial position through automation and process support for any activity that has a financial impact, and they provide financial reporting data as needed by local and international regulations. These applications include, but are not limited to:

  • • Core financial applications
  • • General ledger
  • • Accounts payable
  • • Accounts receivable
  • • Fixed assets
  • • Extended financial applications
  • • Project accounting
  • • Treasury and cash management
  • • Financial reporting and analytics
  • • CPM
  • • Budgeting, planning and forecasting
  • • Financial consolidation
  • • Financial, statutory and management reporting
  • • Dashboards/scorecards
  • • Profitability modeling and optimization
  • • Other FMSs
  • • Tax management


FMS (flexible manufacturing system)

Flexible manufacturing system; a process that is highly adaptable and can produce different products with minimal changeover times or reconfiguration.


FOMA (Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access)

NTT DoCoMo’s WCDMA cellular service, launched in October 2001, was only the second deployment of its kind in the world – the first being the network of Manx Telecom on the Isle of Man.


Fork (See Resource Fork)


FP (function point)

Function points measure the size of an application system based on the functional view of the system. The size is determined by counting the number of inputs, outputs, queries, internal files and external files in the system and adjusting that total for the functional complexity of the system. Function point analysis, originally developed at IBM, has as an advantage its focus on measuring software produced in terms of functionality delivered to the end user, rather than in terms of development deliverables, which have no direct bearing on the end user.


FPD (flat panel display)

A core component for notebooks, liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel displays are broadening their applications on the commercial desktops. There are five key FPD technologies available: LCD, gas plasma, electroluminescent (EL) display, field emission display and digital micromirror devices. The most mature is LCD, which includes active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) and passive-matrix liquid crystal display (PMLCD).


FPY (First Pass Yield)

A measure of quality in a process that reflects the percentage of product made correctly without any rework or corrective activity.


FR (frame relay)

An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard (T1S1) for an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) packet-mode bearer service that defines a user-to-network interface. The two main benefits are bandwidth on demand and integrated access. The standard currently addresses data communications speeds up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps) over permanent virtual circuits. Frame relay transmits data packets at high speeds across a digital network encapsulated in a transmission unit called a frame. It requires a dedicated connection during the transmission period. It is used on wide area networks (WANS) and also in private network environments with leased lines over T-1 lines. Frame relay is faster than traditional networks, because it was designed for today’s reliable circuits and performs less rigorous error detection. When circuits are less reliable, a great deal of network traffic is dedicated solely to correcting errors.


(un)f file


FRS (See File Record Segment)



A style guide that defines the look, feel and interoperability of software applications.



A control procedure used with multiplexed digital channels, whereby bits are inserted so the receiver can identify the time slots allocated to each channel. Framing bits can also carry alarm signals indicating specific alarm conditions.



An expression of how frequently a periodic wave form or signal repeats itself at a given amplitude. It can be expressed in hertz (Hz), kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), etc.


frequency band

The range of frequencies defined and dedicated to a particular type of service or radio technology; a frequency band is usually divided into a number of channels.


frequency reuse

Technique for using a specified range of frequencies more than once in the same radio system so that the total capacity of the system is increased without increasing its allocated bandwidth. Frequency reuse schemes require sufficient isolation among the signals that use the same frequencies so that mutual interference among them is controlled at an acceptable level. For satellites, frequency reuse can be achieved by using orthogonal polarization states for transmission and/or by using satellite antenna (spot) beams that serve separate, non-overlapping geographic regions. See also spot beam.



Software that runs on a client workstation to provide better end-user interfaces for application programs running elsewhere.



This is a utility to check and repair filesystems. Its name is an abbreviation of filesystem check.


FSS (fixed-service satellite)

Any satellite communication service among earth stations located at fixed geographic positions. Generally, the type of fixed satellite services provided by FSS operators include telephone calls, TV signals for broadcasting of programming content and Internet/data transmissions. FSS-based services typically operate from a completely different set of satellites from those for mobile, satellite-based services, such as satellite phones or mobile broadband. See also MSS.


FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) standard used to log onto a network, list directories and copy files. That is, it provides authentication of the user and lets users transfer files, list directories, delete and rename files on the foreign host, and perform wild-card transfers.


FTTH (fiber to the home)

FTTH includes fiber-optic access solutions designed for residential deployments. In FTTH networks, fibers are directly connected to individual homes or multitenant buildings. FTTH includes various flavors of both PONs and PTP Ethernet-based solutions. Fiber-to-the-node (FTTN) solutions where fibers are not installed all the way to the residential premises are not included in the FTTH segment. FTTN solutions are instead tracked according to the technology used in the last mile (typically VDSL). With FTTH solutions, the “in-house” connectivity may be based on fiber, coaxial cable, copper or wireless technologies. FTTH covers only the electronics associated with the FTTH rollouts; it excludes associated cabling and civil works.


FTTN (fiber to the node)


FTTP (fiber to the premises)

The term residential fiber to the premises (FTTP) refers to equipment used in fiber access deployments where fibers extend all the way to the end-user premises and the equipment is designed and optimized for use in residential applications. Equipment designed and optimized for fiber-to-the-business applications is not included – such equipment is included in the optical transport segment.

FTTP is further divided into point-to-point (PTP) FTTP and point-to-multipoint FTTP. PTP FTTP technologies are more expensive to deploy because of a higher fiber count, but have the advantage of offering a dedicated fiber to each end-user location, which makes it possible to share PTP infrastructure between different carriers. Very often, a PTP FTTP deployment has optical Ethernet switches both at the CO and the customer premises.

Point-to-multipoint FTTP technology is commonly referred to as passive optical network (PON) technology. There are various types, including broadband PON (BPON), gigabit PON (GPON) and Ethernet PON (EPON). GPON is the most popular for large carriers, although there are significant EPON deployments in Asia/Pacific and Japan. The different types of PON are collectively called xPON.

FTTP, FTTH, fiber to the x (FTTx) and other similar terms are often used interchangeably in literature on this topic.


fuel cell

Technology for low-cost miniature battery power supplies. As with batteries, fuel cells generate electricity through a chemical reaction. However, fuel cells are recharged by refilling or replacing the chemicals (examples include hydrogen, methyl alcohol or aluminum mixed with oxygen from the air) instead of plugging a charger into a wall socket. Fuel cells deliver energy density many times that of lithium and can power sophisticated devices longer. Choosing a stable fuel source that is safe and readily available and decreasing the size for smaller devices while maintaining efficiency remain challenges.


fuzzy logic

This reasoning paradigm deals with approximate or imprecise information by enabling variables to be described (often linguistically) and acted upon in terms of their degree of membership in predetermined sets. Control systems in electronic equipment and consumer products and other embedded control systems are among the most popular applications.



gain sharing

Describes a contract that defines the vendor’s contribution to the customer in terms of specific benefits to the customer’s business. Such a contract also defines the payment the customer will make according to the vendor’s performance in delivering those business benefits. Gain-sharing contracts require the development of a delivery paradigm that links a customer’s business metrics to a vendor’s IT solution. The key elements of this paradigm, in order, are:

  1. Business metric definition and selection
  2. Client metric benchmarking
  3. Development of key performance indicators
  4. Investment options evaluation
  5. Gain-sharing contract development
  6. Financial engineering
  7. Delivery of services
  8. Re-evaluation and adjustment of metrics



A planned Global Positioning Satellite System (GPSS) of 30 low-earth orbit satellites backed by the European Union and the European Space Agency and originally due for commercial operation in 2008. Galileo was delayed by funding problems, because private enterprise had showed little interest. The European Parliament agreed with the Council of Europe in November 2007 to finance the deployment entirely from European Union funds, and after a validation phase due for completion in 2010, the service is now scheduled to go into operation in 2013. Galileo will complement the U.S. Government’s GPS system, which ran into problems with development delays for replacement satellites. The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) has been guaranteed funding through 2009 and is being expanded to provide worldwide coverage with the launch of additional satellites during 2009.


GAN (generic access network)

Previously known as unlicensed mobile access (UMA), this is a network architecture designed to support seamless connectivity between wide-area cellular networks, such as GSM/GPRS, and LAN technologies, such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth – it is an example of fixed-mobile convergence. See also FMC.



  1. A computer that sits between different networks or applications. The gateway converts information, data or other communications from one protocol or format to another. A router may perform some of the functions of a gateway. An Internet gateway can transfer communications between an enterprise network and the Internet. Because enterprises often use protocols on their local-area networks (LANs) that differ from those of the Internet, a gateway will often act as a protocol converter so that users can send and receive communications over the Internet.
  2. A product or feature that uses proprietary techniques to link heterogeneous systems.


gateway server

A server designed to transform data streams to better match device capabilities. For example, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) gateway servers convert HTML to Wireless Markup Language (WML) for wireless devices, and a number of products can reformat HTML for devices such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Today, HTML-based servers predominate. While HTML can be made aware of a unique device requesting content, more often “shadow” Web server applications are created to draw off and reformat the native content.


gateway (transcoding) server

Server designed to transform data streams to better match device capabilities. For example, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) gateway servers convert HTML to Wireless Markup Language (WML) for wireless devices, and a number of products can reformat HTML for devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. Today, HTML-based servers predominate. HTML can be made aware of a unique device requesting content; however, more often, “shadow” Web server applications are created to draw off and reformat native content.

GB (See Units)



Japanese term for “actual place” but frequently used as “the shop floor” in the lean paradigm.


gemba walk

See Waste Walk.

GEO (geosynchronous orbit)

Orbital plane that is geosynchronous with the earth’s equatorial plane (that is, zero inclination), also known as the Clarke Belt, named after Arthur C. Clarke. It is also an object orbiting the earth at the earth’s rotational speed and with the same direction of rotation.



Creating a virtual boundary in which a device, individual or asset can be tracked and monitored or detected if the boundary is violated. Examples are the tracking of pets, children and Alzheimer’s patients, criminals sentenced to home detention, trucks and high-value cargos.


geostationary satellite

Satellite that appears to be located at a fixed point in space when viewed from the earth’s surface. Satellites located in geosynchronous orbit move in time with the rotation of the earth. Geostationary satellites are located 22,237 miles above the earth’s surface. Most VSATs and DBS satellites are placed in geosynchronous orbits (GEOs). See also DBS and VSAT.


gesture recognition

Camera-based application that identifies and interprets user motions.


GGSN (gateway GPRS support node)

Provides a gateway between the GPRS mobile network and packet-based public data networks, such as the Internet. It also screens and maps addresses while supporting a number of serving GPRS support nodes (SGSNs).


global delivery model

A global delivery model is defined as “the optimum combination of processes, end-to-end methodologies and quality procedures, with high-quality skills and resources available internally or externally, in requisite quantities, on a global basis, that enables organizations to maximize the quality of their solutions while minimizing the overall cost and delivery time of their IT services.”


GPO (group purchasing organization)

An organization that provides collective buying service negotiations for its aggregate members with distributors and manufacturers of medical supplies.


GPS (global positioning system)

Describes a technology as well as an existing satellite system for assessing the location of any compatible receiver unit, using satellites to provide 24-hour positioning information regardless of the weather. GPS works on the principle of triangulation; by knowing its distance from three or more satellites, the receiver can calculate its position. The term most commonly refers to the satellite constellation provided by the U.S. government for military and widespread civilian use. This system will be complemented and possibly superseded by the Galileo System of 30 satellites, backed by the European Union and the European Space Agency, which is due for commercial operation in 2013. Russia operates an equivalent GPS known as GLONASS. See also LBS.



The ability to increase a system’s capacity and performance through incremental processor expansion.


gray market

Describes the import and sale of mobile devices outside regular commercial channels as defined by the original manufacturer or the relevant government, creating a parallel market to authorized distribution channels.


gray scale

A range of gray tones used to create a monochrome image.


green belt

Designation in Six Sigma of a practitioner who has achieved the basic understanding of Six Sigma techniques and is qualified to lead Six Sigma process improvement projects.


gross new connections

Total number of new connections to a network in a given year.


ground segment

All earth stations and network operation centers on the ground that comprise a particular satellite communications system or network. The ground segment can be connected to an end user’s equipment directly or over a terrestrial network.



Software that supports interpersonal processes and the objects with which people commonly work. Groupware was originally coined to describe a new class of applications designed to provide electronic support for groups of individuals working together toward a common goal. The term has been applied to applications ranging from unstructured electronic mail to rigorously structured workflow systems. Groupware is more useful as a concept when it is broken down into three major stages: communication, coordination and cooperation. In this light, groupware applications can be viewed in terms of the degree of structure in the group interaction and in the complexity of that structure, and the rigor with which the activity itself is monitored.


GRX (GPRS roaming eXchange)

Standard defined by the GSM association that enables customers to access GPRS data services while roaming away from their home network.


G.SHDSL (global standard high-bit-rate DSL)

Global standard high-bit-rate DSL (G.SHDSL) offers data rates of up to 2.31 Mbps over a single copper pair and up to 4.6 Mbps over two pairs.


GSM (global system for mobile communications)

Digital cellular phone system standard that originated in Europe and extends to 860 networks in 220 countries and territories. GSM uses a TDMA radio propagation scheme. In Europe and Asia/Pacific, GSM has been deployed at 900MHz and 1,800MHz, with 1,900MHz most common in North America (see also GSM900, GSM1800 and GSM 1900). Multi-frequency handsets are available that support international roaming among these standards.



GSM system operating in the 900MHz frequency band. In many GSM900 countries, GSM1800 also has been deployed to support additional operators or additional capacity. Therefore, most handsets in these countries are dual-band.



GSM system operating in the 1,800MHz frequency band. The standard previously was referred to as DCS 1800.



GSM system operating in the 1,900MHz frequency band. This variant of GSM technology is deployed widely in North America. GSM 800, a GSM variant for 800MHz frequencies, has been deployed, but not widely.


GSM anywhere

An initiative, supported by ETSI, to provide GSM network functionality using frequencies outside the 900MHz, 1,800MHz and 1,900MHz allocations. An example is the reuse of analog cellular phone frequencies in the 450MHz band in Scandinavian countries.


guard interval

Specified period of time used to separate transmissions so that they do not interfere with each other. In IEEE 802.11n, the guard interval has been reduced from 800 ns to 400 ns to boost the throughput. Also used in TDMA transmissions. See also 802.11n and TDMA.


GUI (graphical user interface)

A graphics-based operating system interface that uses icons, menus and a mouse (to click on the icon or pull down the menus) to manage interaction with the system. Developed by Xerox, the GUI was popularized by the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s. At the time, Microsoft’s operating system, MS-DOS, required the user to type specific commands, but the company’s GUI, Microsoft Windows, is now the dominant user interface for personal computers (PCs).

A comprehensive GUI environment includes four components: a graphics library, a user interface toolkit, a user interface style guide and consistent applications. The graphics library provides a high-level graphics programming interface. The user interface toolkit, built on top of the graphics library, provides application programs with mechanisms for creating and managing the dialog elements of the windows, icons, menus, pointers and scroll bars (WIMPS) interface.

The user interface style guide specifies how applications should employ the dialog elements to present a consistent, easy-to-use environment (i.e., “look and feel”) to the user. Application program conformance with a single user interface style is the primary determinant of ease of learning and use, and thus, of application effectiveness and user productivity.


GUID (See Units)



Globally Unique Identifier (GUID)

GUID structures store globally unique identifiers (GUID). A GUID is a 128-bit value consisting of one group of eight hexadecimal digits, followed by three groups of four hexadecimal digits each, followed by one group of

twelve hexadecimal digits. GUIDs are Microsoft’s implementation of the distributed computing environment (DCE) universally unique identifier (UUID).

Example of a GUID:


order stored on disk?


0x00  04030201

0x04  0605

0x06  0807

0x08  090A0B0C0D0E0F010






Process of transferring a mobile telephone call from one cell to another without dropping the call. Cellular users may traverse several cells during a conversation, sometimes requiring a high-speed handoff in a moving vehicle. A soft handoff entails establishing a second radio link with the mobile device before the first link is severed.



The use of tactile interfaces (for example, vibration or pressure) to provide touch or force feedback as part of the user interface.


hardware and software maintenance services

Maintenance services include both hardware maintenance and support services, and network software maintenance and support services.

Hardware maintenance and support services are preventive and remedial services that physically repair or optimize hardware, including contract maintenance and per-incident repair. Hardware support also includes online and telephone technical troubleshooting and assistance for setup, and all fee-based hardware warranty upgrades.

Sales of all parts are also included, exclusive of parts bundled with maintenance contracts. This segment includes only external customer spending on these services.

Software maintenance and support services include long-term and pay-as-you-go (incident-based) support contracts. Software support contracts include remote troubleshooting and support provided via the telephone and online channels, as well as installation assistance and basic usability assistance. In some cases, software support services may include new product installation services, installation of product updates, migrations for major releases of software and other types of proactive or reactive on-site services. Software products and technologies covered under this category include operating systems and infrastructure software. Software support services do not include the purchase of subscriptions that provide entitlement and rights to use future minor versions (point releases) or future major releases of software.


hardware maintenance and support services

These are preventive and remedial services that physically repair or optimize hardware, including basic installation, contract maintenance and per-incident repair – both on-site and at a centralized repair depot. Hardware support also includes telephone technical troubleshooting and assistance for setup and all fee-based hardware warranty upgrades. Exclusive of parts bundled into maintenance contracts, sales of all parts used to repair high-tech equipment in carry-in, mail-in or per-incident on-site delivery models, or purchased by the internal staff to perform the repair, are included.

The segments covered in the hardware maintenance and support services are defined in the following sections. This segmentation maps to a high-level segmentation for computing and telecom hardware products.


HCM (human capital management)

Human capital management (HCM) is a set of practices related to people resource management. These practices are focused on the organizational need to provide specific competencies and are implemented in three categories: workforce acquisition, workforce management and workforce optimization. The applications that help to enable human capital management include:

  • • Core administrative support
  • • Personnel administration
  • • Benefits administration
  • • Payroll
  • • Portal/employee self-service
  • • Service center
  • • Strategic HCM support
  • • Workforce planning
  • • Competency management
  • • Performance management
  • • Compensation planning and strategy
  • • Time and expense management
  • • Learning (education and training)
  • • Recruitment (hiring and recruitment)
  • • Onboarding
  • • Contingent workforce management
  • • Organization visualization
  • • Other HCM
  • • Reporting and analytics (workforce analytics)
  • • Workflow


HCPCS (Healthcare Procedural Classification System)

One of the standard code formats and definitions included in the Uniform Billing Codes.


HDML (handheld device markup language)

Device- and network-independent language developed by Openwave for Web programming on a handheld device with limited memory and display, such as a cellular phone.


HEDIS (Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set)

A set of standardized performance measures designed to provide purchasers and consumers with the information they need to reliably compare healthcare organizations’ performance. HEDIS 99 contains measures that cover prevention, acute and chronic care – including mental health and chemical dependency – across a full range of care settings (physician office, clinics and hospital outpatient care, inpatient acute and nonacute care, and behavioral health).



Production approach that focuses on producing flow, smoothness within an operation.


help desk

The first point of contact for all technical and end-user support issues, it includes Tier 1 and Tier 2 support levels. Tier 1 is the first point of contact. Tier 2 help desk analysts have more in-depth technical knowledge or specialized expertise.


help desk management

These services provide centralized information and support management service to handle a company’s internal or external queries and operational problems about IT-related processes, policies, systems and usage. Services include product support capabilities, including elements of hardware and software support, logging of problems, and results analysis (results analysis means analyzing the results of calls taken to resolution of those calls for entry into self-help database, problem trends to suggest permanent fixes and so forth); dispatch of service technicians or parts; training coordination; and other IT-related issues.


Hex, Hexadecimal

Maths carried out in base sixteen. In this documentation, many numbers represented in hex, e.g. 0x02E0, 0xF100.

See also: Binary, Decimal and Units.


HFS (See Hierarchical File System)


HI (healthcare infomediary)

An entity that captures healthcare usage data, which then can be used to profile consumer purchasing and usage patterns. Once it creates a consumer profile, a HI can act as an agent that connects the consumer to healthcare entities that offer services aligned with the consumer’s lifestyle.


HIAA (Health Insurance Association of America)

hierarchical database

A database that is organized in a tree structure in which each record has one owner. Navigation to individual records takes place through predetermined access paths.


Hierarchical File System (HFS)

The MacOS filesystem.


hierarchical storage management and archive software

Hierarchical storage management products operate on defined storage policies that provide for the automatic migration of files to secondary storage. Archiving products provide for the storing of a point-in-time version of a file for historical reference. Active archiving products provide special technology for searching and viewing archived data. Included are e-mail, database, file, IM, BlackBerry and SharePoint archiving products.


High Performance File System (HPFS)

The OS/2 filesystem. Remember: once upon a time, OS/2 had to be the operating system developed by both IBM and Microsoft. There was a break between the 2 giants. IBM continued to develop OS/2 (it became OS/2 Warp), and that explains why OS/2 knows how to execute Windows applications. Microsoft decided to make its own operating system: Windows NT. HPFS design influenced NTFS design, so the 2 filesystems share many features.


highlight color

A two-color printing scheme found in some transactional documents, such as bills and statements. Black is the first color. The second color is used for emphasis or to highlight important information, such as the due date. The second color can also be used to match the corporate color scheme, in which the company name, logo or other elements are printed. Highlight color devices are classified as “monochrome” in the market data and forecast estimates it publishes.


high performance workplace

A physical or virtual environment designed to make workers as effective as possible in supporting business goals and providing value. A high-performance workplace results from continually balancing investment in people, process, physical environment and technology, to measurably enhance the ability of workers to learn, discover, innovate, team and lead, and to achieve efficiency and financial benefit.


HIMSS (Health Information and Management Systems Society)

An industry association that offers a variety of publications, educational programs and services related to healthcare information systems. Its members contribute to the development of such technologies as telemedicine, computer-based patient records, community health information networks and portable/wireless healthcare computing.


HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)

HIPAA, which became effective in August 1997, calls for electronic data interchange (EDI) use in medical transactions and also calls for protecting patient healthcare information. Enterprises face fines of up to $250,000 and 10 years imprisonment for wrongfully disclosing patient information.


HIS (hospital information system or healthcare information system)

The IT applications used to manage hospital operations (e.g., patient financials, registration, scheduling, general financials, back-office systems and order communications).

Database in a wireless network containing customer data, including service entitlements and call-routing information. In combination with the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), it provides the network mechanism for the cell-to-cell handover of calls and for local and international roaming.



A system of planning that focuses resources on attainment of both strategic and tactical objectives. Also known as “policy development” or hoshin kanri.


hot spot

Area, often public, such as an airport, coffee shop or convention center, that is covered with a WLAN service. This service is available for the public to use for a nominal charge, for free or as a premium service.


HPFS (See High Performance File System)


HR disintermediation

The practice of bypassing the HR department to define and implement technology practices to support human capital management (HCM) issues. When no clear HCM strategy is in place, business leaders formulate departmental plans and adopt the technologies they feel they need to support individual and group responsibilities for enterprise performance.


HRMS (human resource management system)

Business applications for the management of HR-related transactions, best practices and enterprise reporting. Functions typically include core HR tracking, payroll and benefits. The scope is often extended to include recruiting, competency management, training, time management, performance management and self-service offerings.


HSDL (high-speed subscriber data line)

A local phone line with full-duplex TI capabilities. As corporate intranets grow, bigger “pipes” are needed to maintain network performance. The use of inverse multiplexers that combine multiple E1 circuits will be the best way to deliver that bandwidth between the user site and the carrier’s central office. But the use of HSDL technology, as an alternative to inverse multiplexing of E1 circuits, will be a “dark horse” alternative to inverse multiplexing. Unlike inverse multiplexing, HSDL would require new support systems and maintenance procedures.


HSM (hierarchical storage management)

A storage management technology that can be used to identify inactive data and move it to near-line storage, automate the retrieval process, and migrate the data back to the primary storage medium and provide access for the user.


HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

A document-formatting language derived from the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), predominately used to create Web pages. The user’s browser interprets HTML commands and formats the page layout, fonts and graphics on the screen. One of the more powerful features of HTML is its ability to create hyperlinks that enable the user to navigate between documents and files with a single click. HTTP is also sometimes used for messaging attachments as a way of supporting rich text formatting across product boundaries.

HTML that is generated by a program or service is considered “dynamically generated HTML,” which has been confused with the Netscape and Microsoft technology called dynamic HTML (DHTML). These technologies offer client-side mechanisms for enhancing the capabilities of the Web browser and HTML documents. Dynamically generated HTML might contain DHTML, but they are not the same thing.



A central device, usually in a star topology local-area network (LAN), to which each station’s wiring is attached. Also called wiring concentrator. See intelligent hub.


HUD (head-up display)

A generic term for a display for which the user does not have to change his/her normal viewing position to see it. Personal head-up displays, for example, use optics mounted near the eye (on eyeglasses or a headset) to project the screen image. Although the physical display is small, the user has the illusion of watching a larger screen several feet away from the eye. This can be delivered as a display that blocks the user’s vision or one that superimposes the computer image over the user’s view of the real world.


hybrid thinking

The concept of hybrid thinking is defined as an organic discipline for taking on wicked problems by iteratively implementing transformative, innovative, and strategic change via the co-creative exploration of human-centered experiences that are culturally meaningful, technically feasible, and economically sustainable.


hybrid modeling

A term that is used to signify second-generation, dimension-driven, constraint-based solids modeling technology beyond first-generation parametric modeling. Hybrid modelers offer multiple design input mechanisms, flexible constraint management, and robust interoperability with legacy computer-aided design (CAD) data.



An area on a Web page that, when clicked on with a mouse, will transport the user to another Web page. Also called “links” or “hot links,” hyperlinks are analogous to hypertext. Hyperlinks are commonly used on the Web to provide navigation, reference and depth where published text cannot. A hyperlink can be created from text or from a graphic.



A file transfer protocol that sends data in a steady stream, rather than in packets, with built-in error correction and data compression.



Software technology used to create and store simple and complex navigational paths across computerized data. When the text is “clicked on,” it can enable a user to navigate within or between Web pages.





This is the named index used by directories. The name refers to attribute 0×30 ($FILE_NAME).

See also: Attribute, Directory, $FILE_NAME and Index


IAE (integrated applications environment)

An environment with a strong integrated development environment (IDE), application server, middleware, and the “glue” (or framework) to provide for integrating all applications development (AD) facilities.


IAM (identity and access management)


IB (integration broker)

Also called an interface engine or a message broker, an IB is a third-party intermediary that facilitates interactions between applications. IBs minimally provide message transformation and routing services. They mostly communicate program to program; they integrate previously independent applications at the application-logic level of the software design.

An assembly of electronic circuits contained on a single piece of semiconductor material.



Apple’s Macintosh OS client for AIM.


IDA (Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore)

Statutory board of the Singapore government, operating under the Ministry of Information, Communications and The Arts (MICA). The IDA is a single agency for the integrated planning, policy formulation, regulation and industry development of the IT and telecommunications sectors in Singapore. See also MICA.


IDARS (integrated document archive and retrieval system)

A consolidated system for storage, access, management and viewing of data that is often print-stream-originated. Leading uses of IDARS include mission-critical customer service support, electronic bill presentment, management and distribution of report data (e.g., mainframe output, transaction logs and financial reports) and long-term archiving of historical data.


IDE (integrated development environment)

Environments for writing application logic and designing application interfaces. They contrast with integrated application environments (IAEs) by their lack of solutions that include application servers (with a run-time framework or middleware component) and a development framework (e.g., with integrated testing, project and process management, software configuration management, component design and assembly).


IDEF (Integrated Definition Methodology)

The most commonly used representation standard for data models.


iDEN (integrated digital enhanced network)

Wireless technology developed by Motorola that combines the capabilities of a digital cellular telephone, two-way radio, alphanumeric pager and data/fax modem. iDEN can be operated in the 800MHz, 900MHz and 1.5GHz bands and is based on TDMA and GSM architectures. iDEN’s main differentiating feature is the built-in PTT function, such as that offered by Nextel.


identity and access management (IAM)

Identity and access management (IAM) is the security discipline that enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times for the right reasons.


IDL (interface definition language)

A standard language for defining objects’ abstract descriptions in terms of their external interfaces (i.e., methods and parameters). The IDL compiler will create relevant runtime static and dynamic interface binding information.


IDM (integrated document management)

A vital class of middleware services that integrates library services, document-manufacturing and document-interchange technologies with critical business-process applications. The term “integrated” describes the transformation of document management from an end-user application to a network-based service integrated with a full complement of end-user personal-productivity and custom-developed applications.


IDN (Integrated Digital Network)

A network employing both digital switches and digital transmission.


IDS (integrated delivery system)

A coordinated system for healthcare delivery that includes hospitals, clinics and physician practices.


IDS (Internet document security)

Services that provide a core set of capabilities required to enable business communications to move in a secure electronic form over the Internet.


IE (information engineering)

A methodology for developing an integrated information system based on the sharing of common data, with emphasis on decision support needs as well as transaction-processing (TP) requirements. It assumes logical data representations are relatively stable, as opposed to the frequently changing processes that use the data. Therefore, the logical data model, which reflects an organization’s rules and policies, should be the basis for systems development.


IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Nonprofit professional association of scientists and engineers founded in 1963 with more than 365,000 members in 150 countries. It is best known for setting global standards for computing and communications and has 1,300 standards and projects under development.


IEFM (integrated e-form management)

A concept that describes a system designed for creating and administering e-form applications using installed databases, messaging, document management and workflow infrastructures.


ILPT (instructor-led practical training)

A training method that has some lectures and discussions, but concentrates on giving trainees many chances to practice what they are learning in a risk-free situation.


ILTC (instructor-led training in the classroom)

The most common form of training. It uses lecture sessions and discussions to convey information. It is most commonly used for briefings and high-level education, but many commercial training courses also use this method.


IM (information management)

A method of using technology to collect, process and condense information with a goal of efficient management. Most large enterprises have a central IM function to facilitate this coordination. The primary technologies needed are contained in a set of modeling tools that either have or interface to a production-worthy repository where the information is stored and managed. The repository and tools must be capable of receiving information in a “top-down,” “bottom-up” or “middle-out” evolutionary manner.


IM (instant messaging)

IM is a communications service in which short messages appear in pop-up screens as soon as they are received, thereby commanding the recipient’s immediate attention. Most IM services offer presence information that indicates if the user is online and available to send and receive messages. These services also provide “buddy lists” that are groups of people who have been selected by the user for frequent access, as well as group-based chat services. Enterprise IM provides real-time message passing within private and public networks.


IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

A protocol used to access e-mail or bulletin board messages from a (possibly shared) mail server. IMAP allows a client e-mail program to access remote message stores as if they were local. E-mail stored on an IMAP server can be manipulated from a workstation at the office, a desktop computer at home or a notebook computer while traveling, without requiring the transfer of messages or files back and forth between these computers. Details of the IMAP specification can be found at


IMEI (international mobile equipment identifier)

Unique identity number assigned to a GSM device that can be recognized and blocked by the network to which it is connected. It is useful for fraud prevention and to bar access using a stolen phone. See also IMSI.


IMS (IP multimedia subsystem)

Next-generation application delivery architecture. In the IMS architecture, applications can be created, controlled and changed, regardless of the kind of network or platform on which they run. IMS promises to bring flexibility, operational effectiveness, openness and standardization to the delivery of applications across fixed and mobile networks. It specifies a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based control layer, with open interfaces to the transport and services layers above, and has a centralized end-user profile depository. IMS is aimed at bringing improved interoperability among networks and offers carriers control over applications on a per-session basis for increased flexibility. There are three logical elements within the IMS architecture: the session control layer, the interworking or gateway layer and the application layer.


IMSI (international mobile subscriber identity)

Unique number of up to 15 digits assigned to each GSM connection, containing country code, network operator code and mobile device number. See also HLR and IMEI.


IMT-2000 (international mobile telecommunications-2000)

ITU’s name for a family of 3G cellular standards. It is aimed at providing a standard framework for worldwide wireless access that links the diverse system of terrestrial- and satellite-based networks.


IMT-A (international mobile telecommunications advanced)

In December 2005, IMT-A became the ITU’s official term for 4G mobile telephony. ITU defines the objectives of IMT-A as providing throughout of up to 100 Mbps for a moving mobile device and 1 Gbps for a static device. See also 4G and LTE.


incentive compensation management

These applications manage and administer compensation plans, quotas, crediting and adjustments, while processing commissionable transactions for direct and partnered sales organizations generating transaction registers and commission statements. They provide extensive reporting and ad hoc query capabilities for sales management and finance, as well as “what if” modeling for financial analysis and plan design.



(just the whole index idea)



This attribute contains the location of the entries that make up an index.



This attribute is the root of an index. The index is stored as a balanced binary tree. The only attribute which is indexed is $FILE_NAME and the index is called $I30.


indirect channel

This is a channel through which independent third-party organizations resell products. In software markets, value-added resellers (VARs) and system integrators are two typical examples of the indirect channel:

  • • Dealer – This is a group of resellers including independent, regional and national organizations that normally sell products and services to the business, education and government sectors. Client meetings are typically scheduled ahead of time and are most often solicited by an outbound sales force. Dealers usually provide a low level of service, training and customer assistance, and other value-added services.
  • • Vendor-specific agent – This is a reseller dedicated to selling one vendor’s products. The reseller store will carry the logo and products of that vendor but is not owned by the vendor (for example, some Xerox copier resellers in the U.S.).
  • • Indirect fax/phone/Web – This is a channel through which resellers sell a variety of products to end users through the use of the telephone, Web, fax, fax back and mail, including catalog sales. This is different from the direct fax/phone/Web channel in that the products are sold by resellers rather than direct from the vendor.
  • • VAR – This is a reseller that usually is not a storefront operation and typically acts as a consultant to clients. To qualify as a VAR, a reseller must have developed or configured some type of software package targeted at a particular market or offer significant integration expertise to the customer.
  • • VARs typically generate 40% or more of their revenue from custom products, service and support. VARs do not apply their label to the product and may not own the hardware or software.
  • • System integrators – These are system vendors and independent service providers that supply professional services to apply, migrate and integrate technology into business processes.
  • • Hosting and application service providers – These providers offer access to software over a network and may not include customization services.


INDX Record

Index records are used by directories, $Quota, $Reparse and $Secure. The contents depend on the type of index being kept. Directories store $FILE_NAME attributes.

See also: Directory, $I30, $Quota, $Reparse and $Secure.


Infinite Logging Area

Something contained in $LogFile. It consists of a sequence of 4KB log records.

See also: $LogFile


information access with search

Information access technologies interact with applications such as document management, Web content management and other repositories to provide users with insight into their content. Increasingly, information access technology is also expected to include results from enterprise applications, such as CRM and legacy systems. In addition, it looks outside enterprises to access Internet-based content. Information access technology is often acquired as an embedded aspect of other applications, and portal, ECM, business application and other vendors frequently include enterprise search as part of their products.

The first and most mature information access technology is search engine technology. It is typically applied to unstructured data in document repositories. It includes both enterprise and desktop search. Increasingly, automatic categorization, creative visualization, content analytics and taxonomy support technologies are being added to this category.


information architecture

All the sources of information – including paper, graphics, video, speech and thought – that define the enterprise are represented by this layer of applications architecture. It also defines the sources and destinations of information, its flow through the enterprise, as well as the rules for persistence, security and ownership.


information (knowledge) assets

Information relevant to an enterprise’s business function, including captured and tacit knowledge of employees, customers or business partners; data and information stored in highly-structured databases; data and information stored in textual form and in less-structured databases such as messages, e-mail, workflow content and spreadsheets; information stored in digital and paper documents; purchased content; and public content from the Internet or other sources.


information/data governance

Information governance is the specification of decision rights and an accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the valuation, creation, storage, use, archival and deletion of information. It includes the processes, roles, standards and metrics that ensure the effective and efficient use of information in enabling an organization to achieve its goals.


information delivery

  • • Reporting – Reporting provides the ability to create formatted and interactive reports, with highly scalable distribution and scheduling capabilities. In addition, BI platform vendors should handle a wide array of reporting styles (for example, financial, operational and performance dashboards).
  • • Dashboards – This subset of reporting includes the ability to publish formal, Web-based reports, with intuitive displays of information, including dials, gauges and traffic lights. These displays indicate the state of the performance metric compared with a goal or target value. Increasingly, dashboards are used to disseminate real-time data from operational applications.
  • • Ad hoc query – This capability, also known as self-service reporting, enables users to ask their own questions of the data, without relying on IT to create a report. In particular, the tools must have a robust semantic layer to allow users to navigate available data sources. In addition, these tools should offer query governance and auditing capabilities to ensure that queries perform well.
  • • Microsoft Office integration – In some cases, BI platforms are used as a middle tier to manage, secure and execute BI tasks, but Microsoft Office (particularly Excel) acts as the BI client. In these cases, it is vital that the BI vendor provides integration with Microsoft Office, including support for document formats, formulas, data “refresh” and pivot tables. Advanced integration includes cell locking and write-back.


infrastructure software

This segment includes AD and application integration and middleware (AIM) software, information management software, storage management software, IT operations management and security software, and other infrastructure software.

  • • Application development and AIM software services – The AD software market comprises tools that represent each phase of the software development life cycle (application life cycle management [ALM], design, construction, automated software quality and other AD software). The Application Infrastructure and Middleware market segment includes business process management (BPM)-enabling technologies, integration-enabling middleware, platform middleware, portals and Web 2.0 infrastructure, and various additional products grouped together as “other AIM.” Integration-enabling middleware is software that enables independently designed applications, software components or services to work together, by supporting data consistency, composite application and multi-step process styles of integration.
  • • Information management software services – This software market is defined by Data Management and Integration software and includes Data Integration Tools, Data Quality Tools and Database Management Systems. The discipline of data integration comprises the practices, architectural techniques and tools for achieving the consistent access and delivery of data across the spectrum of data subject areas and data structure types in the enterprise to meet the data consumption requirements of all applications and business processes. Traditionally aligned with cleansing of customer data (names and addresses) in support of CRM-related activities, the tools have expanded well beyond such capabilities, and forward-thinking organizations are recognizing the relevance of these tools in other data domains. A database management system (DBMS) is a product used for the storage and organization of data that typically has defined formats and structures. DBMSs are categorized by their basic structures and, to some extent, by their use or deployment.
  • • Storage management software services – The storage management software market includes all software products that are sold as value-added options to run on a server, storage network device or storage device to aid in managing the device or managing and protecting the data. Storage management software represents all the tools needed to manage capacity, performance and availability of data stored on disks, tapes and optical devices, as well as the networking devices that the data may pass through.
  • • IT operations management and security software services – IT operations management (ITOM) software is intended to represent all the tools needed to manage the provisioning, capacity, performance and availability of the computing, networking and application environment. Security software is included to control and monitor access to internal and external IT resources.
  • • Other infrastructure software services – Other infrastructure software includes, but is not limited to, clustering and remote control software, directory servers, OS tools, Java license fees, mainframe infrastructure, and mobile and wireless infrastructure, as well as other infrastructure software.
  • • Operating system software – An OS is software that, after being loaded into the computer by an initial boot program, manages a computer’s resources, controlling the flow of information into and from a main processor. OSs perform complex tasks, such as memory management, control of displays and other input/output peripheral devices, networking and file management, and other resource allocation functions between software and system components. The OS provides the foundation on which applications, middleware and other infrastructure components function. OS usually provides user interfaces, such as command-line shell and GUI, for interaction between user and computer. The four most common subcategories of operating systems include Linux, Unix, Windows and mainframe OS.



An inode is the filesystems representation of a file, directory, device, etc. In NTFS every inode it represented by an MFT FILE record.

See also: Directory, File, FILE Record and Filesystem



An iterative framework for planning and executing application change. The letters stand for: Inventory, Scope, Parse, Examine, Consider options, Tactical solutions.


integrated carrier

An entity that owns/operates both fixed-line and mobile network infrastructure and provides aforementioned services (fixed and mobile).


integrated software

A business software productivity program that incorporates a number of applications (typically word processing, database management, spreadsheet, graphics and communications) into one product, allowing data sharing between all or most modules.



Integration services are detailed design and implementation services that link application functionality (custom software or package software) and/or data with each other or with the established or planned IT infrastructure. Specific activities might include project planning, project management, detailed design or implementation of application programming interfaces, Web services, or middleware systems.


integration appliances

An integration appliance can be regarded as a combination of hardware and software that fulfills a specific integration purpose, such as enabling the partially predefined integration of certain applications together with new ones. It is not uncommon to see packaged integration, packaged processes, and SOA governance mechanisms and technologies alongside traditional appliance technologies, such as acceleration, transformation, XML parsing and security features, such as firewalls and packet inspection. An appliance can be regarded as one type of deployment mechanism, along with the more traditional packaged software, SaaS and hosted models.


intellectual property

Intellectual property traditionally includes assets that are protected through regulatory methods such as patents, copyrights and regulatory licenses; however, this protection is being expanded to include software and business processes when these can be demonstrated to be original, novel and non-obvious. Customer intelligence and business intelligence may be considered intellectual “property” by its owner, depending on its value to enterprise competitiveness and its integration into business processes.



A loose confederation of independent yet interconnected networks that use the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols for communications. The Internet evolved from research done during the 1960s on a network called the ARPANet. It provides universal connectivity and three levels of network services: connectionless packet delivery, full-duplex stream delivery, and application-level services.


Internet telephony

Term used to describe packetized IP voice traffic sent over the Internet (as distinct from a private or managed IP telecommunications infrastructure). When used to enable Internet telephony from a PC, it requires client software on the PC such as Skype, plus a broadband connection with minimal latency. See also IP telephony and VoIP.



The ability for a device from one manufacturer to work with one from another.



A network internal to an enterprise that uses the same methodology and techniques as the Internet. It is not necessarily connected to the Internet and is commonly secured from it using firewalls. Intranets often use an organization’s local-area networks (LANs) or wide-area networks (WANs). Services include Web sites, collaboration, workflow and messaging services, and applications development.


I/O (input/output)

The activity of sending information to or from peripheral devices, terminals, direct-access storage devices (DASDs), tape drives and printers. Physical I/O performance lags behind that of memory and logical technologies.


I/O bound

Refers to programs with a large number of I/O (input/output) operations, which slow the central processing unit (CPU).


I/O channel

Equipment forming part of the input/output system of a computer. Under the control of input/output (I/O) commands, the channel transfers blocks of data between main storage and peripherals.


IP (Internet Protocol)

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) tracks the address of nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages. Current networks consist of several protocols, including IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), DECnet, AppleTalk, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and LLC2. This wide diversity of protocols results from application suites that assume their own particular protocols. Collapse from this wide variety is inevitable, but users will only be able to reduce this diversity, not eliminate it. Most users will collapse networks into two main protocols: IP and IPX. Installed-base applications and the pain of change will prevent a total reduction to a single backbone protocol.


IPA (integrated publishing architecture)

A concept that defines the creation, assembly and production functions to support the complete document life cycle. Creation includes document component modeling, authoring, content identification, revision, review and approval; assembly includes document aggregation modeling, on-demand document construction and database interchange; and production includes composition, layout and file formatting for multiple communication channels.


IP address (Internet Protocol address)

A unique number assigned by an Internet authority that identifies a computer on the Internet. The number consists of four groups of numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods (dots). For example, is an IP address.


IP Centrex platforms

IP Centrex platforms offer a broad range of PBX replacement and new services. These products typically work with a variety of end-user devices and interfaces, including analog and digital phones, IP desktop phones, PDAs and mobile phones, all of which are widely used in enterprises.

These platforms offer a wide variety of enhanced features, such as: unified messaging (including visual voice mail); click to talk; enhanced find-me/follow-me capabilities; Microsoft Outlook integration, with “click to call” features; the ability to return calls and voice mail from a browser; Web-based call management to monitor and control service features and capabilities; automatic call distribution capabilities; selective call acceptance; collaborative applications; presence management; and instant messaging.


IP datacasting

IP datacasting uses DVB-H technology to transmit digital multimedia data to mobile devices in the form of IP datagrams. Content can be optimized for mobile handsets by adapting it to their small screens.


IP-enabled PBX

A customer-premises telephone switching system that has native IP switching and a TDM switching matrix, each delivering call-processing features and functions transparently between internal extensions (stations), whether the endpoint is an IP or traditional device. Typically, an IP-enabled product starts life as a traditional PBX, but is further developed to include IP capabilities. The traditional TDM switching matrix remains a part of the architecture, but a server-based processor capable of delivering voice traffic via packet switching has been added.


IP-enabled PBX/KTS IP extension line

A line attached to an IP-enabled PBX phone system that terminates with an IP phone or voice endpoint.


IP-enabled PBX/KTS traditional extension line

A line attached to an IP-enabled PBX phone system that terminates with a digital or an analog (non-IP) phone set.


IP extension line

A line that terminates with an IP phone or voice endpoint that was shipped, installed, and in use and attached to an IP-enabled PBX or IP-PBX phone system.


IP multimedia subsystem session control layer

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standardized, open architecture based on SIP and the Diameter authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) protocol. IMS defines how applications and services are delivered to customers, regardless of which network they run on. It separates session control from the actual applications for maximum flexibility, and can be used for centralized user profiles. It helps carriers to control sessions and provides the ability to charge for applications.

In addition to voice switching, control and applications carriers are also deploying data and video control layers, and IMS multimedia. They are also building more nimble and agnostic service layers with architectures such as NG service delivery platforms (SDPs). This area includes, for example, deployments of IP television (IPTV) and video overlays, as well as service enablers such as presence, instant messaging (IM)/chat, third-party exposure and application stores. The area is often associated with Telco 2.0.



A LAN-based IP switching communications system that provides telephony functions employing voice IP endpoint connectivity. At least 95% of lines on pure IP PBX systems must terminate with IP voice endpoints.


IP seat license

A telephony seat that is in use and part of an IP-enabled PBX or IP-PBX phone system that terminates with an IP phone.



IPTV refers to the use of a carrier-based managed IP broadband network to deliver television and video content services to an end user’s TV set via a set-top box (STB), with picture quality at least equivalent to existing pay-TV and free-to-air services. Content delivered over the Internet or only to a PC is excluded from our definition of the IPTV market. Our definition of IPTV includes all video content – whether broadcast-style pay-TV, video-on-demand (VOD) or other interactive video services. IPTV customers can search channel guides and select programs through an electronic program guide (EPG) on their TV screen. EPGs have varying degrees of functionality, depending on the service provider.

The typical IPTV model involves both broadcast pay-TV and on-demand services. Most IPTV providers offer both, though it is multichannel pay-TV that remains the key selling point in most services – and that generates most of the revenue. As a result, many IPTV services still have a strong focus on competing in a like-for-like manner against existing pay-TV services such as cable TV and direct-to-home (DTH) satellite offerings, often with similar packages of channels. Although this will change as new functionality is made available to IPTV users, it means that multichannel TV will be the foundation of IPTV offerings for several years.



Apple’s mobile device that combines an iPod music and video player, mobile phone and Internet browser capability in a handheld unit with a touchscreen interface. An iPhone designed for EDGE cellular networks was launched in North America in June 2007 and in Europe in late 2007. A 3G-capable version was launched in July 2008.


IP-service control points

An IP-SCP is a carrier-grade application server using industry-standard hardware, operating systems, open standards and protocols. The application server normally incorporates a real-time database and service logic execution functionality (also known as call triggers via a service switching point [SSP]), facilitating applications. The application server includes provisioning interfaces.


IP telephony

The term used for LAN-attached telephony systems and the associated telephone handsets (that is, the IP version of the PBX). More specifically, IP telephony involves the delivery of the telephony application (for example, call setup and teardown, and telephony features) over IP, instead of using circuit-switched or other modalities. IP telephony is not the same as VoIP or Internet telephony, although the terms are commonly (and erroneously) used interchangeably. See also Internet telephony and VoIP.


IRD (integrated receiver decoder)

Official name for the signal reception system that receives and converts modulated signals back into their original format suitable for presentation to an end-user device or display. IRDs typically contain a built-in decoder for unscrambling subscription TV programming channels. It is also known as a satellite receiver or satellite set-top box.


irDA (Infrared Data Association)

Maintains a standard for infrared data transmission (up to 4 Mbps). Because this technology’s cost is extremely low, it is now embedded in many consumer electronic devices (for example, laptop computers and handheld devices, such as PDAs and cellular phones).


IRR (internal rate of return)

IRR analysis determines the interest rate and then compares this rate to the “risk-adjusted rate of return.”


ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

A technical standard and design philosophy for digital networks. ISDN provides high-speed, high-bandwidth channels to every subscribers on the public switched telephone network, achieving end-to-end digital functions with standard equipment interface devices. ISDN networks enable a variety of mixed digital transmission services to be accommodated at a single interface.


ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

A voluntary, nontreaty organization established in 1949, as a technical agency of the United Nations, to promote international standardization in a broad range of industries. ISO’s Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model establishes guidelines for network architectures.


ISO (Internet sales outlet)

A third-party Web site that attracts visitors looking to buy goods or services. ISOs make money by selling links or ads that lead directly to Web merchant sites or by selling products or services on behalf of Web merchants.


ISO 9000

The international standard for quality control. It is also known as BS5750 and EN29001. The three standards are identical, but they are numbered and published differently by different standards bodies. The worldwide standard is published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and is the one generally referenced. ISO 9000 is a generic standard that any enterprise or individual department can use. It is not specific to the IT industry. The standard is subdivided into three – ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003. Enterprises use some or all of the parts, depending on the nature of their business. Any enterprise can claim that it complies with ISO 9000. To make the claim credible, an external assessor from an accreditation body must evaluate the enterprise’s quality system. ISO 9000 certification does not guarantee quality; it guarantees consistency of approach.


ISP (Internet service provider)

A company that provides Internet access to its customers. The majority of ISPs are too small to purchase access directly from the network access point (NAP), and instead buy pieces of bandwidth that are available from larger ISPs. Access to the Internet can be provided either via modem or by direct connection, which offers far higher speeds.

Internet service providers are different from online services, although these services sometimes also provide access to the Internet. Online services provide access to exclusive content, databases and online discussion forums that are not available outside the service.


ISV (independent software vendor)

A software producer that is not owned or controlled by a hardware manufacturer; a company whose primary function is to distribute software. Hardware manufacturers that distribute software (such as IBM and Unisys) are not ISVs, nor are users (such as banks) that may also sell software products.

ISVs typically offer products that the primary vendor (i.e., IBM) does not offer, allowing clients of that vendor to round out their software needs. ISVs create price competition and also increase the pace of technology innovation in their markets.


IT (information technology)

This is the common term for the entire spectrum of technologies for information processing, including software, hardware, communications technologies and related services. In general, IT does not include embedded technologies that do not generate data for enterprise use.


ITAM (IT asset management)

A systematic approach to managing IT assets, including information systems (IS) department staff, end users performing IT support, technology procurement teams, suppliers, facilities, hardware and software.


IT consulting

IT consulting services are advisory services that help clients assess different technology strategies and, in doing so, align their technology strategies with their business or process strategies. These services support customers’ IT initiatives by providing strategic, architectural, operational and implementation planning. Strategic planning includes advisory services that help clients assess their IT needs and formulate system implementation plans. Architecture planning includes advisory services that combine strategic plans and knowledge of emerging technologies to create the logical design of the system and the supporting infrastructure to meet customer requirements. Operational assessment/benchmarking include services that assess the operating efficiency and capacity of a client’s IT environment. Implementation planning includes services aimed at advising customers on the rollout and testing of new solution deployments.


IT consulting services

Consulting services are advisory services that help clients assess different technology and methodology strategies and, in doing so, align their network strategies with their business or process strategies. These services support customers’ IT initiatives by providing strategic, architectural, and operational and implementation planning related to their networks. Strategic planning includes advisory services that help clients assess their network requirements and formulate system-implementation plans. Architecture planning includes advisory services that combine strategic plans and knowledge of emerging technologies to create the logical design of the network environment and the supporting infrastructure to meet customer requirements. Operational assessment and benchmarking includes services that assess the operating efficiency and capacity of a client’s network environment. Implementation planning includes services aimed at advising customers on the rollout and testing of new network deployments.


IT decision support

The creation and management of information sources, reporting processes and automated tools that enable IT executives to implement profitable IT strategies.


ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)


IT governance

IT governance is the set of processes that ensure the effective and efficient use of IT in enabling an organization to achieve its goals. IT governance addresses two major topics: IT demand governance (“doing the right things”) and IT supply-side governance (“doing things right”).


IT infrastructure

The system of hardware, software, facilities and service components that support the delivery of business systems and IT-enabled processes.



The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is an IT service management framework, developed under the auspices of the U.K.’s Office of Government Commerce (OGC), that provides process guidance on the full life cycle of defining, developing, managing, delivering and improving IT services.


IT management

IT management services provide day-to-day management and operation of IT assets and processes. As such, they represent the core value components of ITO. IT management services are divided into three key subsegments: operations services (for IT infrastructure), application management services and help desk management services.


IT management services

Management services transfer all or part of the day-to-day management responsibility for a customer’s network environment (including LAN hardware and software, WAN – voice and data – and voice network hardware and software) and, in some cases, the ownership of the technology or personnel assets, to an outside vendor. These services may include system operation or support, capacity planning, asset management, availability management, performance management, administration, security, remote monitoring, technical diagnostics/troubleshooting, configuration management, system repair management and generation of management reports. Network remote monitoring and management, and backup and recovery services, also fall into this category when some degree of management is included in the service.


ITOM (IT operations management) software

IT operations management (ITOM) software is intended to represent all the tools needed to manage the provisioning, capacity, performance and availability of the computing, networking and application environment. The ITOM market is divided into 10 major segments that include DBMS, application management, availability and performance, event, fault and log management, network management, configuration management, IT services desk and IT help desk, asset management, job scheduling and other ITOM (which refers to output management software) for tools used to manage hardware peripherals, such as printers.


IT operations

The people and management processes associated with IT service management to deliver the right set of services at the right quality and at competitive costs for customers.


IT outsourcing (ITO)

IT outsourcing efforts focus on using external service providers to effectively deliver IT-enabled business process, application service and infrastructure solutions for business outcomes.


IT service desk (ITSD) and IT help desk

IT service desk (ITSD) products range from simple call tracking/trouble ticketing (aka “help desk” products) to broad suite solutions encompassing call management, incident management, problem management, IT change management, configuration/inventory repositories, request fulfillment and self-service portals. In their technical platform, ITSD products include knowledge management (knowledge search capability) and workflow engines (managing automated escalation and notification). The most-sophisticated products also may link to dominant brands of corporate portals, external workflow engines, procurement modules and HR systems, or include these as proprietary features. These products integrate with operations management systems for links to event alerts, additional inventory repositories, configuration information and remote control. Product suites must have native support for Web self-service, password automation and e-mail (“native” means that the vendor either has built its own component or has licensed an engine and built value around it). The products must integrate with a range of communications tools, from telephony components to Web chat.

Certain areas of ITSD product functionality address only portions of a given process. IT CM within the tool addresses only the governance (aka production change control) and not the change execution, such as application or software provisioning, patching, or automated configuration setting changes, managed by the CM category. Software code and version is a change execution activity delivered by programming teams during the development process using SCCM tools. However, releasing code into production comes under the CM category. IT change projects, such as coordinating people-intensive IT projects, are change planning activities delivered by PPM products. The self-service portal capability will provide knowledge search and the ability to request service and support; however, the execution of stand-alone automated restore, also called “self-healing” – in which the user or help desk personnel are not involved – is part of the CM category. Only products that are positioned as ITSDs are included in the ITSD category. Products positioned as portals, workflow platforms or integration brokers are tracked in the AIM category. The fraction of vendor revenue from customer support software, sold as “help desk,” is tracked as CRM software.


ITU (International Telecommunication Union)

Agency of the United Nations, headquartered in Geneva. The ITU is the body through which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecommunications networks and services.


IVR (interactive voice response)

A voice/call-processing option for improving call center functionality and integration. It enables callers to have more flexibility to access information or leave messages. Use of this option can “offload” call volume from agents to the IVR or improve load balancing by having agents handle recorded messages during slow periods. A slowly growing number of IVR developers are now using speech recognition in their applications.




$J is a named data stream of the Metadata File $UsnJrnl.

See also: $UsnJrnl



The term “Java” can be applied to Sun’s Java platform or to its Java programming language. The Java platform is made up of a set of technologies that provide cross-platform, network-centric computing solutions. The programming language is simply one aspect of the Java platform. The elements of the Java platform include the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which provides a uniform Java byte code emulator for Java’s cross-platform runtime environment; the Java programming language, which provides a robust, object-oriented language for constructing Java components and applications; and the standard Java-class library packages, which provide sets of reusable services that promote consistency among components and applications.

The Java programming language is based on C and extends and complements the basic capabilities of HTML. Java permits the creation of applications and application modules (called “applets”) that run in the JVM on the browser. Browsers from Netscape and Microsoft have a JVM. Java’s platform independence and security are designed in, rather than added on, so applications can run on a wide variety of desktop platforms as long as they can run a Java-enabled browser.


Java applet

A small piece of Java code that implements a specific function. Applets may run on a server or be downloaded and run on the client’s machine.


Java ME (Java Platform, Micro Edition)

Reduced-feature version of Java defined by Sun Microsystems for use in mobile devices, such as mobile phones. Java ME (formerly known as Java 2ME) is part of a set of related Java technologies that includes definitions of profiles and configurations.


Java platform AD tools

The Java platform AD tool market includes tools used to construct applications that operate within Java Community Process (JCP)-certified and JCP-compliant Java runtimes. These tools may include code-centric integrated development environments, or they may employ more-advanced features, such as model-driven code generators or other architected rapid AD features.



A scripting language targeted specifically to the Internet. It is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript, the Web’s only standard scripting language. Despite its name, JavaScript is not a derivative of Java; its origin is Netscape’s Livescript language. JavaScript is, in fact, closer to C/C++ in syntax than it is to Java.


Java servlet

A Java program that operates in conjunction with a Web server, and can output Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) to a browser or even communicate with Java applets. Servlets offer an alternative to using Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and server application programming interfaces (SAPIs) to communicate with Web server processes.



Automatic inspection such that defects can be prevented from moving further along in the production process.


JIT (just in time)

An approach of sequencing the arrival of material to a work center just prior to consumption to avoid large work-in-process inventories.


job scheduling

Job scheduling tools supervise a logical process (several jobs or programs) as they execute in a mainframe or distributed environment, providing scheduling and dependency management of the process as it runs, mainly in sequence, across disparate systems, geographies and applications. The tools in this category are used for “batch integration” of heterogeneous applications and data stores.



An automatic media handler for an optical disk drive, also called a library. An optical jukebox is designed to move optical platters in and out of optical drives. The intent is to provide a large amount of easily accessed storage in a “near-line” fashion. Jukeboxes use robotics. Similar in concept to music jukeboxes, the robot arm locates the appropriate disk and, if it is not already mounted in a drive, clears the drive and loads the selected disk.


Junction Point

Microsoft term for a mount point, available in NT 5.0.




Ka-band (Kurtz-above band)

Frequency range allocated from 17.7GHz on the downlink and to 30.6GHz on the uplink for use by satellite communication systems. Ka-band satellites deliver high-speed broadband Internet connectivity and digital video/audio transmission. Satellites in this frequency range are characterized by two-way or bidirectional communications capability; wider-bandwidth transponders that provide higher overall capacity spot beams that can direct or focus signal transmissions to areas of higher density/population; and more-efficient use of available spectrum through multiple reuse of the same frequency. Ka-band satellites can be implemented as GEO- and non-GEO satellite systems. See also Kurtz-under band (Ku-band), L-band and S-band.



Radical and significant improvement.



Incremental, continuous improvement.



A system that uses signals along a production process to implement the concept of JIT.


Kano Model

A methodology of classifying customer needs according to whether they are “delighters,” “satisfiers” or “dissatisfiers.”


KB (See Units)


KCC (Korea Communications Commission)

The broadcasting, communications and IT regulator in the Republic of South Korea, which superseded the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the Korean Broadcasting Commission in 2008. See also KCC.



The heart of an operating system, a kernel is the part of the operating system that interconnects with the hardware. With Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) software intended for use in Unix environments, the kernel’s functional units are often included as a function library.


KM (knowledge management)

A business process that formalizes the management and use of an enterprise’s intellectual assets. KM promotes a collaborative and integrative approach to the creation, capture, organization, access and use of information assets, including the tacit, uncaptured knowledge of people.


K-map (knowledge map)

A representation of concepts and their relationships (e.g., hierarchy, taxonomy and network). A K-map is a navigational aid that enables a user to hone in rapidly on the desired concept, and then follow links to relevant knowledge sources (information or people).


KM strategy

A declaration of how the enterprise will use knowledge to compete, and how knowledge management (KM) will support the enterprise’s business strategies. A KM strategy may be knowledge-focused if the enterprise’s market value is predominantly composed of intellectual capital, or knowledge-enabled if the enterprise has other valuable assets in addition to intellectual capital.


knowledge access

One of the five activities of the knowledge management (KM) process framework. Knowledge access is the retrieval or dissemination of knowledge to users.


knowledge architect

The individual who oversees implementation of the enterprise’s knowledge architecture, who leads the “knowledge architecture team” in identifying, organizing and providing access to scattered, heterogeneous information in digital and paper form, and who leads the knowledge audit to determine and continually re-evaluate the specific knowledge needs of users and their business processes. The knowledge architect defines knowledge processes and identifies the technology requirements for creating, capturing, organizing, accessing and using knowledge assets.


knowledge assets

Information relevant to an enterprise’s business function, including the captured and tacit knowledge of employees, customers or business partners; data and information stored in structured databases; data and information stored in textual form and unstructured databases (e.g., e-mail and workflow systems); information stored in digital and paper documents; purchased content; and public content from the Internet or other sources.


knowledge audit

A formal determination and evaluation of how and where knowledge is used in business processes. The knowledge audit identifies implicit user needs, as well as explicit information stores. With the audit, enterprises can identify and evaluate all information resources and workflows, and determine enterprise user access requirements. Access requirements will vary widely, from wide access (e.g., policies and procedures ) to extremely limited access (e.g., payroll processing). The knowledge audit is a rigorous process using questionnaires, interviews and resource descriptions.


knowledge base

The knowledge, which may include assertion, rules, objects and constraints, used by a knowledge-based or expert system. Its organization is based on knowledge representations. The developer or user of the system may be unaware of the underlying knowledge representations, seeing only the domain knowledge representations.


knowledge capital

Intangible assets of an enterprise that are required to achieve business goals, including employee’s knowledge; data and information about processes, products, customers and competitors; and intellectual property such as patents or regulatory licenses.


knowledge capture

One of the five activities of the knowledge management process framework. Knowledge capture makes tacit knowledge explicit, i.e., it turns knowledge that is resident in the mind of the individual into an explicit representation available to the enterprise.


knowledge community

A group of people within an enterprise who engage in knowledge-sharing activities in support of a common work interest (shared responsibility for a business process, a product or service, or a project). The KC may include people from multiple disciplines within the enterprise, as well as extended-enterprise participants (service providers, supply-chain partners or customers).


knowledge content owners

Individuals who oversee the definition and delivery of knowledge content for their business processes to the knowledge management environment, and define access privileges to their knowledge resources. Human-resources executives are an example of knowledge content owners for benefits information resources; as such, they are responsible for ensuring that appropriate benefits content is available to support knowledge user and resource requirements, and that appropriate users are granted or denied access to it.


knowledge content specialists

Individuals who refine knowledge content from the originating owner into the specific product that the knowledge users require. These specialists have strong skills in the business process and its knowledge resources, as well as skill in organizing and filtering knowledge into a highly accessible and usable form. An extension to this definition is the external knowledge content specialist, who manages access to external content that the enterprise has purchased or subscribed to.


knowledge organization

One of the five activities of the knowledge management process framework. Knowledge organization is the classification and categorization of knowledge for navigation, storage and retrieval. This includes knowledge maintenance.


knowledge representation

Structures used to store knowledge in a manner that relates items of knowledge to one another, and that permits an inference engine to manipulate the knowledge and its relationships.


knowledge sharing

An activity that spans three components of the knowledge management (KM) process – knowledge capture, knowledge organization and knowledge access – to enable people to share knowledge across the boundaries of geography and time.


knowledge use

One of the five activities of the knowledge management process framework. Knowledge use is the application of knowledge to business decisions or opportunities. Use is also recursive, and continually generates feedback that affects and is integrated into the other knowledge activities.


knowledge users

Participants in knowledge management programs. They fill the dual roles of applying knowledge in their work tasks and contributing their own knowledge and insight to the enterprise’s knowledge content.


knowledge work management

A discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, managing and sharing all of an enterprise’s information assets. Knowledge work management focuses on extending knowledge management to business processes (i.e., policies and procedures as well as unwritten rules).


knowledge workplace

This represents the intersection of three key trends: the leverage of intellectual capital, the virtualization of the workplace and the shift from hierarchical to organic models of management. The focus is on knowledge as the primary source of competitive advantage.



Japanese for “protégé”; used in lean enterprises to describe a student of lean practices who learns from a senpai.


KPI (key performance indicator)

A high-level measure of system output, traffic or other usage, simplified for gathering and review on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis. Typical examples are bandwidth availability, transactions per second and calls per user. KPIs are often combined with cost measures (e.g., cost per transaction or cost per user) to build key system operating metrics.


KPIV (key process input variable)

Key process input variable – the most important input(s) to a process.


KPOV (key process output variable)

Key process output variable – the most important output(s) of a process.



A customer-premises telephone switching system that allows telephones to interface with the public telephone central exchange or internal lines (extensions) via nominated key access or an access code. Most KTSs are now of a hybrid capability, with PBX and KTS functions merged into a user-designated mix.


Ku-band (Kurtz-under band)

Frequency range allocated from 10.9GHz to 17GHz. Ku-band satellites are among the most numerous, operating for all forms of satellite communications, including video, voice and data services for consumers and enterprises. Most VSATs are in the Ku-band and are predominantly GEO-based systems. Ku-band satellite antennas (which are smaller than C-band antennas but suffer from rain fade in monsoon-like downpours) are typically used in Europe and North America. Bidirectional/interactive Ku-band antenna sizes range from 75 centimeters to 1.8 meters. See also Ka-band, L-band and S-band.




lagging and leading key performance indicators

Lagging indicators are metrics that measure end-state objectives or desired outcomes. They include all financial metrics. Nonprofit and public sector enterprises have additional nonfinancial lagging indicators that measure desired outcomes, such as students who graduate, incidence of crime and lives lost to terrorism.

Leading indicators are a defined set of metrics that are predictive of financial or other desired outcomes.


LAN (local-area network)

A geographically limited communication network that connects users within a defined area. A LAN is generally contained within a building or small group of buildings and is managed and owned by a single enterprise. The shorter distances within a building or campus enable faster communications at a lower cost than wide-area networks (WANs). Although an increasing number of LANs use Internet standards and protocols, they are normally protected from the public Internet by firewalls.

LANs are generally used to perform the following functions:

  • • Send output to printers attached to the network.
  • • Transfer data or software to or from other systems attached to the network.
  • • Send e-mail to other users on the network.
  • • Access wider-area networks, including the Internet, via a direct connection from the network, for external file transfer, e-mail, facsimile, group collaboration and videoconferencing.


LAN bridging

The connection of multiple physical local-area networks (LANs) to support a single logical LAN environment.


language-oriented development environments (distributed platforms, proprietary)

Typically, these are development environments for code targeted to deploy to distributed platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix) built on a compiler and a language. Language-oriented development environments generally include graphical user interface (GUI) builders, debuggers, editors and other utilities that are integrated into the environment. This market also includes proprietary fourth-generation language (4GL) language tools. It excludes products specifically targeted at deploying to either Java or .NET. It includes revenue for products such as PowerBuilder and Visual Basic 6.0 to the extent they target proprietary runtimes. It also includes languages such as COBOL, C/C++, FORTRAN, Ada and PASCAL, among others, that target proprietary runtimes on distributed platforms.


language-oriented development environments (mainframe, mini and midrange)

Typically, these are development environments for code targeted for deployment on mainframe or midrange platforms built on a compiler and a language, such as COBOL, C/C++, FORTRAN, Ada and PASCAL, among others. Language-oriented development environments generally include GUI builders, debuggers, editors and other utilities that are integrated into the environment. This market also includes proprietary 4GL language tools. It excludes products specifically targeted at deploying to either Java or .NET.



A device that emits a highly coherent beam of light. The term stands for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” A typical laser has an active medium, which emits light, and a cavity structure, which selects certain wavelengths and directions for the emitted light. Lasers convert electrical energy into radiant energy in the visible or infrared parts of the spectrum, emitting light with a small spectral bandwidth. For this reason, they are widely used in fiber-optic communications, particularly as sources for long-haul links.


laser disk

An storage medium that uses laser technology to record and retrieve data.



Measure of the responsiveness of a network, often expressed as the round-trip time (in milliseconds); that is, the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response. High latency tends to have more impact than bandwidth on the end-user experience in interactive applications, such as Web browsing. Low latency is required for many next-generation IP applications, such as VoIP, video telephony and PTT. See also round-trip time (RTT).



Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum allotted for satellite transmission in the 1GHz to 2GHz frequency range. A number of MSS providers operate part of their satellite networks in the L-band. See also Ka-band, Ku-band and S-band.


LBS (location-based services)

Services based on the location of a mobile user as determined by using network and/or mobile-device-based technology. Technologies supporting this include cell of origin (also known as cell ID), AOA, time of arrival (TOA), EOTD and GPS or assisted GPS. GPS can be used without network modification but requires mobile devices to support GPS. In WLAN systems, location can be determined by triangulation between several access points. Location data can be used for a variety of services to mobile-device users, including advertisements, billing, information, tracking and safety. See also e911 and GPS.


LCD (liquid crystal display)

A low-powered, flat-panel display technology. LCD displays create images using liquid crystal molecules controlled by an electrical field.


LCD (lowest common denominator)

One way to build portable applications is to support only those functions that are provided on all of the target platforms. This “LCD” approach enables programs to run on numerous platforms, but does so at the expense of forgoing the use of unique, added-value features that may be offered on individual platforms.


LCN (See Logical Cluster Number)


LCR (Lifetime Clinical Record)

A computer-based patient record system from Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services. LCR provides a longitudinal view of patients’ lifetime clinical histories.


LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

A server-to-server interface for directory information exchange among directories, devised as a low-cost, simpler implementation of the X.500 Directory Access Protocol. It facilitates the implementation of replication and chaining among dissimilar directories. Proposed by the University of Michigan, it was adopted by Netscape in 1996 for directory lookup, and has become the preferred access path for looking up directory information not only in X.500 directories, but also in many other directory structures on the Internet.


lead management

Lead management integrates business process and technology to close the loop between marketing and sales channels, and to drive higher-value opportunities through improved demand creation, execution and opportunity management.

Lead management processes take in unqualified, “raw” leads from a variety of lead-generation sources, including Web registration pages and campaigns; direct mail campaigns; e-mail marketing; multichannel campaigns; database marketing and third-party leased lists; social CRM and social networking sites; and trade shows. The output of lead management processes – qualified, scored, nurtured, augmented and prioritized selling opportunities – are handed off to direct sales and channel sales organizations.

A key requirement is integration with CRM, sales force automation (SFA), partner relationship management (PRM) or related sales management systems. This includes the ability to pass qualified, prioritized and augmented leads to the sales organization for closure. It also enables analytic and reporting capability to track the amount, timing and source of closed leads.



A customer-value focused approach to the provision of effective solutions involving the consumption of a minimum of resources.


lean enterprise

The extended supply chain responsible for effectively satisfying consumer requirements using a minimum of resources.


lean thinking

The process by which individuals can understand the need for, create and implement a lean enterprise.


LED (light-emitting diode)

A semiconductor that produces light when activated.


legacy application or system

An information system that may be based on outdated technologies, but is critical to day-to-day operations. Replacing legacy applications and systems with systems based on new and different technologies is one of the information systems (IS) professional’s most significant challenges. As enterprises upgrade or change their technologies, they must ensure compatibility with old systems and data formats that are still in use.


LEO (low earth orbit)

Orbital plane located from several hundred to a few thousand miles about the earth’s surface. LEO systems can be regional or global and require many more satellites than GEO-based systems to provide service. Big LEO systems provide mobile satellite phone services and consist of satellite constellations of some 48 to 66 satellites. See also GEO and middle earth orbit (MEO).


LEP (light-emitting polymer)

Technology patented by Cambridge Display Technology of the U.K., and based on the ability of certain plastics to glow when charged with an electric current. Still in the early stages of development, the technology has the long-term potential to enable the development of flexible displays that could be rolled up and placed in a jacket pocket. See also OLED.



  1. In data management structures or communication protocols, the degree of subordination in a hierarchy.
  2. Measurement of signal power at a specific point in a circuit.


LF (low frequency)

Generally indicates frequencies between 3 and 300 kilohertz (kHz).



A data management system for documents frequently, though not necessarily, organized in a hierarchy of “folders” and “drawers.” Also called a “file cabinet.”



A dedicated voice endpoint as a user or seat that is activated and in use with a unique logical address on an enterprise telephony voice system.


LIDM (line impact dot matrix)

A printing technology using a ribbon and an array of impact elements; suitable for making carbon copies.


life span (lifetime)

Average life of a device within the defined segment.


LIFO (last in, first out)


LIMS (laboratory information management system)

Applications used to manage the collection of samples, collection and formatting of test results, and the reporting of results by sample or product category. LIMS applications may be generic, product/manufacturing-specific, or environmental-, medical- or R&D-focused.



  1. A communications path between two or more points, including a satellite or microwave channel.
  2. In data communications, a circuit connecting two or more devices.
  3. A transmission path from a nonswitching subscriber terminal to a switching system.


line balancing

The optimization of the assignment of operations to workstations in an assembly line to minimize idle time and the number of workstations required.


line dot matrix

An output device that forms text and graphics in one or more rows of dots at a time, using an array of print elements that exert mechanical force through a ribbon onto the page.


line driver

A communications transmitter/receiver used to extend the transmission distance between terminals and computers that are directly connected. It acts as an interface between logic circuits and a two-wire transmission line.


line hit

Electrical interference causing the introduction of undesirable signals on a circuit.


line inkjet

An output device that creates the desired image by emitting ink from an array of orifices or nozzles arranged across the full width of the paper. Line inkjet printers follow the same segmentation as page products because they compete directly with the laser output devices.


line level

Signal strength on a transmission channel.


line load control

Equipment in a telephone system that provides a means by which essential paths may be ensured continuity of service under overloaded conditions. This is generally accomplished by temporarily denying originating service to some or all of the nonessential lines.


line loading

The process of installing loading coils in series with each conductor on a transmission line, usually 88 millihenry coils installed at 6,000-foot intervals.



  1. A physical circuit between two points.
  2. A conceptual (or virtual) circuit between two users of a packet switched (or other) network that enables them to communicate, even when different physical paths are used.
  3. ee hyperlink.


link redundancy level

The ratio of the actual number of paths to the minimum number of paths required to connect all nodes of a network.



Linus Torvalds developed the original OS kernel at the University of Helsinki. Linux is a Unix-based computer OS and was originally designed as free software for open-source development. Its source code can be freely modified, used and redistributed by anyone under the GNU Public License. Several GUIs run on top of Linux, including K Desktop Environment and GNU Network Object Model Environment. Of the many distributions of Linux, the most-popular enterprise versions include those from Red Hat (Red Hat Enterprise Linux), Novell (SUSE Enterprise Linux), Ubuntu and Debian, and regional ones, such as Mandriva, Red Flag and Asianux. There are two Linux subsegments, Linux (client) and Linux (server), in our segmentation.


LISP (List Processing)

An object-oriented programming language.



A method of storing or transmitting data where the most significant bit or byte is presented last. See big-endian.


LMDS (local multipoint distribution service)

Microwave-based wireless technology that operates at around 28GHz. In the U.S. and other countries, it is used for fixed high-speed data, Internet access and advanced telephone and entertainment services in metropolitan areas.


LMM (local modifications memory)

A technology that remembers manual changes to the graphical user interface (GUI) design and reapplies them should the screen need to be reconverted and generated.


LMR (longitudinal medical record)

A record of a person’s inpatient and outpatient healthcare, from birth to death, regardless of when and where such care was obtained.


LMS (labor management system)

A system that provides labor productivity reporting and planning capabilities. The planning capabilities provides the ability to analyze workforce requirements given a certain amount of work to be performed and a standard unit of time to perform each element of work. Labor productivity planning capabilities provide the ability to measure and report the performance of individuals, groups or facilities vs. a pre-defined standard for performing each defined element of work.


LNP (local number portability)

The ability to change to a different local phone service provider while retaining the same phone number.


LNP (logistics network planning)

The class of tools required to analyze the trade-offs among inventory quantities, number and location of warehouses, and transportation costs to most profitably support a desired level of customer service. LNP is a proven scientific method for analyzing the required cost and service levels that warehouses need to meet specified customer service objectives.



  1. To copy a program into the memory of a computing device so that it can later be used for processing.
  2. To add inductance to a transmission line to minimize amplitude distortion (see loading coil).


load balancing

The ability of processors to schedule themselves to ensure that all are kept busy while instruction streams are available.


LOB (line of business)

A corporate subdivision focused on a single product or family of products.


LOC (line of code)

A unit used in measuring or estimating the scale of programming or code conversion efforts.


Log Record

One 4KB chunk of the infinite logging area. It starts with the magic number ‘RCRD’ and a fixup, then has undocumented variable length data. [The log record might be further subdivided – I cannot imagine they waste 4KB if they only have to log a few bytes. Custer mentions high level and low level ‘records’. High level are: – allocate inode n, – make a directory entry foo in directory m low level are: – modify inode n with the new contents of <1KB>]



This metadata file is used to guarantee data integrity in case of a system failure. It has two copies of the restart area and the infinite logging area. The log file is near the centre of the volume, just after the second cluster of the boot file. [Better say ‘run’ than cluster. The boot file usually extends over several clusters at the beginning of the disk, and then has a single run of just one cluster (the copy of the boot sector). Also, isn’t it ‘infinite’?] Transactional logging file



This attribute is used by encrypted files.


Logical Cluster Number (LCN)

A volume is divided into clusters. They are numbered sequentially, starting at zero.

See also: Cluster and Volume.


Logical Sequence Number (LSN)

A serial number used to identify an NTFS log record.


LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes)

A system of names and codes for identifying laboratory and clinical observations.



Long distance – telephone circuits that cross out of the local exchange.


long-haul DWDM and metro WDM systems

The first WDM systems were made for long-haul transport applications. WDM systems made it possible to split each fiber into a number of “virtual fibers” – one for each wavelength in the system. Given the high cost of long-haul fiber links, it was easy for WDM technology to offer a compelling value proposition, even though it was relatively expensive. In addition, a single optical amplifier for all the channels in a WDM system represented a clear cost advantage compared with the individual amplifiers and regenerators used in single-channel systems.

As a result of the great speed at which WDM technology has matured, it is now the technology of choice for both long-haul and metropolitan applications. Commercial DWDM systems are available with more than 100 channels, and the maximum line rate has been increased: first from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps, and more recently to 40 Gbps.

The following are WDM subsegments:

  • • Metro WDM: WDM systems without in-line amplifiers, including both DWDM and coarse WDM (CWDM).
  • • Long-haul DWDM: Systems with in-line amplifiers. In-line optical amplifiers are considered an integral part of long-haul DWDM systems.


There is an increasing demand in the long-haul DWDM segment for equipment supporting the ITU’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) G.709 standard (“Interface for the Optical Transport Network”). This standard aims at improving network operations in relation to DWDM equipment and OXE, while ensuring backward compatibility with SDH/SONET.


longitudinal balance

A measure of the electrical balance between the two conductors (tip and ring) of a telephone circuit. Specifically, it is the difference between the tip-to-ground and ring-to-ground AC signal voltages, expressed in decibels.


Lotus Sametime

Enterprise IM service operating via Lotus Domino servers.


look and feel

The appearance and behavior of a graphical user interface to the end user (who sees it as part of an application), determined by the tools and style guide provided by the vendor (and by whether the software developer obeys these guidelines).



A local circuit between an exchange and a subscriber telephone station. Also called subscriber loop or local line.



A test of the performance and quality of a line or terminating equipment. See analog loopback and digital loopback.


loosely coupled multiprocessing

A configuration of several processors, each with its own memory, that execute user and operating-system code independently.


LOS (line of sight)

A characteristic of some open-air transmission technologies where the area between a transmitter and a receiver must be clear and unobstructed. This applies to microwave, infrared and open-air laser-type transmissions that operate at frequencies which transmit through the air in a perfectly straight line. A clear, open-air, direct transmission path is one that is free of obstructions such as buildings, but is in some cases impeded by adverse weather or environmental conditions.



A category of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools used for application generation rather than application modeling.


LPS (local positioning system)

Technology used to pinpoint indoor position, similar to the global positioning system (GPS) used to locate outdoor position. LPS triangulates signals from cell controllers to proprietary long-range, long-life, low-cost radio frequency electronic tags. By calculating the distance between cell controllers, electronic tags and several different antennae, equipment or personnel inside an enterprise can be instantly located.


LRC (longitudinal redundancy check)

A data communications error-trapping technique in which a character is accumulated at both the sending and receiving stations during the transmission and is compared for an equal condition, which indicates a good transmission of the previous block.


LSN (See Logical Sequence Number)


LTE (long term evolution)

A 3GPP project to define the requirements and basic framework for the WCDMA mobile radio access network beyond 3G, also known as Release 8 – probably the last step before 4G. The core specifications for Release 8 were completed in late 2007, with commercial deployments scheduled in 2010. LTE includes objectives such as: 100 Mbps download and 50 Mbps upload peak data rates in 20MHz of spectrum; full mobility to speeds of up to 500 km per hour; support for 3G network overlay and handovers between 3G and LTE. It will likely use MIMO, OFDMA and single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) in the link layers. Notably, it will not use CDMA for the radio layer, and there is a major operator-driven effort under way by ETSI to cap the IP royalties for LTE at a maximum of 5% of the cost of the equipment. 3GPP is working on an extended version of LTE called LTE advanced, which will make LTE fully ITU-4G-compliant. See also MIMO, OFDMA, System Architecture Evolution (SAE) and UTRAN.



Long Term Evolution Advanced, is defined in 3GPP Release 10 and is intended to be the first fully compliant version of the ITU’s specification for 4G systems. The targeted peak rate for downlink is 1 Gbps and, for uplink, greater than 500 Mbps. This should be achieved with scalable usage of up to 100 MHz spectrum. LTE-A should support various cell types, including pico and femto, to improve uplink speeds as well as relay technologies to improve coverage. Furthermore, LTE-A should be backward compatible to LTE, Release 8.



Interface connecting the radio network controller (RNC) with an MSC or SGSN in a 3G network.



Interface connecting the RNC with the Node B.



A user who does not participate in an online discussion (e.g., in a chat room), but merely observes the activity.




M2M (machine-to-machine)

Connection of two or more devices over a cellular network, in which a human does not control at least one side of the connection. This includes in-car navigation systems, remote-monitoring and control equipment, alarms and inventory management systems.


MAC (Media Access Control)

An IEEE protocol defining the methods used to gain access to the physical layer of a LAN (i.e., Layer 1 of the OSI model – see OSI).


MAC (message authentication code)

A way of confirming that a message has not been tampered with.


MAC (moves, adds and changes)

General term for the routine work performed on computer equipment in an enterprise, including installations, relocations and upgrades.


Magic Number

Most of the on-disk structures in NTFS have a unique constant identifying them. This number is usually located at the beginning of the structure and can be used as a sanity check.



A large-capacity computer system with processing power that is significantly superior to PCs or midrange computers. Traditionally, mainframes have been associated with centralized, rather than distributed, computing environments. Skilled technicians are required to program and maintain mainframes, although client/server technology has made mainframes easier to operate from the user’s and programmer’s perspectives. They are generally used by large organizations to handle data processing for enterprisewide administrative tasks like payroll or accounts payable.


mainstream notebook

A computer system that meets all the criteria for a notebook PC but is designed to be the best compromise between all-inclusive functionality and light weight. Mainstream notebooks weigh between 4.5 and 6 pounds with the weight-saver and battery modules. Mainstream notebooks often have a single bay for the inclusion of a peripheral, such as a CD-ROM.


MAN (metropolitan-area network)

WAN technology deployed primarily in a city or region.


mainstream PC

Mainstream PCs meet all criteria for mobile PCs but typically weigh 4 pounds or more but less than 7.5 pounds.


managed object

A data processing or data communications resource that may be managed through the use of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) management protocol. The resource itself need not be an OSI resource. A managed object may be a piece of equipment, a software component, an abstract collection of information or a combination of all three.


management consulting

Strategic consulting focused on high-level corporate or business unit strategy (e.g., deciding what businesses to participate in or whether to make an acquisition), or on operational improvement ( (e.g., improving customer service or determining the most effective type of retail delivery system).



Producer of branded or unbranded finished products. A manufacturer could be a contract manufacturer, OEM or both.


manufacturing planning

Definition of the weekly or daily production and machine schedules across multiple plants or lines to meet orders and forecast demand. Some manufacturing planning modules also incorporate materials planning.


manufacturing scheduling

Generation of plant-level execution schedules by product and resource (e.g., line and machine) and resolution of day-to-day capacity bottlenecks. Scheduling applications normally include a more granular level of resource information, and will provide such functionality as sequence dependent setup, tank scheduling and point-of-use material availability.


MAP (mobile application part)

Protocol in GSM networks for communication among network elements.


MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface)

The programming interface specification that enables an application to send and receive mail over a Microsoft Mail messaging system. It was designed to separate the mail engine from the mail client.



The transcription of functions into terms that make them equivalent on two different systems. In network operations, it is the logical association of one set of values, such as addresses, on one network with quantities or values of another set, such as devices, on a second network (e.g., name-address mapping).


market spoilers (also market killers)

Web-based businesses that aggregate information about a market and its suppliers, present the aggregated information to consumers via a Web site, and offer decision support to allow customers to differentiate offerings based on independent validation of competitors’ services and features. These businesses diminish the advantage of suppliers that compete through brand identity or reputation.



The domain of customer relationship management (CRM) comprising the selection, acquisition, retention and extension of customer relationships. As marketing models change and new strategies are created that add value to customer relationships, use of technology-enabled marketing will emerge through the Web.


marketing resource management

These applications enable strategic planning and budgeting, program management, creative development and distribution, content management, media planning and execution, event coordination, and resource measurement.


MAS (marketing automation system)

Systems that help marketers execute multichannel marketing campaigns by providing a scripting environment for authoring business rules and interfaces to a variety of third-party applications.



Assemblies of existing software and data services into new Web-based solutions.


master black belt

Designation in Six Sigma of a practitioner who has achieved a very high level of mastery of Six Sigma techniques and is qualified to supervise Black Belts in the practice of Six Sigma skills.


master data management (MDM)

Master data management (MDM) is a technology-enabled discipline in which business and IT work together to ensure the uniformity, accuracy, stewardship, semantic consistency and accountability of the enterprise’s official, shared master data assets. Master data is the consistent and uniform set of identifiers and extended attributes that describes the core entities of the enterprise, such as customers, prospects, citizens, suppliers, sites, hierarchies, and chart of accounts.


Master File Table (See $MFT)


materials management

A term to describe the grouping of management functions related to the complete cycle of material flow, from the purchase and internal control of production materials, to the planning and control of work in process, to the warehousing, shipping and distribution of the finished product. It differs from materials control in that the latter term, traditionally, is limited to the internal control of production materials.



$Max is a named Data Stream of $UsnJrnl.

See also: $UsnJrnl


MB (See Units)


MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service)

Part of the 3GPP Release 6 enhancements to the WCDMA standard, this supports point-to-multipoint broadcast of mobile TV services to handheld devices over cellular networks.


MB-OFDM (multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)

UWB bearer technology promoted by the WiMedia Alliance and chosen by the Bluetooth SIG for integration with current Bluetooth wireless technology. MB-OFDM will offer data throughputs of 480 Mbps and will work with applications designed to use wired standards, such as IEEE 1394 (FireWire) and Universal Serial Bus. WiMedia devices will be capable of falling back to EDR or standard Bluetooth protocols to offer backward compatibility with the large number of Bluetooth devices already on the market. See also UWB.


M-business (mobile business)

New business models enabled by the extensive deployment of key mobile and wireless technologies and devices (for example, Bluetooth, e-purses, smartphones, UMTS and WAP), and by the inherent mobility of most people’s work styles and lifestyles. The value proposition of m-business is that the user can benefit from information or services any time and in any place.


M-commerce (mobile commerce)

Delivery of e-commerce capabilities directly to mobile service users by means of wireless technology.


MC-CDMA (multicarrier code division multiple access)

Underlying standard for the cdma2000 family developed by the 3GPP2 standards organization of the ITU. See also cdma2000.


MCM (marketing content management)

A category of applications that help enterprises respond rapidly to unfolding business circumstances by applying the optimal combination of marketing content across multiple channels. MCM databases provide enterprises with an overview of all available marketing content.


MCMC (Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission)

Regulator for the converging communications and multimedia industry in Malaysia.


MCP (Microsoft Certified Professional)

A Microsoft certification that requires passing a single operating-system test. MCPs can further specialize in Internet technologies to attain an MCP with Internet or site-building specialization, or can continue taking the exams necessary to become a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE).


MCR (minimum cell rate)

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) parameter used to determine the minimum number of cells permitted in a specific time period.


MDDBMS (multidimensional database management system)

A database management system that stores and manages data in dimensional arrays, indexed by dimensions and measured over time.


MDF (main distribution frame)

A wiring arrangement that connects outside lines on one side and internal lines from exchange equipment on the other.


MDM (master data management)


MDM (mobile device management)


MDS (marketing database system)

A database system designed to meet the specialized analytical and application needs of marketers.


MediaFLO (media forward link only)

An OFDM-based mobile TV and data-casting technology developed by Qualcomm for multicasting media content to mobile devices. With initial deployments in the U.S. in the 700MHz band by Verizon and subsequently by AT&T, MediaFLO is an alternative to other mobile TV candidate technologies including DMB, DVB-H and MBMS.


media gateways

A gateway is an infrastructure network element that converts one or more input protocols or media to one or more output media or protocols, such as TDM circuit-switched networks, ATM or IP. It acts as a translation unit between disparate telecom networks, such as PSTNs, NGNs, second-generation (2G), generation two-and-a-half (2.5G) and 3G RANs, and PBXs. Media gateways support VoIP and/or voice over ATM (VoATM). They manage QoS to ensure that voice traffic has priority and that users receive “toll quality” voice service. Manufacturers’ revenue is used as a reporting metric.


media objects

Non-Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files or applications that can be displayed or executed as part of an HTML document. Examples include graphic, audio and video files, and Java applets.


medical management

An umbrella term that encompasses the use of IT for health, disease, care and case management functions. Medical management strategies are designed to modify consumer and provider behavior to improve the quality and outcome of healthcare delivery.



A portal that attempts to serve the entire Internet community (in contrast to a vertical Internet portal, which targets a niche audience).


MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems)

Extremely small mechanical systems using component sizes of the order of micrometres. MEMS can be constructed using silicon fabrication technologies, so can combine silicon electronics and mechanics on the same chip. MEMS can be used for a wide variety of purposes, including sensors (on-chip accelerometers, for example) and displays (for example, Qualcomm’s Mirasol or Texas Instruments’ DLP [Digital Light Processing).


MEO (middle earth orbit )

Orbital plane with an altitude between geosynchronous orbit at 22,237 miles and the earth’s surface. MEO satellites typically orbit the Earth from 9,000 km to 15,000 km. See also GEO and LEO.


MES (manufacturing execution system)

  1. Computerized systems that formalize production methods and procedures within the manufacturing environment, providing online tools to execute work orders.
  2. A broadly defined area that deals with plant floor applications that facilitate manufacturing. It is a catchall phrase that encompasses any manufacturing system not already classified in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) or open control system (OCS) categories. In the broadest definition, MESs include computerized maintenance management systems (CMMSs), laboratory information management systems (LIMSs), shop floor controls (SFCs), production information management systems (PIMSs), statistical process systems (SPSs), quality control systems (QCSs), and specialized applications such as batch reporting and control.


MES (marketing encyclopedia system)

A system that electronically distributes and consolidates up-to-date marketing information into a highly cross-referenced, single-source repository. An MES enables users to quickly locate and display information, thus shortening sales cycles and decreasing printing and distribution costs. An MES contains a database capable of storing all types of information that will be incorporated into the system (e.g., audio, video, sound, text and graphics). The system should have the capability to be used unconnected to a server and should include a remote communications mechanism for electronically downloading and uploading information.


mesh network

Has no centralized access points but uses wireless nodes to create a virtual wireless backbone. Mesh network nodes typically establish network links with neighboring nodes, enabling user traffic to be sent through the network by hopping between nodes on many different paths. At least some nodes must be connected to a core network for backhaul. Mesh networks are self-healing, self-organizing and somewhat scalable, with additional capacity supplied by adding incremental nodes. See also Wi-Fi mesh.


message authentication

A function in which the device determines if the received message arrived from its stated source and in unaltered form. The actual message need not be encrypted, but its authentication code must be.


message broker

A logical hub that copies and resends messages to one or more destinations. As a value-adding third party between information sources and information consumers, it can complement a service-oriented architecture (SOA). Like an SOA, a broker is a design abstraction that may be implemented using component software for some or all of the connections. The interface from a message broker to the application may use an object request broker (ORB) or object transaction monitor (OTM); a request to the message broker may be implemented as a series of method calls to participating components.


message feedback

A method of checking the accuracy of data transmission. The received data is returned to the sending end for comparison with the original data, which is stored there for this purpose. Also called information feedback and loop checking.


message format

Rules for the placement of portions of a message, such as the heading, address, text, end-of-message indication and error-detecting bits.


message numbering

The identification of each message within a communications system through the assignment of a sequential number.


message passing

Services performing a simple, one-way transfer operation between two programs. Like the other one-way messaging models, message passing generally leaves the sending program unblocked. Also, as with all forms of messaging, message passing is usually connectionless, which means that the sending application does not have to explicitly establish and manage a connection with the message’s intended recipient. Although message passing is not inherently a two-way communication model, two-way communication can be accomplished by sending the response in a separate message.


message queuing

The message-queuing or store-and-forward model is basically the message-passing model with one additional feature. Message queuing is asynchronous in a manner similar to a traditional postal system – i.e., the recipient need not be available when the message is sent. Message queuing stores messages at an intermediate node on the network in a queue and then forwards the messages to the intended targets.


message switching

The technique of receiving a message, storing it until the proper outgoing line is available, and then retransmitting it. Unlike in-line switching, no direct connection between the incoming and outgoing lines is established.


message warehouse

A message broker service that temporarily stores messages to be analyzed or retransmitted at a later time.



Alphanumeric or graphic one-way or two-way service that sends, receives and displays messages on a mobile device.


messaging device

A data-centric device designed primarily to process electronic messages. A basic messaging device weighs less than 1 pound and is designed for one-way outbound messaging. Limited responses, such acknowledgments, are also possible but are not common. A two-way messaging device weighs less than 1 pound and is designed to send and receive messages.



Metadata is analagous to the table of contents in a book, with the actual chapters being your data.  Metadata on a storage unit, such as a hard drive, is used by the filesystem only, as a frame to access user data. Metadata constitutes the structure of the filesystem. Metadata examples from various filesystems include FATs, inode tables, free block lists, free block bitmaps, logging areas, and the superblock.  In order to preserve file names and to recover fragmented files (imagine a chapter in a book being divided up among other chapters in the book) it is highly crucial to recover the metadata. Further, meta-data is definitional data

that provides information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment.  For example, meta data would document data about data elements or attributes, (name, size, data type, etc) and data about records or data structures (length, fields, columns, etc) and data about data (where it is located, how it is associated, ownership, etc.). Meta data may include descriptive information about the context, quality and condition, or characteristics of the data.  Metadata is information that describes various facets of an information asset to improve its usability throughout its life cycle. It is metadata that makes information into an asset. Generally speaking, the more valuable the information asset, the more critical it is to manage the metadata about it, because it is the metadata definition that provides understanding that unlocks the value of data.


metadata and data modeling tools

Metadata and data modeling tools support the creation and documentation of models describing the structures, flows, mappings and transformations, relationships, and quality of data. These tools enable users to discover and design data models, create relationships between models, and map and reconcile physical models to logical models.

Recent market activity has created a demand for open access to a wide array of metadata that was previously not considered under the metadata management definition. As a result, metadata management is now pursued through the creation of metadata repositories and the introduction of at least a browsing interface for developers and end users alike.

Metadata can also be used in an active or passive role in the organization, and the tools represent this dichotomy as well. Many metadata tools collect and collate metadata in a passive documentation and viewing role that provides for data definition review, business process flow evaluation, data lineage analysis, change impact analysis and many other passive activities. These tools are considered more-traditional tools. A few metadata tools address the concept of active metadata. Active metadata solutions collect information on current system operations, notify end users of data content changes and perform routing tasks for information to end users.



A directory that acts as a superset of all other directories. Metadirectories have evolved from stand-alone products to services that enable a given directory to synchronize and exchange information with other data repositories.



A language used to describe a language. A metalanguage defines a language’s constructs, such as character sets, syntax and valid sequences.


method-of-purchase segmentation

The IT services market can be divided by the primary methods of purchase used by end users and IT services providers:

  • • Discrete – Project-specific contractual arrangement, with a predetermined scope of work to be completed within a given time period. With discrete services, management responsibility for the delivery of services and outcome is retained by the company; discrete projects may last a few weeks to several years, depending on the project. Typical projects can include, but are not limited to, custom AD, legacy transition services, and enterprise application integration and deployment. In discrete services, management responsibility for the delivery of services and outcome is retained by the company. Typical projects can include, but are not limited to, general staff augmentation, custom application development, legacy transition services, and enterprise application integration.
  • • Outsourcing – Multiyear or annuity-based contractual arrangement, whereby a company provisions services on an ongoing basis at a specified level of competency. Outsourcing involves some degree of transfer of management responsibility for the ongoing delivery of IT services or processes to an external provider, with performance tied to service levels or outcomes. Outsourcing encompasses the management of IT infrastructure (data center, desktop or network), enterprise applications and business processes. Outsourcing agreements always include services from the management category, transaction processing or business management segments, and may include services from the product support, consulting, and development and integration. As part of an outsourcing agreement, the ESP may acquire the physical assets or the employees of a business client. Services may be provided at the client site or remotely from a vendor-owned site.



Building metrics or measurement tools into applications to monitor what is happening in the network or local environment where the application is operating.


MFP (multifunction product)

A network-attached document production device that combines two or more of the copy, print, scan and fax functions.



This metadata file, the Master File Table, is an index of all the files on the volume. It contains the attributes of each file and the root of any indexes.



This metadata file stores a copy of the first four records of $MFT. It is a safety measure which probably only gets used when chkdsk is run.


MHTML (Messaging Hypertext Markup Language)

A language that is capable of packaging externally referenced image files within an HTML page, potentially increasing the bulk of the page significantly.


MIB (Management Information Base)

A Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) flat-file, nonrelational database that describes devices being monitored. Network management platforms monitor nodes by reading the value of the managed resources in the MIB. Management platforms can effect changes in managed resources by altering MIB values (e.g., by establishing thresholds beyond which alerts are created).


MIC (Ministry of Information and Communication)

Former communication and IT regulator in the Republic of South Korea, replaced in 2008 by the Korea Communications Commission (KCC), comprised of the MIC and the Korean Broadcasting Commission. See also KCC.


MICR (magnetic-ink character recognition)

Machine recognition and digitization of magnetically charged characters printed on paper (typically bank drafts and deposit slips).



A small-footprint Web browser suitable for low-powered mobile devices, which supports slimmed-down versions of HTML such as XHTML/Basic.



The microinstructions, especially of a microprocessor, that govern the details of operation. Microcoded functions can improve performance but add a layer of complexity. For example, microcode errors appear to software as being hardware failures.



A high-resolution film used to record images reduced in size from the original.



A central processing unit (CPU) on a single chip, also known as a microprocessing unit (MPU). Desktop and portable computers typically contain one microprocessor, while more powerful computers often make use of multiple microprocessors.


Microsoft .NET platform AD tools

The Microsoft .NET platform AD tool market includes tools used to construct applications that operate within the Microsoft .NET managed code platform. These tools may include code-centric integrated development environments, or they may employ more-advanced features, such as model-driven code generators or other architected rapid AD features.



The software “glue” that helps programs and databases (which may be on different computers) work together. Its most basic function is to enable communication between different pieces of software.


midrange computer

A computer with an architecture similar to that of the minicomputer, which is used for multiple users.


MII (Ministry of Information Industry)

The former communications and IT regulator in the Peoples Republic of China, replaced in March 2008 by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.


MIMD (multiple instruction, multiple data)

A design for parallel computers characterized by the simultaneous execution of many different instruction streams (programs), each of which handles different data.


MIME (Multipurpose Internet Messaging Extensions)

MIME functions enable the transport of attachments and non-ASCII text via the Simple Message Transport Protocol (SMTP). They cover most (but not all) of the features of X.400, and interface with X.400 via the MIME-X.400 Enhanced Relay (MIXER) specification.


MIMO (multiple input/multiple output)

Multi-antenna wireless technology suitable for base stations and mobile devices that can increase throughput, system capacity and spectral efficiency, reduce fading and improve resistance to interference. It is being used in pre-standard 802.11n WLAN equipment and is likely to be adopted in WiMAX and future cellular standards.



A computing device that is typically more powerful than a PC, but less powerful than a mainframe, and is therefore often referred to as “midrange.” A minicomputer can support or more users.


mini-notebook PC

This category typically includes mobile computing devices with screen sizes over 5 inches and less than 11 inches that run a full version of a client OS, such as Linux or Windows XP. Mini-notebooks do not include microinformation devices which are a separate product category and include mobile computing devices with screen sizes between 3 inches and 5 inches. This category, defined primarily by screen size, overrides other platforms defined by weight.



These are desk-based PCs with volume of less than 15 liters.


MIPS (million instructions per second)

An approximate measure of a computer’s raw processing power. MIPS figures can be misleading because measurement techniques often differ, and different computers may require different sets of instructions to perform the same activity.



A term used to describe applications that are critical to the survival of an enterprise. Mission-critical services require a combination of several factors, such as availability, reliability, serviceability and performance. Each of these must be weighted in importance to fit the particular mission to be supported.



Literally, “water spider” – a “troubleshooter” who enables others to do work.


M-JPEG (Motion JPEG)

A version of Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) for compression of motion video, as opposed to still images. Frame-to-frame redundancy is ignored, resulting in less compression than Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The advantages are simplicity and fast access to individual images.


MLM (Medical Logic Module)

The Arden Syntax for MLMs is a de facto standard in healthcare for coding clinical information (e.g., to generate clinical alerts, suggest interpretations or diagnoses, guide compliance with protocols). Each MLM encodes only one decision and evaluates as true or false. Although an MLM can call another MLM, in practice, this rarely occurs.


MM (micro-marketplace)

A narrowly focused market that aggregates multiple vendor offerings, content and value-added services (such as comparison of features) to enable buyers within a particular industry, geographic region or affinity group to make informed purchasing decisions.


MM (multimedia)

Applications and technologies that manipulate text, data, images, sound and full-motion-video objects. Given the usage of multiple formats, multimedia is capable of delivering a stronger and more engaging message than standard text. Multimedia files are typically larger than text-based information and are therefore usually stored on CD-ROMs. Games and educational software commonly use multimedia.


MMDS (multichannel multipoint distribution service)

Fixed wireless technology, sometimes referred to as wireless cable TV or wireless generic DSL (xDSL). MMDS operates between 2.5GHz and 2.7GHz and is used for broadcasting, personal communications and interactive media services in metropolitan areas.


MMIS (materials management information system)

A software suite packaged as an integrated offering to meet materials management, human-resources and back-office needs. At a minimum, MMISs should be designed to interface readily with other mission-critical information systems in the enterprise.


MML (multimedia markup language)

Microbrowser developed for the J-Phone (now Vodafone KK) mobile data service, similar to DoCoMo’s proprietary cHTML browser.


MMS (multimedia messaging service)

3GPP mobile messaging standard that supports picture messaging, sound, graphics and voice. Unlike EMS, MMS does not draw on established messaging technology (such as SMS). Instead, it requires network operators to deploy new infrastructure, including a multimedia messaging service center. It uses a wireless data bearer to deliver messages and requires MMS functionality in mobile devices. The MMS standard was defined jointly by the 3GPP (TS 23.140) and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA), incorporating the WAP Forum. MMS supports many features that could not be delivered using established mobile messaging standards.


MNO (mobile-network operator)

Company that owns and operates one or more mobile networks.


MNS (managed network services)

The vendor delivery of primarily operational support for a new environment in which the hardware assets, financial obligations and personnel still remain on the books of the customer.


MO (magneto-optic)

A type of storage technology that uses magnetization produced by a focused light beam.


mobile and wireless infrastructure software platforms

These development tools and deployment servers are used to create brand-new customer mobile applications or to “mobilize” established conventional enterprise applications, e-mail and enterprise data stores.


mobile and wireless packaged application software

The terms “mobile application” and “wireless application” are used in the trade press, often interchangeably, and can refer to simple stand-alone software or to internetworked processes of great complexity. Mobile and wireless applications can range from a menuing system on a smartphone, to a calendar or a tic-tac-toe game on a PDA, to Internet/corporate e-mail connectivity, to a sales force automation order-entry system that updates back-end databases over a wireless link.


mobile carrier

An entity that owns/operates a mobility wireless network infrastructure and provides aforementioned services.


mobile Centrex

Network-based service using wireless mobile phones that enables traditional PBX-style calling features. Mobile Centrex can be provided in several forms: IP PBX with cellular or Wi-Fi dual-mode handsets, private base stations with cellular single-mode handsets, or mobile virtual private networks (VPNs).


mobile DRM (mobile digital rights management)

Technology that enables the secure distribution, promotion and sale of digital content for mobile devices. The OMA sees mobile DRM as an enabler of controlled consumption of digital content, enabling content providers to specify usage rights on such content. Usage rights include, among other things, the ability to enable content to be previewed and the ability to prevent illegal copying and redistribution.


mobile earth station

A radio transmitter or receiver situated on a ship, aircraft or other vehicle and used for satellite communications.


Mobile Explorer

Microsoft’s microbrowser for Windows Mobile smartphones and PDAs. See also microbrowser.


mobile fax

Facility that allows facsimile reception and transmission over a cellular network.


mobile IM (instant messaging)

IM available from a wireless device. This is an evolution of two-way SMS and paging technologies. IM not only offers Internet compatibility but also its concept of presence and “buddy lists;” it also permits the autodiscovery of addressable recipients. Wide-area mobile IM is available on suitably configured cell phones and PDAs, but usage is dwarfed by the worldwide volumes of SMS. WLAN IM requires enterprises to make the decision to install the equipment, with a more problematic justification.


mobile IP

Defines a packet-forwarding mechanism for mobile and remote hosts so that remote users can connect to their networks over the Internet. It can work with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). See ATMP.


mobile middleware

Middleware designed to address specific challenges faced by mobile applications running on wireless links that may be slow, intermittent or have high latency. Mobile middleware performs functions such as protocol optimization, data synchronization and data compression.


mobile network

Cellular telecommunication system comprising MSCs, antenna cell sites and radio base stations.


mobile payment

Mobile payment is transactions conducted using a mobile phone and payment instruments that include:

  • • Banking instruments such as cash, bank account or debit/credit card, and
  • • Stored value accounts (SVAs) such as transport card, gift card, Paypal or mobile wallet


and exclude transactions that use:

  • • Carrier billing using the telecom’s billing system with no integration of the bank’s payment infrastructure, or
  • • Telebanking by using the mobile phone to call the service center via an interactive voice response (IVR) system. However, IVR used in combination with other mobile channels such as Short Message Service (SMS) or Unstructured Structured Service Data (USSD) is included.


mobile PC

Mobile PCs meet all PC criteria but are designed to be easily moved from place to place. The system is completely self-contained and can be carried as a single unit, which includes a keyboard, a display, mass storage and the main system unit. Its power sources are alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). This segment also includes tablet devices that are distinguished by a pen-based OS, which uses a pen as a primary input device rather than a keyboard (no longer tracked separately). Mobile PCs include desktop replacement, mainstream, mini-notebook, ultraportable, tablet or other mobile configurations.


mobile PC ODMs

Mobile PC ODMs are defined as mobile PC contract manufacturers that provide mobile PC manufacturing services to mobile PC OEM vendors.


mobile portal

Internet gateway that enables mobile devices to connect remotely with an enterprise intranet or extranet, typically via a Web browser interface. Consumer-oriented mobile portals provide access to mobile services and content using channels such as SMS, a microbrowser such as WAP, i-mode and voice. Consumer mobile portals aggregate content from many sources and may offer personalized services and content to mobile users – for example, unified messaging, news, search facilities, directories and m-commerce transactions.


mobile satellite communications

Satellite-based services to ships, motor vehicles and aircraft.


mobile transformers

Mobile device products with an innovative and/or adaptive form factor that users can modify dynamically, based on specific context and needs. Some products are still at conceptual model stage (for example, the Nokia Morph); others are already commercially available. Modu’s Modu Mobile uses a modular, Lego-like approach, based on building blocks, to assemble and create the most appropriate form factor for a user at a given time. Nokia’s Morph instead adopts innovative materials (based on nanotechnologies) that enable flexible, foldable, stretchable designs – allowing users to transform their mobile devices into radically different shapes.


mobile TV

Any linear, continuous content that is streamed or broadcast over a network to mobile phones. This is often referred to as “live” or real-time TV.


mobile VPN (mobile virtual private network)

Designed for use on resource-constrained devices and in addition to traditional VPN services; provides functions to address the specific challenges of mobile networking. Examples include IP session persistence, protocol optimization and data compression. See also VPN.


mobile Web 2.0

Use of Web 2.0 technology and business models in the mobile market.


mobile wireless

Client device support for roaming while connected at vehicular speeds without dropping a session. The terms “nomadic,” “portable” and “mobile” often vary in definition when used by vendors. See also fixed wireless and semi-mobile wireless.


mobile/wireless portal

A Web site with a wide range of content, services and links designed for mobile devices. It acts as a value-added middleman by selecting the content sources and assembling them in a simple-to-navigate (and customizable) interface for presentation to the end-user’s mobile device.


mobile WLL (mobile wireless local loop)

Wireless access solutions deployed using standardized cellular or low-mobility infrastructure and mobile devices. This primarily includes technologies such as cdmaOne (IS-95A and B), cdma2000 1x RTT, Personal HandyPhone System (PHS) and personal access communication services (PACS). For commercial or regulatory reasons, mobile WLLs are not operated as full mobility cellular services, even though the networks may be technically capable of supporting such services. Personal Access System (PAS) is a trademark of UTStarcom for its portfolio of mobile WLL products based on the PHS standard.



Audio (or audio and video) content specifically designed for playback on mobile audio/video players such as Apple’s iPod and MPEG-enabled mobile phones. Mobisodes are an example of “sticky” content and are similar in concept to the radio programs of the 1940s and 1950s. These consisted of compelling short daily or weekly episodes that encouraged subscribers to keep coming back for the next edition. See also podcast.


modem speed

Composed of 9.6 kilobits per second (Kbps), 14.4 Kbps and 33.6 Kbps.



The application of information onto a carrier signal by varying one or more of the signal’s basic characteristics (frequency, amplitude or phase); the conversion of a signal from its original (e.g., digital) format to analog format. Specific types include:

  • • AM (amplitude modulation)
  • • ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse code modulation)
  • • FM (frequency modulation)
  • • PAM (pulse amplitude modulation)
  • • PCM (pulse code modulation)
  • • PWM (pulse width modulation; also called PDM, or pulse duration modulation)


MOM (message-oriented middleware)

MOM products provide connectionless program-to-program communications services for intra-application and interapplication (that is, integration) purposes. Interactions implemented with MOM may be fully asynchronous (one way, store and forward) or partially synchronous (immediate, one-way delivery or two-way request/reply exchanges). MOM strengths are in connectionless (loosely coupled) communications, store and forward (queuing), guaranteed delivery, broad platform support (run on many OSs), and in some cases, content- or subject-based addressing (for example, publish and subscribe). Unlike remote procedure calls (RPCs), MOM products also support one-to-many, many-to-one or many-to-many delivery.

MOM products complement application servers by providing features that are missing or not well-supported through RPC and other connection-oriented communications mechanisms, such as Component Object Model (COM)+, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and SOAP RPC. All major Java application servers and most integration suites now include a bundled MOM service, often based on the Java Messaging System standard, but stand-alone (unembedded) MOM products are also still sold. The popular stand-alone (unembedded) communications middleware products on the market today are MOM or a combination of messaging and other forms of middleware.



$MountMgrDatabase is a named Data Stream of dot (the root directory). It contains a list of mounted volumes.

See also: Dot, Root Directory.


MOUs (minutes of use)

Measurement (usually monthly) of a wireless user’s total circuit-switched voice connection time.


MP (multiprocessor)

A computer that incorporates multiple processors with access to common storage.


MP3 (MPEG Layer 3)

Format for audio compression that offers significant compression while retaining excellent audio quality. MP3 is one of many audio compression algorithms that can reduce audio storage requirements to typical ranges of 0.3 to 1.0 megabytes per minute.


M-payment (mobile payment)

Payments initiated or completed through wireless devices. Many carriers are targeting the underdeveloped micropayments (less than $10) market for digital content and physical goods as a point of entry into retail payments.


MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group)

A digital video standard for compression of full-motion images. The compression ratios achieved with MPEG encoding make it an ideal standard for delivery of digital video data.

MPEG-1 deals with mono and stereo sound coding, at sampling frequencies commonly used for high-quality audio. MPEG-2 contains an extension to lower sampling frequencies, providing better sound quality at the low bit rates, and an extension for multichannel sound. MPEG-3 and MPEG-4, with further improvements, are under development. Both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 have a three-layer structure. Each layer represents a family of coding algorithms. Layer 3 deals with sound encoding, and can’t be used by itself to encode audio files. In this form, it is known as MP3.


MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)

A protocol that improves Internet Protocol (IP) service levels for data streaming.


MPLS-TP (Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Profile)


MPOA (multiprotocol over ATM)

A routing option that combines the second phase of local-area network (LAN) emulation with a route server, a route set cache of protocols, and route cache devices or edge devices that maintain route tables updated by the server.


MPP (massively parallel processing)

An architecture that uses hundreds or thousands of parallel processors.


MPS (managed print service)

A generic term for a service offered by an external provider to optimize or manage a company’s document output to certain objectives, such as driving down costs, improving efficiency and productivity, and keeping information secure. In a MPS, the service provider takes primary responsibility for meeting the customer’s office printing needs, including the printing equipment, the supplies, the service and overall management of the printer fleet.


MQM (message-queuing middleware)

A model to store and forward messages, thereby enabling asynchronous operations.


MRO (maintenance, repair and operations)

The activities associated with the operation and repair of any facility, equipment or asset, and the material purchased to support these activities.


MRP (material requirements planning)

An early category of manufacturing business software, which focused only on planning manufacturing materials and inventories, and did not integrate planning for other resources, such as people and machine capacity.


MRP II (manufacturing resource planning)

A method for effective planning of all the resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units and financial planning in dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer “what if” questions. It is made up of a variety of functions, each linked together: business planning, production planning, master production scheduling (MPS), material requirements planning (MRP), capacity requirements planning (CRP) and the execution systems for capacity and priority. Outputs from these systems can be integrated with business reports (e.g., business plans, purchase commitment reports, shipping budgets or inventory projections). MRP II is a direct outgrowth and extension of MRP. MRP II is migrating toward enterprise resource planning (ERP).


MSA (metropolitan service area or metropolitan statistical area)

Geographic area designation used for the allocation of 1,900MHz cellular licenses to mobile service providers in the U.S. that determines where they can operate. An MSA is an urban area with at least 50,000 people or a non-urban area with at least 100,000 people. There are 306 MSAs and 428 RSAs in the U.S. There is considerable overlap with the older BTA and MTA designations. See also BTA, MTA and RSA.


MSC (mobile switching center)

Stand-alone switch with lines and trunks supporting wireless telephony services. It covers core-switching functionalities and does not include off-switch subscriber information platforms, such as HLRs and visitor location registers (VLRs).


MSI (medium-scale integration)

Fewer than 100 circuits built onto a single chip. MSI is used frequently in third-generation systems.


MSN IM (Microsoft Instant Messaging)

Free, public IM service.


MSO (management services organization)

A service organization of an integrated delivery system or hospital that provides management services for multiple affiliated physician practices and clinics.


MSP (management service provider)

Also known as “managed-service providers,” MSPs deliver network, application, system and e-management services across a network to multiple enterprises, using a “pay as you go” pricing model. A “pure play” MSP focuses on management services as its core offering. In addition, the MSP market includes offerings from other providers – including application service providers (ASPs), Web hosting companies and network service providers (NSPs) – that supplement their traditional offerings with management services. (See ASP and NSP.)


MSS (mobile satellite service)

Networks of communication satellites intended for use with mobile and portable wireless telephones. There are three major types: aeronautical MSS, land MSS and maritime MSS. See also ATC.


MSSP (managed security service provider)

An MSSP provides outsourced monitoring and management of security devices and systems. Common services include managed firewall, intrusion detection, virtual private network, vulnerability scanning and anti-viral services. MSSPs use high-availability security operation centers (either from their own facilities or from other data center providers) to provide 24×7 services designed to reduce the number of operational security personnel an enterprise needs to hire, train and retain to maintain an acceptable security posture.


MST (See Multi-Sector Transfer)


MSU (million service units)

Millions of service units (MSUs) were introduced to the IBM software pricing methodologies in the mid-1990s. For almost 10 years, there was a consistent ratio between MSUs and MIPS. In 2003, IBM changed its direction to publish separate “pricing” and “performance” MSUs. In 2004, IBM changed again, this time to assign a single published MSU rating for each system and capacity setting that standardized on what was previously called the “pricing” MSU. Today, MSUs are used for software pricing only; they are not a capacity metric. The ratio of MIPS to MSU varies depending upon IBM mainframe generation.


MTA (metropolitan trading area)

Geographic area designation used for the allocation of 800MHz cellular licenses to mobile service providers in the U.S. that determines where they can operate. Each MTA is made up of several BTAs. There are 493 BTAs and 51 MTAs in the U.S. See also BTA, MSA and RSA.


MTBF (mean time between failures)

The cumulative average time that a manufacturer estimates will elapse between failures in a computer component or system.


MTTR (mean time to repair)

An estimated average time required to do repairs on equipment.


MUD (multiuser detection)

Technique employed in cellular networks to reduce interference and enhance capacity and cell coverage.



The Japanese term for waste relating to any activity that consumes resources but adds no value.



Mobile device that can function on different (multiple) frequency bands, such as a dual-band GSM900MHz mobile device that also operates in the 1,800MHz frequency band. See also dual-band, dual-mode and tri-band.



Multicast, as opposed to broadcast, is a signal transmitted to only a subset of potential destinations.


multichannel IPTV

The typical IPTV model involves both broadcast pay-TV and on-demand services. Most IPTV providers offer both, though it is multichannel pay TV that remains the key selling point in most services – and it generates most of the revenue. As a result, many IPTV services still have a strong focus on competing in a like-for-like manner against existing pay-TV services such as cable TV and direct-to-home (DTH) satellite offerings, often with similar packages of channels. Although this will change as new functionality is made available to IPTV users, it means that multichannel TV will be the foundation of IPTV offerings for several years. As a result, our key metric when sizing the market is the number of multichannel IPTV subscribers.


multienterprise (B2B) solutions

Multienterprise (B2B) gateway software is a form of integration middleware that is used to consolidate and centralize a company’s multienterprise data, application and process integration and interoperability requirements with external business partners. The types of projects supported by B2B gateway software include traditional approaches to B2B (including EDI), contemporary approaches to B2B (including XML and Applicability Statement 2 [AS2]), and emerging approaches to B2B (including service-oriented architecture [SOA] and Web-services-based process integration). It includes middleware technology from multiple disciplines, including integration middleware, ESBs, application servers, composite application suites, EDI translators, and B2B-enabled integration middleware that is increasingly available with packaged applications. The key point is that IT users are specifically looking for technology that enables them to manage all aspects of IT infrastructure.


multimedia workstation

A workstation that can process multimedia applications.



Mobile device that functions on several different radio systems. Multimode devices may support wide-area wireless broadband connections, such as WLAN, as well as multiple cellular networks. See also dual-mode and GAN.


multimode fiber

A fiber supporting propagation of multiple modes. The cable has a core diameter of 50-100 microns. It causes more distortion and gives less bandwidth than single-mode (monomode) fiber.


multipass device

A color page output device that needs to pass the print head over a page multiple times to print each color. In the case of a laser printer/MFP, it passes over one of the four (CMYK) developing units once to generate the four-color results. On each pass a different color is imaged on the paper. The paper would need to complete four passes to image a full-color CMYK image.


multiple console operation

A private branch exchange (PBX) supporting more than one attendant’s position to handle heavy traffic. Call traffic is distributed evenly among the consoles in use.


multiple customer group operation

A public branch exchange (PBX) that can be shared by several different companies, each having separate consoles and trunks. Stations are assigned to one company or the other and are then capable of reaching only that company’s trunks and attendants.



Division of a transmission facility into two or more channels either by splitting the frequency band transmitted by the channel into narrower bands, each of which is used to constitute a distinct channel (frequency division multiplexing), or by allotting this common channel to several different information channels, one at a time (time division multiplexing).



Pertaining or referring to a communications line to which three or more stations are connected. It implies that the line physically extends from one station to another until all are connected. See point to point.


multipoint line

A single communications channel (typically a leased telephone circuit) to which more than one station or logical unit is attached, though only one can transmit at a time. Such arrangements usually require a polling mechanism under the control of a master station to ensure that only one device transmits data at a time. Also called a multidrop line.



A computer system operation whereby a number of independent jobs are processed together. Rather than allow each job to run to completion in turn, the computer switches between them so as to improve the use of the system hardware components.


Multi-Sector Transfer

multiple sectors, fixup, safety checks


multiservice edge routers

These routers are another subcategory of edge router. They are optimized to support the aggregation and convergence of traffic from disparate traditional networks and to forward it to the IP/MPLS network core. Multiservice edge routers have evolved to incorporate multiple services and to handle packet processing of ATM/frame relay, Layer 2 and Layer 3 VPNs, leased lines, video applications, broadband aggregation, Ethernet and voice applications. These routers support virtual private LAN service (VPLS) and all major routing protocols, and have a virtual IP/MPLS control plane.

Multiservice edge router vendors and their products include:

  • • Alcatel-Lucent: 7750 Service Router.
  • • Cisco: Cisco 7600 with OSM interface and Cisco ASR 9000.
  • • Juniper Networks: M320.
  • • Redback Networks: SmartEdge router series.
  • • Tellabs: 8800 MSR Series.


multisourcing and multisourced services

Multisourcing is the disciplined provisioning and blending of business and IT services from the optimal set of internal and external providers in the pursuit of business goals.

Multisourced services are business and IT services sourced from internal and external providers.



Concurrent processing of more than one message (or similar service request) by an application program.



The Japanese term for waste arising from unevenness or variation.



The Japanese term for waste caused by overstressing people, plant or equipment.


MVNE (mobile virtual network enabler)

Does not have a relationship with customers but provides network infrastructure and related services, such as provisioning, administration and OSS/BSS, to enable mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) to offer services to their own customers. In the U.S., Visage is an example of an MVNE.


MVNO (mobile virtual network operator)

Company that does not own a mobile spectrum license but sells mobile services under its brand name using the network of a licensed mobile operator. Virgin Mobile is one example of an MVNO. The term is applied to a variety of arrangements with a mobile network operator. At one end are companies offering mobile services under a particular brand, with their own marketing and tariff structure, usually through a sophisticated CRM system. At the other end are companies with their own core network infrastructures, issuing their own SIM cards and controlling elements of network infrastructure such as the HLR and MSC, in addition to their own products.





The Japanese term sometimes used to describe synchronized single-piece flow such that movement is like an assembly line but not necessarily with a physical linkage between elements.


NAP (network access point)

The point from which an Internet service provider (ISP) drops down its lines and establishes a peering arrangement to provide Internet connectivity to customers.


narrowband channels

Sub-voice-grade pathways characterized by a speed range of 100 to 200 bits per second.


NAS (network-attached storage)

A category of storage products in which the requisite hardware and software comes bundled into an integrated product, which is optimized for use as a dedicated file or storage management server attached to the enterprise’s network. Ideally, NAS is platform- and OS-independent, appears to any application as another server, can be brought online without shutting down the network and requires no changes to other enterprise servers.


NAT (network address translation)


NC (network computer)

Often called a “thin client,” a network computer is a limited-function desktop computer that is designed to easily connect to networks. NCs include a keyboard, mouse, monitor, memory and a network connection but only limited, if any, local disk storage. When end users want to access software or databases using an NC, they would use a graphical user interface (GUI), much as they do now with a PC. However, the software would be downloaded from a central server instead of being resident on the desktop PC; large databases would also be maintained on the central server. All software backups, upgrades and maintenance would therefore be performed centrally on the network server.


NCCJ (native code compiler for Java)

Translates byte code into a file format and binary-code representation that can be linked (using a static linker) with pre-compiled libraries and resources to form the executable program. An NCCJ provides the opportunity to optimize the structure of the program code to eliminate redundant code as well as to fine tune code sequences (e.g., loops, jumps and substitutions).


NCOP (network code of practice)

A code of standard practices for network design, intended to maintain technical standards.


NDC (networked data center)

A service that goes beyond making data center functionality available on a network. An NCC employs networking technology to treat multiple data centers and the network as a single system to efficiently access and process applications.


NDF (network dynamic functionality)

A software development and execution technology that allows applications to be written to a model designed from the outset to achieve platform independence. It affords dynamic movement and invocation of code resources over a network at runtime.


necessary non-value-adding

Non-value-adding activities that are necessary under the present operating system or equipment. They are likely to be difficult to remove in the short term but may be possible to eliminate in the medium term by changing equipment or processes. Often used to describe regulatory compliance activity that adds no direct customer value but is required to maintain the “license to operate.”



“Lining up the ducks” or “going among the roots” (literally) – the activity of laying a foundation for further activity.



At its core, .NET represents Microsoft’s implementation of the Web services concept, which treats software as a set of services accessible over ubiquitous networks using Web-based standards and protocols, although Microsoft has broadly applied the .NET moniker to several independent technologies and initiatives that have little to do with Web services (for example, .NET Enterprise Servers).

As a software infrastructure, .NET consists of two programming models:

  • • A Web services programming model, which exposes programming interfaces through Internet standards. This loosely coupled model uses HTTP and other Internet protocols as the main underlying transport mechanisms, and also uses XML, SOAP, WSDL and Universal Description, Discovery and Integration. Initially, most of this model will use a request/reply communications style.
  • • A system programming model designed to supersede Microsoft’s COM and the Windows application programming interfaces over time. This model introduces a new set of fundamental classes and a new runtime environment – the Common Language Runtime – providing an object-oriented class hierarchy structure as part of the application runtime environment. It also provides classes and mechanisms that enable programs to be “wrapped” as Web services, so it can ease – but is not required for – Web services development.


net new connections

Gross new connections minus the number of disconnections from the network in a given period.



Any number of computers (e.g., PCs and servers) and devices (e.g., printers and modems) joined together by a physical communications link. In the enterprise context, networks allow information to be passed between computers, irrespective of where those computers are located. Networks provide the roads for information traffic (e.g., sending files and e-mail) within a corporate environment, and allow users to access databases and share applications residing on servers. If a network does not go outside of a company building, or campus, then it is known as a local-area network (LAN). If it has a bridge to other outside networks, usually via lines owned by public telecommunications carriers like AT&T, then it is known as a wide-area network (WAN).


network appliance

A type of computing appliance that aids in the flow of information to other network-connected computing devices. Services that may be provided by a network appliance include firewall functions, caching, authentication, network address translation and IP address management.


network computing

A client/server application architecture with dynamic application deployment, execution and management. Network computing is characterized by four properties: dynamic cached propagation; write once, run anywhere; automatic platform adjustment; and network context storage.


network database

A database organized according to ownership of records, allowing records to have multiple owners and thus providing multiple access paths to the data. Database management systems (DBMSs) providing such capabilities are also known as CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) DBMSs.


network management

These are applications designed to isolate and resolve faults on the network, measure and optimize performance, manage the network topology, track resource use over time, initially provision and reconfigure elements, and account for network elements. Suites that include fault monitoring and diagnosis, provisioning/configuration, accounting, performance management, and TCP/IP application management – but only for networks – are also included here. This network management segment is intended for products that are mainly or entirely network-oriented and used primarily by enterprises.

Also included in this category are network CM tools. These tools set, change, collect and restore information about network devices (such as bridges, routers, switches and so forth).


network outsourcing (enterprise and public network)

Network outsourcing is a multiyear or annuity contract/relationship involving the purchase of ongoing network or telecom management services for managing, enhancing, maintaining and supporting premises or core network infrastructure or enterprise telecommunications assets (including fixed and wireless). In addition to network or telecommunications management, network outsourcing isolates those services specifically delivered in a longer-term contract in support of network infrastructures: consulting/advisory services, network AD and integration, network infrastructure deployment and support services.

Network outsourcing is segmented into two categories: enterprise network outsourcing and public network outsourcing. Enterprise network outsourcing does not include discrete, project-based professional services or staff augmentation services. Also, enterprise network outsourcing does not include services related to the physical cable plant or other facilities-related services (such as power conditioning). For public network outsourcing, we include services related to the carrier network, business and operations support systems. Internal ITO is not considered, nor are services related to public network facilities and logistics planning (for example, DC power, land acquisition and tower placement). Similarly, discrete, project-based professional services or staff augmentation services (commonly referred to as engineer-furnish-install) are not included in public network outsourcing.


network performance tuning/configuring facilities

The ability to configure combinations of local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks (WANs) centrally and dynamically based on anticipation and prioritization of data traffic volumes. Physical data paths could be configured based on data traffic content (i.e., transaction type). This is particularly important for online transaction processing (OLTP) applications.


network redundancy

A communications pathway that has additional links to connect all nodes in case one link goes down.


network security

Measures taken to protect a communications pathway from unauthorized access to, and accidental or willful interference of, regular operations.


network topology

Describes the physical and logical relationship of nodes in a network, the schematic arrangement of the links and nodes, or some hybrid combination thereof.


network virtual terminal

A communications concept describing a variety of data terminal equipment (DTE), with different data rates, protocols, codes and formats, accommodated in the same network. This is done as a result of network processing where each device’s data is converted into a network standard format, then converted into the format of the receiving device at the destination end.


neural net or neural network

An artificial-intelligence processing method within a computer that allows self-learning from experience. Neural nets can develop conclusions from a complex and seemingly unrelated set of information.


NEXT (near-end crosstalk)

Unwanted energy transferred from one circuit, usually to an adjoining circuit. It occurs at the end of the transmission link where the signal source is located, with the absorbed energy usually propagated in the opposite direction of the absorbing channel’s normal current flow. It is usually caused by high-frequency or unbalanced signals and insufficient shielding.


NFC (near field communication)

Emerging short-range networking technique designed to provide a means of conducting secure transactions for consumer applications. NFC enables a combination of RFID and connectivity-enabling devices to read tags and conduct transactions, and operates over a range of 10 centimeters, or about 4 inches. The physical, data link and networking layer specifications were released in October 2003 as ISO 18092. The Near Field Communication Forum industry body is developing higher-level protocols focusing on incorporating NFC for making transactions on mobile phones, PCs and consumer electronics. NFC is unique among short-range wireless technologies in that it uses magnetic induction rather than electromagnetic waves. It will be capable of working in conjunction with other wireless technologies to simplify and effectively establish secure connections between devices enabled by Bluetooth, UWB and ZigBee to exchange pairing information. See also FeliCa.


NG (next-generation)


NGN (next-generation network)

Generic term that describes the evolution and migration of fixed and mobile network infrastructures from distinct, proprietary networks to converged networks based on IP.



Half of a byte (4 bits).


NIC (network interface card)

The bus-specific adapter that connects an end station or server to a local-area network (LAN). It plugs into an expansion slot on a workstation or server that is to be networked and has a connector for the network cabling.


NLO (net-liberated organization)

A concept describing an organizational philosophy enabled by the advent of the Internet and related Web technologies. Rather than “bolting on” Web initiatives to mainstream operations (i.e., integrating the Internet into business processes, but leaving the structure of these processes intact) an NLO uses these technologies to liberate itself from the constraints of traditional business environments that focus on local and physical infrastructures.

The goal of an NLO is to transform the enterprise into one that is more agile, and thus better able to meet customer demands. As such, the Internet is the primary enabler of liberating organizations from constraints associated with:

  • • Time (when business is conducted)
  • • Place (where business is conducted)
  • • Hierarchy (how people interrelate)
  • • Ownership (who owns the assets deployed for business)
  • • Information (how information is disseminated and used in human and process activities)


NLP (natural-language processing)

The process of converting narrative text to coded facts. Typically, a body of information – such as a series of publications, reports or even a collection of messages – is analyzed and the results displayed as dominant associations or relationships, and show which topics or subjects occurred most frequently.


NLU (natural-language understanding)

The comprehension by computers of the structure and meaning of human language (e.g., English, Spanish, Japanese), allowing users to interact with the computer using natural sentences.


NMC (network management center)

The center used for control of a network. It may provide traffic analysis, call detail recording, configuration control, fault detection and diagnosis and maintenance.


NMOS (N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor)

A microelectronic circuit used for logic and memory chips and in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) design. NMOS transistors are faster than the P-channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) counterpart, and more of them can be put on a single chip.


NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone)

A cellular standard that operates in the 450MHz band. It is the original specification for analog cellular telephony developed for the four Nordic countries and was subsequently deployed in some Eastern European, South American and Asia/Pacific countries.



NMT standard operating at 900MHz.



French variation of the NMT-900 standard.


Node B

WCDMA/UMTS term for a radio base station receiver, as defined by the 3GPP. It provides radio coverage and converts data between the radio network and the RNCs.


nomadic wireless

Term used by the WiMAX Forum for semimobile wireless. The terms “nomadic,” “portable” and “mobile” often vary in definition when used by vendors. See also fixed wireless and mobile wireless.



Those activities within a company or supply chain that do not directly contribute to satisfying end consumers’ requirements. It is useful to think of these as activities that consumers would not be happy to pay for.


nonwireline cellular carrier

A U.S. term referring to Block A carriers. Nonwireline or Block A systems operate on radio frequencies from 824 to 848 megahertz (MHz).


NOS (network operating system)

A set of software utilities that, working in conjunction with an operating system, provides the local-area network (LAN) user interface and controls network operation. A network operating system communicates with the LAN hardware and enables users to communicate with one another and to share files and peripherals. Typically, a NOS provides file-to-print services, directory services and security.



A computer system designed for portability. It comes with a battery and typically measures 8.5 inches by 11 inches and weighs less than 8 pounds with the battery and weight-saver modules. Notebooks use flat-panel color screens of Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA) resolution or higher. They offer expansion through PC-Card technologies and have specialized integrated pointing devices. Types of notebooks include:

  • • Desktop Alternative: This is a computer system that meets all the criteria for a notebook PC but is designed to replicate the functionality of a desktop. It weighs 6 pounds or above. The screen can be as large as 15 inches or 16 inches with SVGA resolution or higher. Target markets include engineers and end users wanting to travel carrying minimal weight.
  • • Mainstream: This is a computer system that meets all the criteria for a notebook PC but is designed to be the best compromise between all-inclusive functionality and light weight. Mainstream notebooks weigh between 4.5 and 6 pounds with the weight-saver and battery modules. Mainstream notebooks often have a single bay for the inclusion of a peripheral, such as a CD-ROM.
  • • Ultraportable: This is a computer system that meets all the criteria for a notebook PC but is lighter and may not have an internal floppy disk drive. It typically weighs 4 pounds or less with the battery and weight-saver modules. The keyboard and screen are often compromised to meet weight targets and the unit must be augmented with a standard keyboard and mouse for long-term use.


notification services

Notification services are applications used to notify teams such as medical staff, technical assistants and financial brokers – as well as customers or other regular recipients – of events, alerts or calls. Notification can be sent via a user’s preferred channel of communication, such as voice mail, e-mail, SMS, IM or phone. Notification services can also be used by team co-workers to escalate unresolved issues to management.


NPV (net present value)

An accounting tool that captures the net value of an investment at the current instant in time by taking the sum of the discounted cash flow less the current investment.


NSM (network and systems management)

The intersection of networking, network management and systems management. The vision of NSM (also known as “networked systems management”)is to enable the management of a distributed set of systems in a fashion similar to that in which many centralized data centers are managed.


NSP (network service provider)

Any provider of network services, interexchange carriers (IXCs) and Internet service providers (ISPs).


NT Authority

The NT Authority defines the scope of the security identifier. Numbers 0 – 4 represent internal identifiers, e.g. World, Local. 5 represents the NT Authority.



NTC (National Telecommunications Commission, Republic of the Philippines)

Communications regulator for information and communication technology in the Philippines, an agency of the Department of Transportation.



NTFS is the file system of Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Windows XP.

See also: Filesystem


NT Sub Authority

The Sub Authority can contain any number of fields (five is usual). Sub Authorities beginning with 21 (0×15) denote a NT Domain identifier. NT Authority SID $SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR





This is one of the named indexes belonging to $Quota and $ObjId.

See also: Index, $Q, $ObjId and $Quota.


OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)

An international nonprofit consortium that promotes open, collaborative development of e-business specifications based on public standards such as XML and SGML.


object-based middleware

Runtime software that enables objects (components) to work cooperatively with a container program or another object, even if the software is distributed across multiple computers.


object-based technologies

Technologies in which objects have encapsulation.


object class

A grouping of objects that can be described in terms of the attributes its members have in common. Generic e-mail, for example, could be an object class, because all e-mail systems have certain things in common.


object data model

A data model based on object-oriented programming, associating methods (procedures) with objects that can benefit from class hierarchies. Thus, “objects” are levels of abstraction that include attributes and behavior. An object-oriented data model is one that extends the individual program space into the world of persistent object management and shareability.


object encapsulation

Hiding complexity. Data and procedures may be encapsulated to produce a single object.



This attribute stores a mapping between a SID and a Security Hash.


object inheritance

Inheritance defines a relationship among classes in which a subclass shares, overrides or supplements operations or data values from one or more superclasses. A subclass is a specialization of one or more superclasses.


object instance

A specific occurrence of an object. For example, a specific mail message document is an instance.


object late binding

Runtime interpretation of messages. Using late binding, objects are integrated at runtime, as opposed to compiling an integrated object. This greatly enhances flexibility.


object management

Middleware that manages the naming, location and invocation of objects in a system.


object message passing

In object-oriented systems, one object never operates on another. Instead, one object may pass a message to another object requesting invocation of a method – e.g., “print yourself,” “display yourself” or “file yourself.”


object method

Methods define what can be done with an object. Methods for an electronic-mail document may be display, send, file or print.


object-oriented system

In an object-oriented system, all data is represented as discrete objects with which the user and other objects may interact. Each object contains data as well as information about the executable file needed to interpret that data. An object-oriented system allows the user to focus completely on tasks rather than tools. Examples of object-oriented programming languages include C++ and Smalltalk.



This attribute record’s the unique identifiers given to files and directorys when using Distributed Link Tracking.


OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative)

Industry initiative to produce a number of common, open interfaces within the base station. OBSAI is working to define three internal base station interfaces across GSM/EDGE, cdma2000 and WCDMA. Unlike CPRI, OBSAI is open for membership to all industry players, but the interfaces are not available to non-OBSAI members.


ODM (own design manufacturer)

A company that designs, develops and manufactures mobile devices under contract. These devices are sold to end users under the brand of the mobile-device vendor, wireless service provider or contract partner. Examples of ODMs include Taiwan-based BenQ, GVC and HTC.


ODP (on-device portal)

Small downloadable mobile applications provided by media companies, handset vendors and some operators that make it easier for users to obtain new services such as music, videos, games and applications “off-deck” – that is, from independent websites. The traditional operator approach to media distribution has been to allow access only to an operator-controlled “walled garden” of content. This has not been popular with consumers, and many operators now allow open access to the Internet, seeking revenue growth from increased data traffic. Examples of ODPs include the Apple iPhone’s top-level menu and mobile clients such as Flickr and Facebook. See also off-deck portal.


ODS (operational data store)

A new articulation of the perennial concept of shared production data. Different from a data warehouse, the ODS is an alternative to having operational decision support system (DSS) applications access data directly from the database that supports transaction processing (TP).

While both require a significant amount of planning, the ODS tends to focus on the operational requirements of a particular business process (for example, customer service), and on the need to allow updates and propagate those updates back to the source operational system from which the data elements were obtained. The data warehouse, on the other hand, provides an architecture for decision makers to access data to perform strategic analysis, which often involves historical and cross-functional data and the need to support many applications.


OEM (original equipment manufacturer)

The term “OEM” is used to describe a technology provider that distributes output devices produced by another company under its own brand name. For example, Kyocera Mita is a manufacturer but also supplies products to be sold under the Olympia, Triumph-Adler and Utax OEM brands.


Ofcom (Office of Communications)

Regulator and competition authority for communications in the U.K., with responsibilities across TV, radio, telecommunications and wireless-communication services. See also Office of Communications.


OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)

Spread spectrum modulation technology that uses different carrier frequencies spread across a frequency band to carry data traffic. OFDM is spectrally more efficient than traditional wide-area wireless technologies. Variations on OFDM are included in 802.20 and 802.16 technologies, as well as being under consideration for use in other future wireless technologies, including LTE and 4G. See also Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA).


OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access)

Based on OFDM, multiple access is achieved by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users. Adaptive subcarrier assignment (including different numbers of subcarriers to different users) means that OFDMA can support QoS and is potentially more spectrally efficient and less susceptible to fading and interference than OFDM. OFDMA is a required technology for mobile WiMAX and LTE. See also LTE, OFDM and WiMAX.


off-deck portal

Service or website not controlled by the network service provider (NSP) where consumers can access, rent or buy media content – typically using an on-device portal. NSPs traditionally have tried to maintain a “walled garden” approach to content, but this has not been popular with consumers. Many operators now allow open access to the Internet, seeking revenue growth from increased data traffic. Examples of off-deck portals include Apple’s iTunes and YouTube. See also on-device portal.


offshore programming

The contracting by a company for software services to be carried out in a country other than its own – e.g., a user located in North America may choose to have applications maintenance work carried out in India.



Equipment already manufactured and available for delivery from stock.


OFTA (Office of the Telecommunications Authority)

Regulator and competition authority for the telecommunications industry in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. See also Office of the Telecommunications Authority.


OHA (Open Handset Alliance)

Established by Google in November 2007 and includes handset and electronics manufacturers such as HTC, Intel, LG, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics and T-Mobile. OHA was formed to develop open standards for mobile devices and has released an open-source, mobile-phone platform called Android based on the Linux OS. See also Android.


OIS (office information system)

The architectural reference frame for the construction of an office solution that meets the needs that originate at all levels (individual, departmental and corporate), integrating them in a functional sense.


OLAP (online analytical processing)

A definition of multidimensional business intelligence (BI) servers, OLAP originated with a Code and Date white paper that defined 12 “OLAP product evaluation rules” as the basis for selecting multidimensional products. OLAP is, in truth, only a new name for a class of BI products, some of which have existed for decades. The 12 evaluation rules for providing OLAP to user-analysts are:

  1. Multidimensional conceptual view
  2. Transparency
  3. Accessibility
  4. Consistent reporting performance
  5. Client/server architecture
  6. Generic dimensionality
  7. Dynamic sparse matrix handling
  8. Multiuser support
  9. Unrestricted cross-dimensional operations
  10. Intuitive data manipulation
  11. Flexible reporting
  12. Unlimited dimensions and levels


OLCP (online complex processing)

An extension of online transaction processing (OLTP) to include concurrent ad hoc query and batch processing.


OLE (Object Linking and Embedding)

A Microsoft protocol that enables creation of compound documents with embedded links to applications, so that a user does not have to switch from one application to another to make revisions. With OLE:

  • • Users can create compound documents using multiple applications.
  • • Compound documents may contain text and spreadsheet objects, graphic and chart objects, sound objects, and video and animated objects.
  • • Objects that support OLE automation may be scripted by OLE controllers, such as Visual Basic, and used in end-user-developed applications.


OLED (organic light-emitting diode)

Display consisting of pixels of electroluminescent organic compounds “printed” in a matrix onto a flexible polymer layer, and which emits light of different colors. Unlike liquid crystal displays, OLED displays do not require a backlight and consume very little power, making them suitable for battery-powered devices. See also LEP.


OLTP (online transaction processing)

A mode of processing that is characterized by short transactions recording business events and that normally requires high availability and consistent, short response times. This category of applications requires that a request for service be answered within a predictable period that approaches “real time.” Unlike traditional mainframe data processing, in which data is processed only at specific times, transaction processing puts terminals online, where they can update the database instantly to reflect changes as they occur. In other words, the data processing models the actual business in real time, and a transaction transforms this model from one business state to another. Tasks such as making reservations, scheduling and inventory control are especially complex; all the information must be current.


OLTP monitor

Midrange system software designed to enhance the efficiency of online transaction-processing applications by providing screen mapping, transaction queuing, service prioritization, communications buffering and security.


OLTP screen-formatting front end

A cooperative processing facility that offloads screen formatting from a midrange system-resident online transaction processing (OLTP) system to a PC. The application programmer should be able to define a single set of screen-formatting maps without regard to whether the formatting is performed at the midrange system or at the PC.


OMA (Open Mobile Alliance)

Industry open-standards forum set up to facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by ensuring service interoperability across devices, geographies, service providers, operators and networks. See also Open Mobile Alliance.


OMS (opportunity management system)

A system tied closely to the sales process; it is the framework for any sales force automation (SFA) design. All other applications are subordinate to the OMS. Transactions flow from the OMS to other applications on the users’ portable computers. Applications can be integrated among vendors.


OMS (order management system)

Provides the order-taking capability within the supply chain environment. The OMS typically provides the orders to a warehouse management system for execution – i.e., picking, packing and shipping.


OO (object-oriented or object orientation)

An umbrella concept used to describe a suite of technologies that enable software to be highly modular and reusable; applications, data, networks and computing systems are treated as objects that can be mixed and matched flexibly rather than as components of a system with built-in relationships. As a result, an application need not be tied to a specific system or data to a specific application. The four central object-oriented concepts are encapsulation, message passing, inheritance and late binding.


OOA&D (object-oriented analysis and design)

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOA&D) tools support object analysis and design technologies and commonly use Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation with a variety of methodologies to assist in the creation of highly modular and reusable software. Most also support the use of Domain Specific Language concepts as a complement to UML. Applications, data, networks and computing systems are treated as objects that can be mixed and matched flexibly rather than as components of a system with built-in relationships. As a result, an application does not need to be tied to a specific system or data to a specific application.

Please note that the UML standard from Object Management Group (OMG) has become the de facto standard for OOA&D tools.


OODBMS (object-oriented database management system)

A database management system (DBMS) that applies concepts of object-oriented programming, and applies them to the management of persistent objects on behalf of multiple users, with capabilities for security, integrity, recovery and contention management. An OODBMS is based on the principles of “objects,” namely abstract data types, classes, inheritance mechanisms, polymorphism, dynamic binding and message passing.


OOP (object-oriented programming)

A style of programming characterized by the identification of classes of objects closely linked with the methods (functions) with which they are associated. It also includes ideas of inheritance of attributes and methods. It is a technique based on a mathematical discipline, called “abstract data types,” for storing data with the procedures needed to process that data. OOP offers the potential to evolve programming to a higher level of abstraction.


OOT (object-oriented technology)

A software design model in which objects contain both data and the instructions that work on the data. It is increasingly deployed in distributed computing.


open architecture

A technology infrastructure with specifications that are public as opposed to proprietary. This includes officially approved standards as well as privately designed architectures, the specifications of which are made public by their designers. The IBM PC, for example, was based on an open architecture, and spawned an entire industry of IBM clones.


open source

Describes software that comes with permission to use, copy and distribute, either as is or with modifications, and that may be offered either free or with a charge. The source code must be made available.


open-source software

The open-source software model describes a set of characteristics and properties for developing, delivering and supporting software. Open source is licensed software in which the source code is made available to users so that they are enabled with the freedom to modify it for their own purposes and, with very limited restrictions, redistribute original and derived works as they see fit.

Open-source software comes with permission to use, modify, copy and distribute, either freely or for a small charge. The source code must be made available. Restrictions are often applied, through an “open-source license” such as the GNU General Public License (GPL) or the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license, to profits or fees for any commercial product built on a base of open-source system

A system whose interfaces – for example, application programming interfaces (APIs) or protocols – conform to formal, multilateral, generally available industry standards. “Formal” implies that the standard is selected and maintained using a structured, public process (i.e., de facto standards, such as those developed by the Open Software Foundation). “Multilateral” implies that, while nothing is ever completely vendor-neutral, the standard is not controlled by a single vendor. “Generally available” implies that the specifications are fully published (preferably with source code of a reference implementation), and that anyone can readily obtain license rights for free or at low cost.


operational resource management

A method for acquiring a better view into the cost of goods and services to yield enterprisewide financial control that streamlines the maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) procurement process (indirect goods) and supply chain control.


operations services

These services handle the transfer of all or part of the day-to-day system management responsibility for a customer’s IT infrastructure (host/data center, client/desktop or connectivity/network) and, in some cases, the transfer of ownership of the technology or personnel assets to an outside vendor. Services may include systems operation or support, administration, security, performance monitoring, technical diagnostics/troubleshooting, configuration management, system repair management, and generation of management reports. Also included are services to manage and implement business continuation processes and the management of technology assets.


operational technologies

The definition of operational technologies include:

  • • Systems that deal with the actual running of plant and equipment
  • • Devices to ensure physical system integrity and to meet technical constraints
  • • Event-driven and frequently real-time software applications or devices with embedded software


optical disc

A disk read or written by light, generally laser light; such a disk may store video, audio or digital data.


optical transport

The transport function relates to the high-capacity system that aggregates traffic and links network nodes over relatively long distances. It provides the paths (or “pipes”) along which the switching and routing functions steer information. It does so using technologies such as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)/Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), digital cross-connects (DXCs)/digital cross-connect systems (DCSs), long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), metro wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical exchange equipment (OXE), including reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs), as well as carrier Ethernet transport equipment. Along with multiplexing technology, cross-connect technology is covered here rather than in the switching category because it is used to patch links that are rerouted as needed and, therefore, considered as “provisioning” technology.


optimization routines

Routines used to determine the optimal solution for a particular problem. These routines are included in supply chain execution and supply chain planning applications to reduce costs or time in the supply chain, and usually are tactically focused for use in current operations.


option analysis

A statistical technique based on the idea that changes over time will affect the cost and benefit of a future IT investment. If it has no option to change the decision, the IT organization must abide by the original decision. However, by creating an option for a decision in the future, the IT organization can choose to pursue IT investments that are then deemed profitable.


ORB (object request broker)

ORBs are an enriched middleware platform – compared with their predecessors, RPC middleware – including program activation, which most RPCs did not offer. Full-featured CORBA ORBs are transactional platforms, with a special affinity for the object-oriented programming model, including the activation and communications services that are particularly geared to the object-oriented software model. ORB vendors added transaction management, security and other features to their ORBs to enable demanding production applications. OMG CORBA emerged as the widely shared standard programming model for ORBs.


order management

Order management is a business process, not a specific market. Much of the functionality attributed to order management is embedded within and touches components within the CRM, ERP and SCM markets as it guides products and services through order entry, processing and tracking.


ORM (object role modeling)

A proprietary method that uses English to convey data design elements. The object is to enable developers to easily present the elements to end users who are unfamiliar with modeling notation.


ORM (operational resource management)

A method of managing of an organization’s operating resources.


OR mapping tools (object-relational mapping tools)

Tools that attempt to automate the mapping from object-oriented (OO) programming structures to relational storage structures. They are similar in intent to application integration middleware, which is designed to enable the interoperation of heterogeneous systems. However, they are different in the following important ways:

  • • The mapping layer is not runtime software that can be adjusted after deployment. OR mapping is done at development time, producing a compiled translation between objects and relational database management systems (RDBMSs).


OR mapping tools map between data models, application integration middleware maps, message protocols and occasionally message contents. In this way, OR mapping tools seek to integrate at a deeper level than most other forms of middleware.


OS (operating system)

An OS is software that, after being loaded into the computer by an initial boot program, manages a computer’s resources, controlling the flow of information into and from a main processor. OSs perform complex tasks, such as memory management, control of displays and other input/output peripheral devices, networking and file management, and other resource allocation functions between software and system components. The OS provides the foundation on which applications, middleware and other infrastructure components function. OS usually provides user interfaces, such as command-line shell and GUI, for interaction between user and computer.

OS revenue is tracked for analyzing the changing popularity of different platforms provided by software vendors. We track the following key subsegments in OS:

  • • Unix
  • • Linux
  • • Windows
  • • Others


With the recent emergence of application servers, Java EE and .NET have almost become operating environments or deployment environments. At this time, however, we classify Java EE products as infrastructure applications that run on particular underlying OS deployment environments, such as Windows, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, Linux and others. Client OSs run on stand-alone devices, such as desktops and laptops, and are designed to be used by a single individual on a single device. Server OSs run on more powerful hardware, often with multiple CPUs or multicore CPUs, and are designed to be accessed by many users in a shared fashion simultaneously.

With the advent of virtualization technologies, many OSs are deployed and reside in the form of a virtual machine (VM). Many users consider VMware, Xen and Hyper-V to be OSs because they perform hardware control functions that an OS will normally do. Virtualization software is classified as a segment separate from the other OS subsegments.


Osaifu Keitai (literally “wallet mobile phone”)

Mobile phones available in Japan that contain an embedded FeliCa NFC card. This enables the mobile phone to be used for many forms of e-commerce, including train tickets, mobile payments, vending machines, membership services and identification for building entry. NTT DoCoMo first introduced these devices in 2005, followed by other major Japanese operators, such as KDDI and SoftBank Mobile, in the same year. See also FeliCa.


OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)

A model developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for communications. It is similar in structure to Systems Network Architecture (SNA), but more open. A standard, modular approach to network design that divides the required set of complex functions into manageable, self-contained, functional layers. These layers, starting from the innermost, are:

  1. Physical layer – concerned with the mechanical and electrical means by which devices are physically connected and data is transmitted.
  2. Link layer – concerned with how to move data reliably across the physical data link.
  3. Network layer – provides the means to establish, maintain and terminate connections between systems. Concerned with switching and routing information.
  4. Transport layer – concerned with end-to-end data integrity and quality of service.
  5. Session layer – standardizes the task of setting up a session and terminating it. Coordinates the interaction between end application processes.
  6. Presentation layer – relates to the character set and data code that is used, and to the way data is displayed on a screen or printer.
  7. Application layer – concerned with the higher-level functions that support application or system activities.


OSI management

The facilities to control, coordinate and monitor the resources that enable communications in an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) environment.


OSS (operations support system)

Facilitates the operations of a communication carrier’s transport network. OSS can be thought of as network-facing systems and includes the following solution areas (see also BSS):

  • • Inventory management tracks and manages all network assets (tangible and intangible). In this ongoing process, all installed and “on hand” network assets are tracked for efficient inventory, procurement, repair and reuse.
  • • Network management includes configuration management, traffic management, fault management, security management, element management and performance management.
  • • Planning and engineering include all the steps (for example, budgeting, procurement and line and service testing) from network planning to network construction.
  • • Provisioning and activation include all systems and steps related to the process of implementing orders for new and existing customers.
  • • Workforce management encompasses all activities surrounding work assignment, coordination and tracking.


OTA (over the air)

Ability to download applications, services and configurations over a mobile or cellular network.


OTM (object transaction monitor)

An application program – similar to the mainframe Customer Information Control System (CICS) in function, but not in spirit – that represents a consistent model of an application for a modular and potentially highly distributed environment.



Outsourcing can potentially include a portfolio of product support and professional services that are bundled to provide the client with the IT infrastructure, enterprise applications and business process services to help ensure the successful mission of the organization. Minimally, outsourcing contracts will always include some management services. The ITO forecast includes all the IT management service segments, and the BPO forecast includes the entire process management segment.

Outsourcing is divided into the following domains, which represent type of outsourcing for ITO and the business process outsourced for BPO:

  • • ITO
  • • Data center outsourcing
  • • Desktop outsourcing
  • • Network outsourcing
  • • Enterprise application outsourcing
  • • BPO
  • • Supply management
  • • Operations
  • • Enterprises services
  • • Customer management



Installation of a networking component that is noninvasive to the wired infrastructure. Overlays generally employ tunneling techniques that connect end-point functionality to a central controller offering a variety of data, management and control plane functions.


OXE (optical exchange equipment)

In much of the literature addressing optical networking, terms such as optical cross-connect, optical switch and photonic switch have been used ambiguously. Many companies – including startups – confused the nomenclature during the “optical bubble” of 2000 when trying to improve their position and make their brands more recognizable in the optical networking arena. To avoid confusion and inaccuracy, OXE is used as a common term for any type of node equipment that handles traffic in the optical domain without relying on client-layer functionality.

The most common type of OXE in use today is the ROADM.

Standardization efforts relating to OXE, which have mainly focused on control plane features and associated signaling protocols, have been undertaken by various standardization bodies. They include:

  • • GMPLS from the IETF.
  • • ASTN/ASON from the ITU-T.
  • • User-Network Interface (UNI)/Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) from the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF).




P2P (peer-to-peer)

Style of networking in which computers communicate directly with one another rather than routing traffic through managed central servers and networks.


packet-switched network

Data communications network in which data is divided into small segments known as packets. These are divided so that each packet forms part of a complete message that can be routed through a network of switches to its destination independently of all other packets forming the same message.


packet switching

A technique in which a message is broken into smaller units called packets, which may be individually addressed and routed through the network, possibly using several different routes. The receiving-end node ascertains that all packets are received and in the proper sequence before forwarding the complete message to the addressee.


PACS (personal access communication services)

American National Standards Institute common air interface standard for low-mobility digital cellular or fixed-wireless access to users operating in the 1,900MHz band. See also mobile WLL.


PAD (packet assembler/disassembler)

An interface device that buffers data sent to and from character mode devices, and assembles and disassembles the packets needed for X.25 operation.


PAL (Phase Alternate Line)

A color television broadcasting system developed in West Germany and the United Kingdom that uses 650 picture lines and a 50-hertz (Hz) field frequency. See NTSC (National Television System Committee) and SECAM (Sequential Couleur a Memoire).


PAM (pulse amplitude modulation)

The encoding of information in a signal based on the fluctuation of carrier waves. The amplitude of the pulse carrier is varied in accordance with successive samples of the modulating signal.



Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) are a set of libraries for validating security on Linux.


PAN (personal-area network)

Personal wireless devices, such as mobile phones, headsets and notebook PCs, connected together wirelessly via a networking protocol such as Bluetooth.


paper size

This describes the maximum paper size/dimension a device can print on. It includes the following:

  • • A3/A2 paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing paper between A3 (U.S. B) size and A2 (U.S. C) size.
  • • A3F paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing 297 mm/11.7-inch width continuous or fanfold form.
  • • A4 paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing A4 (U.S. A) paper.
  • • A4F paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing 210 mm/8.5-inch width continuous or fanfold form.
  • • A5 paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing A5 (U.S. A) paper.
  • • A6 paper size – This category includes printers with the capability of printing A6 (U.S. size 4 x 6) paper.


parallel processing

The solution of a single problem across more than one processor. Little parallel processing is done today outside of research laboratories, because it is difficult to decompose tasks into independent parts, and the compiler technology does not yet exist that will extensively parallelize applications code.


Partition (See Volume)


Partition Table

partition table…SFS Win2K dynamic disk


partitioning code

Applications can be broken into three logical parts – presentation, logic and data. These are areas in which the program can be separated to facilitate execution of each logical piece on a different machine. Each segment is known as a partition. For example, the thin-client Web model requires that interface presentation be handled by the browser, application logic by the Web server and other application servers, and data by a database server. Developers are responsible for determining where the separation occurs.


partner customer support software

This segment includes service-focused partner relationship management applications designed to improve an enterprise’s ability to market, sell and service end customers through channel partners. Key components include entitlement management, order management, service-level management and material reverse logistics.


partner relationship management

These applications enable content distribution, trade promotion and partner lead management.


partner relationship management – partner sales

Sales-focused partner relationship management applications are designed to improve an enterprise’s ability to market, sell and service end customers through channel partners. This category includes many of the traditional elements contained in a direct sales solution (opportunity management), but the solutions are configured for supporting a partner-driven environment. These applications consolidate data and transactions; set business rules and track activity; are typically used to manage channel partners, distributors, alliance or strategic partnerships; and often include a portal to enable bidirectional information flow and communications between partners.


PAS (personal access system)

Trademark of UTStarcom referring to its PHS-based WLL solution operating in the 1,900MHz band. See also mobile WLL.


PBX (private branch exchange)

A telephone switching system on a customer’s premises that allows telephones to interface with one or more public switched telephone network, or a private voice network when the user dials an access code.


PCM (patient care management)

A system that enrolls or assigns patients to interventions across the continuum of health and illness. It includes wellness exams and routine screenings, utilization reviews, event focus, short-term case management, and the management of long-term chronic conditions.


PCM (pulse code modulation)

A digital technique that involves sampling an analog signal at regular intervals and coding the measured amplitude into a series of binary values, which are transmitted by modulation of a pulsed, or intermittent, carrier. It is the standard technique in telecommunications transmission.


PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card Industry Association)


PCO (physician contracting organization)

A legal entity representing multiple physicians, practices and clinics that contracts with other entities to provide healthcare services.


PCS (personal communications services)

Broad range of voice and data telecommunications services that enable people to communicate via two-way radio phones based exclusively on digital technologies such as CDMA and GSM. Characteristics of PCS include personal numbers assigned to individuals rather than devices, near-wireline-call-transmission quality, low-power and lightweight mobile devices, enhanced call completion, call billing and call management services. PCS networks operate at 1,800MHz in the U.K. and at 1900MHz in North America.


PCU (packet control unit)

Part of a GPRS BSS product, the PCU provides an interface between the SGSN and the radio network using frame relay technology.


PDA (personal digital assistant)

Data-centric handheld computer weighing less than 1 pound that is designed primarily for use with both hands. These devices use an open-market OS supported by third-party applications that can be added into the device by end users. They offer instant on/off capability and synchronization of files with a PC. A PDA may offer WAN support for voice, but these are data-first, voice-second devices. Examples include the RIM BlackBerry 8700c, HP iPAQ 65xx, Palm LifeDrive, Nokia 9300 and E61, and the Dell Axim X51v.


PDC (personal digital cellular)

Japanese, second-generation (2G/2.5G) digital cellular standard operating in the 800MHz and 1,500MHz frequency bands.


PDE (partial document encryption)

Encryption and delivery of only those pages requested or those that the requester is allowed to see. A certificate server only releases the required certificate when an authorized user makes a request. Using PDE, each page of the document is encrypted and associated with a unique security certificate, allowing for selective retrieval.


PDM (product data management)

PDM technologies and products have historically been positioned as the primary application backbone for managing and controlling the flow of design intent across the three major design stages: concept design, detail design and production. But in practice, PDM has served as a complementary application tower to computer-aided design (CAD) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems by providing the main repository for production-approved engineering data (i.e., vaulting) and managing the changes to production – approved data (e.g., engineering change orders and configuration management). PDM is a key enabler for constructing a concurrent art-to-product environment (CAPE) for enterprisewide design and production. A well-constructed PDM enables all participants involved with the capture, communication and maintenance of design intent to freely share and disseminate all heterogeneous data related to the product. PDM evolved from the need to better manage paper, electronic documents, engineering change orders, and bills of materials during the product development process.


peak traffic (in Erlangs)

Calculated amount of channel use at peak time in Erlangs. See also Erlang.


penetration rate (mobile)

Number of (mobile) connections to a service divided by the population.



The complete elimination of muda so that all activities along a value stream create value.



There are two mechanisms for storing permissions in NTFS. One is a superset of DOS File Permissions, which includes Read Only and Hidden. The other is based on ACEs and allows granting specific permissions to specific users.

See also: $ACE, File Permissions and $SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR


PHO (physician hospital organization)

A legal entity representing joint contractual service arrangements between hospitals or integrated delivery systems and physicians.


performance management

“performance management” is the combination of methodologies and metrics that enables users to define, monitor and optimize outcomes necessary to achieve organizational goals and objectives.


photonic crystal displays

Reflective displays made of photonic crystalline materials that can be constructed and designed to manipulate the propagation of light (photons).


PHR (personal health record)

A concept for capturing, managing and sharing a consumer’s healthcare profile. PHRs contain the following components: a consumer profile, a healthcare providers’ section, a healthcare encounter section, a family history section, an emergency profile and public-key infrastructure (PKI) security.


PHS (personal HandyPhone system)

Japanese standard operating in the 1,900MHz band for low-mobility digital cellular or mobile WLL services. It typically supports handover between cells for users traveling at pedestrian or slow vehicular speeds, or it can be used to provide fixed wireless access to users. See also mobile WLL and PAS.


PIM (personal information manager)

Software that organizes and manages random information for fast retrieval on a daily basis. It provides a combination of features, including telephone list with automatic dialing, calendar and scheduler.


PIMS (production information management system)

Also known as a “process information management system,” a PIMS is a client/server application for the acquisition, display, archiving and reporting of information from a wide variety of control, plant and business systems. A critical component in a manufacturing enterprise’s application architecture for creating a common repository of plant information that can be effectively leveraged in enterprise and supply chain management applications.



Short-range cellular base station typically providing 100-meter to 250-meter range, used to boost in-building cellular coverage or for high-traffic locations.


pico projector

Very small projector modules that can be integrated into mobile devices such as handsets or laptops, or used to create highly portable projector accessories for mobile workers. Pico projectors can be implemented using several technologies, including liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) imaging chips with LED illumination, MEMS DLP technology or laser diffraction.



Software that can run on a variety of hardware platforms or software architectures. Platform-independent software can be used in many different environments, requiring less planning and translation across an enterprise. For example, the Java programming language was designed to run on multiple types of hardware and multiple operating systems. If Java platform-independence becomes a reality, organizations with multiple types of computers will be able to write a specialized application once and have it be used by virtually everyone, rather than having to write, distribute and maintain multiple versions of the same program.


PLC (programmable logic controller)

The fundamental building block of factory and process automation. A specialty purpose computer, including input/output processing and serial communications, used for executing control programs, especially control logic and complex interlock sequences. PLCs can be embedded in machines or process equipment by OEMs, used stand-alone in local control environments or networked in system configurations.



Audio (or audio and video) content specifically designed for synchronizing and playback on mobile audio players, such as Apple’s iPod and MP3 playback-enabled mobile phones. Much of this content is highly topical, derived from radio or TV broadcasts, and it is often free. Podcasts are an example of “sticky” content: listeners are encouraged to subscribe to a podcast “channel” that typically is updated with new content daily or weekly. See also mobisode.


point to point

Describes a circuit that connects two points directly, where there are generally no intermediate processing nodes, although there could be switching facilities. See multipoint.



A mistake-proofing device or procedure to prevent a defect during order intake or manufacturing.


POP (point of presence)

  1. Since divestiture, the physical access location within a local access and transportation area (LATA) of a long-distance and/or interLATA common carrier.
  2. The point to which the local telephone company terminates subscribers’ circuits for long-distance, dial-up, or leased-line communications.
  3. An Internet provider’s node that allows subscribers to dial in using modems and voice lines.


portable wireless

Term used by the WiMAX Forum for semimobile wireless. The terms “nomadic,” “portable” and “mobile” often vary in definition when used by vendors. See also fixed wireless and mobile wireless.



A high-traffic Web site with a wide range of content, services and vendor links. It acts as a value-added middleman by selecting the content sources and assembling them in a simple-to-navigate and customize interface for presentation to the end user. Portals typically offer such services as Web searching, news, reference tools, access to online shopping venues, and communications capabilities including e-mail and chat rooms.


portal-enabling middleware

The toolset for a portal including the platform middleware and the integration and context management tools.


portals and user interaction tools

Organizations use both portal and other user interface products to provide access to, and interaction with, relevant information, applications, business processes and human resources for select targeted audiences. Especially where these are provided by portals, these can be delivered in a highly personalized manner. Horizontal portal products can be used to create portals facing a variety of external and internal audience types. A modern portal product is programmable and thus performs platform middleware functions. Increasingly, it also includes integration middleware functions, such as transformation and intelligent routing (that is, it can include some form of basic integration suite). Modern horizontal portal products often include at least limited support for Web content management and collaboration features and often come with an embedded search engine.


portfolio management

A shift from the practice of using a single integrated application for the support of business requirements to using a collection of applications, technologies and services to create a system that addresses the unique requirements of an organization and leverages best-of-breed opportunities.



Modifying code that runs on one hardware platform or operating system so that it will properly execute on another hardware platform or operating system.


POS (point of sale)

POS systems use personal computers or specialized terminals in combination with cash registers, optical scanners or magnetic-stripe readers to capture and record data at the time of transaction. POS systems are usually online to a central computer for credit checking and inventory updating. Alternatively, they may be independent systems that store daily transactions until they can be transmitted to the central system for processing.


POS (point of service)

A type of health maintenance organization (HMO) plan that offers limited coverage for care received outside the HMO’s network.



An acronym (pronounced like positive) for Portable Operating System Interface, suggested by Richard M. Stallman. It is a set of international standards (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996(E), ANSI/IEEE Std 1003.1 1996 Edition) to interface with Unix-like exploitation systems, e.g. Linux. NTFS does not support Unix-like device files.


postpaid connection

A contract that includes airtime and is paid for at scheduled intervals (generally monthly).


PPM (project and portfolio management)

PPM applications address business processes with functions across multiple domains, which include:

  • • Planning and scheduling
  • • Tracking time and progress
  • • Program management
  • • Resource profiling and allocation
  • • Portfolio analysis and prioritization


The PPM market deals with a hierarchy of functions, roles and standards that range from the planning and execution of projects through their interaction with the enterprise’s strategic goals.

PPM applications address such foundational project management areas as those described in the Project Management Institute’s Project Management Body of Knowledge:

  • • Time management, resource management and cost management
  • • Scope management, procurement management and communications management
  • • Risk management and quality management


PPM applications also support an integrated view across the portfolio of project work as well as nonproject work. This integrated view is a key input to portfolio prioritization.

PPM applications can deal further with collections of projects assembled into large-scale programs, with functions to support the integrated planning of multiple, dependent projects, with a view of cross-project dependencies, program-level budgets, costs, schedules and resource plans. Flexible reporting of program data to various organizational levels is also supported.

A PPM application is often used by a business-unit level project/program management office (PMO) and/or an enterprise-level PMO to define, capture, maintain, analyze and report on data about initiatives’ current state, costs and progress, as well as variances from plans and expectations. Organizational resource information can be grouped into taxonomies of roles, functions and skill sets, thus allowing for better tracking of resource assignment and utilization.

At a strategic level, portfolio management features support decision making that aligns initiative investments with business goals. Functions provide BI on project or service delivery and dashboard views of initiative alignment, status, resource capacity, service levels and more. Integration with other enterprise applications can leverage data from various segments of the business to help users manage their pipelines, report and forecast initiatives’ progress, analyze portfolio alternatives, and prioritize.


predictive behavior analysis

The use of techniques such as data mining, data visualization, algorithm clustering, and neural networking to find patterns or trends in data. These patterns or trends are used to forecast future behavior based on current or past behavior. Uses of predictive behavior analysis include identifying customers likely to drop out or default; identifying products customers are likely to buy next; developing customer segments or groups; and product development.


prerelational DBMS

DBMS architectures were defined before relational theory became widely used. The prerelational DBMS generally is based on a hierarchical structure or a navigational (also known as network) structure.


print markets and management hardware

This segment includes copiers and printers.

  • • Copiers – Copiers perform image capture and transfer. This category includes analog (optical technology) and digital (digital scanning and printing technology) copiers.
  • • Printers – A printer is the peripheral output device of a computer system for producing computer-generated images on paper using various marking technologies. To be classified in this segment, the device needs to be capable of using plain or coated papers with a minimum size of International Organization for Standardization A4, U.S. size A (letter) or continuous forms with an 8-inch print width or greater, but it excludes products that support paper widths above A2 or U.S. size C (17 inches by 22 inches). The definition also excludes other classes of application-specific printers, such as point-of-sale printers, video printers and dedicated photo printers.


private key

The confidential half of the asymmetric key pair used in public-key cryptography. Unlike the “secret key” used in symmetric-key cryptography – a single key known by both the sender and the receiver – a private key is known only by the recipient. See public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography.


PRM (partner relationship management)

The customer relationship management (CRM) element that extends sales, marketing, customer service and other enterprise business functions to partners to foster more-collaborative channel partner relationships.


problem management

The core function of a customer service and support (CSS) application used by call centers. It coordinates a multitier, multiowner service and support environment, enables pattern analysis, provides management reports, and facilitates requesting additional service and support resources by providing hard numbers on the service workload and its changing nature. Because PM tools can also track service-level agreements (SLAs), they are valuable for monitoring compliance.


process control

The regulation of variables that influence or control the conduct of a process so that a specified quality and quantity of product are obtained.


process management

Specific to the communications environment, the practice of telecom expense management (TEM) encompasses the business processes conducted by IT and finance departments to acquire the provision (and support) of corporate telecommunications assets. Put another way, TEM is the build-out of services, or the acquisition of third-party services, to manage the supply chain for telecommunications. The component services of TEM as is identified as: sourcing, ordering and provisioning, inventory management, invoice and contract management, use management, dispute management, and business intelligence.


process manufacturing

Manufacturing that adds value by performing chemical reactions or physical actions to transform materials, or by extracting, mixing, separating or forming materials in batch or continuous production modes.


processing, batch

A method of computer operation in which a number of similar input items are accumulated and sorted for processing.


processing, line

The processing of transactions as they occur, with no preliminary editing or sorting before they enter the system.


process management

A management concept that describes the goal of increasing intraenterprise coordination of separate business functions. Business process re-engineering is a form of process management that focuses on replacing traditional functions (e.g., sales, marketing and service) with functionally integrated processes (e.g., customer relationship management). The growth in the demand for enterprise software reflects the need for increased integration and sharing of business information throughout an enterprise.



Procurement applications are used to help companies understand and improve the terms and conditions of trade and to comprehend enterprise spending. These applications assist in supplier selection, the analysis of supplier performance, and the establishment of the terms of trade to balance cost, quality and risk. Typical modules and applications include:

  • • E-procurement
  • • Strategic sourcing
  • • Procurement business process hubs
  • • Contract management
  • • Tactical sourcing (request for quotation)
  • • Spending analysis
  • • Buy-side catalog management
  • • Supply base management


product support services

Product support services refer to labor-based services for hardware or software, which can be performed by the manufacturer of the product or parties other than the vendor that created the product. These services can be provided by several types of vendors, typically including hardware OEMs, such as Dell, HP, EMC or IBM; and software publishers, such as Microsoft, Oracle or SAP. Formal channel partners of hardware and software vendors also provide support services.

Product support services are also delivered by additional independent service providers and third-party support providers. An independent service provider delivers a broad range of services for hardware and/or software products (such as consulting or support), and may have an alliance with the product manufacturer but not as a primary means to its service business. A third-party support provider primarily delivers break/fix technical support for hardware and/or software products and is not typically aligned with the product manufacturer but may have a relationship in certain specific exceptional cases.


production devices

Production devices encompass printers, stand-alone copiers and MFPs featuring a printing speed of more than 70 ppm in both monochrome and color. Production printers perform three specific types of printing:

  • • Transaction printing includes statements, bills, notices and other transactional documents that are printed in large volumes. With the growth of color print, transaction printing is merging into direct marketing with promotional and marketing pieces with the inclusion of personalized color items as well. “Transpromo” refers to transactional documents that have a promotional message or third-party advertising on them.
  • • Direct marketing, such as direct-mail packages.
  • • Publishing that includes short-run printing, print on demand (POD) booklets, catalogs, manuals and brochures, which are printed on an as-needed basis. POD is also being used to print books that are published in limited volumes.


project management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.


project management office (PMO)

A project management office (PMO) is usually created to solve a specific problem: generally, the IT organization’s inability to deliver IT projects on time, on budget and in scope. Project managers may “live” in the PMO, or in different IT units, such as in application development or in the business.





proprietary software

Software that is owned by an organization or an individual, as opposed to “public-domain software,” which is freely distributed. The explosion in the use of the Internet has expanded the reach of public-domain software since it is now much easier to transmit these programs. While many commercial software developers have developed software that has become the de facto standard (e.g., Microsoft’s Windows programs), proprietary software that is based on proprietary protocols, or standards, can create obstacles for applications development and usage.



A set of procedures in telecommunications connections that the terminals or nodes use to send signals back and forth. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the standard protocol for the Internet and related networks such as intranets and extranets. Local-area networks (LANs) often rely on a different protocol. Networks and systems cannot communicate unless they use the same protocol or make use of a gateway.


protocol conversion

The process of translating the protocol native to an end-user device (e.g., a terminal) into a different protocol (e.g., ASCII to BSC), allowing that end-user device to communicate with another device (e.g., a computer) with which it would otherwise be incompatible. Protocol conversion can be performed by a dedicated device (a protocol converter); by a software package loaded onto an existing system, such as a general-purpose computer, front-end processor, or private branch exchange (PBX) system; or by a value-added network, such as Telenet.


protocol stack

A defined protocol with options applicable for specific functions that can be implemented as a product. Also called a functional standard or functional profile.



Refers to a device’s capability to perform its function independent of the communications protocol.


proxy agent

A network management agent that comes between an unmanaged device and a management system, allowing management by proxy, i.e., on behalf of the device.


proxy servers

Devices that process and filter all Internet Protocol (IP) packets that are directed to them and decide which protocols and services can be served out of their caches. Proxy servers tend to offer the greatest range of protocol and caching support since they cache Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP), Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTPS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and, in some cases, streaming content such as RealAudio and PointCast. Each workstation addresses the proxy server directly by setting specific parameters in each browser on each workstation.


PSA (professional services administration)

The integration of planning, resource management, project management and project accounting for service organizations.


PSK (phase-shift keying)

Phase modulation that uses discrete, present changes of phase.


PTR (peak transaction rate)

Total number of wireless transactions by all mobile devices during a specified period of time per access point.


PTT PoC (push-to-talk over cellular)

OMA-defined specification for the delivery of PTT walkie-talkie services over a packet radio network, typically GPRS.


public key

The public half of the asymmetric key pair used in public-key cryptography (see separate entry).


public-key cryptography

An encryption technique developed to overcome the limitations of secret-key cryptography (see separate entry). Public key (also called “asymmetric key”) cryptography uses two mathematically related keys: A public key to encrypt messages, and a private key to decrypt them. In a public-key system, you communicate privately by encrypting your message using the public key of your intended recipient. Although everyone else knows the recipient’s public key, it is useless for decrypting a message encrypted with it. Only the corresponding private key, known only to the recipient, can decrypt the message.


publish and subscribe

A communication pattern in which information sources “publish” (i.e., send) information to a somewhat intelligent middleware infrastructure, and information consumers “subscribe” by specifying what kind of information they want to receive from the infrastructure. The middleware must be able to physically transport messages from one or more publishers to one or more subscribers. It also must be smart enough to find the proper destinations by matching each message to subscription criteria. This model naturally supports one-to-many or many-to-many communication – in contrast to either message passing or message queuing, both of which mostly (but not entirely) aim at one-to-one communication.


publish/subscribe architecture

Processes that acquire or receive messages from source applications and publish these messages on a systemwide bulletin board or, in alternative terminology, put them on a software bus where all other processes can “see” them. Application processes generally indicate which messages they are interested in by supplying one or more rules to the integration broker (IB). Also described as a software bus architecture.



All activities being undertaken within the lean enterprise according to and at the rate of the actual demand requirements of the end consumer.


pull printing

Also called “follow-me printing,” pull printing allows for a print job to be sent to a pull-printing server, which delivers the print job to the printer. This frees up the user’s computer for other tasks and reduces network traffic. Word-processing documents and even Web pages (referred to as Web pull printing) can be pull-printed without having the file opened on the user’s computer. The user sends the document’s location to the pull-printing server for processing.


pulse carrier

A series of identical pulses intended for modulation.


push technology

Software that automates the delivery of information to users. In contrast, the Web is a “pull” environment that requires a user to seek information.

In a “push” environment, information is sent to a person proactively, through a Web browser, e-mail, or even voice mail or a pager. In business, push technology can be used for the conveyance of time-sensitive information, like changes in commodity pricing or the introduction of promotional programs to a sales force. Enterprises can employ push technology to communicate externally with their clients or internally with their employees over a network.


PWM (pulse width modulation)

A method of encoding information based on variations of the duration of carrier pulses. Also called pulse duration modulation (PDM).


PX (private exchange)

An internal telephone exchange serving a single organization and having no connection with a public exchange. Also private automatic exchange (PAX). Other types of private exchange include:

  1. Private automatic branch exchange (PABX): A private automatic telephone exchange that provides for the transmission of calls internally and to and from the public telephone network. Also private branch exchange (PBX).
  2. Private automatic telex exchange (PATX): Provides telex service within and without an enterprise (largely obsolete).
  3. Private manual branch exchange (PMBX): Private, manually operated telephone exchange that provides private telephone service to an organization and allows calls to be transmitted to or from the public telephone network.
  4. Private digital exchange (PDX): Private exchange employing digital transmission techniques.





This is one of the named indexes belonging to $Quota.

See also: Index, $O and $Quota.


QA (quality assurance)

The historic focus of the National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA), fundamentally based on measures of compliance to standards or processes.


QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation)

A combination of amplitude and phase modulation (and shift-keying) techniques used to transmit 9,600 bits per second (bps) over a 2,400-baud line.


QoS (quality of service)

A negotiated contract between a user and a network provider that renders some degree of reliable capacity in the shared network.



Mobile device that supports voice and data communications conforming to one bearer technology, such as GSM, but on four different sets of frequencies. For example, many European and Asia/Pacific countries/markets have licensed deployment of GSM networks on 900MHz and 1,800MHz spectrums, and in North America GSM has been deployed on 800MHz and 1,900MHz. A quad-band phone allows the user to roam automatically among networks on any of these frequencies in any of these countries, providing that the “home” operator has roaming agreements with local mobile network operators. See also dual-band, dual-mode and tri-band.


$Quota (More…)

This metadata file stores information about file quotas.




RAAD (rapid architected applications development)

An approach to large-scale applications development (AD) that includes the following phases, which are executed by up to 10 teams of 10 people each during a period of no more than 18 months:

  • • Phase 1: Business and technical architecture reconciliation.
  • • Phase 2: Functional requirements gathering and specification.
  • • Phase 3: Initial architecture design, building and implementation.
  • • Phase 4: First building and testing of application, including user interface, data access and business logic.
  • • Phase 5: Initial installation of application.
  • • Phase 6: Concurrent engineering for subsequent builds.
  • • Phase 7: Rapid release plan.



A framework or structure that holds computer servers or networking equipment, usually by means of shelves or mounting plates. The height of computer equipment is expressed in rack units (U), which equal the distance between shelf increments in a standard rack (see rack unit).


rack density

The rack density describes the height of a unit. The standard height of one unit is 1.75 inches, so rack density is described in terms of the number of units, such as one unit (1U), 2U and so on. Blade servers are noted as “number of blades per blade chassis/height” (in standard U height), so 14 blades per blade chassis height of 7U would be listed as “14/7U.”


rack mount

  • • Rack mountable – A system that can be mounted in a rack or as a stand-alone
  • • Rack-Optimized – A system that has to be run in a server cabinet
  • • Tower/stand-alone – A system optimized for stand-alone installation only
  • • Blade – A discrete CPU card that slides vertically into a shared chassis. Typically several blade cards are housed in a cabinet or a stand-alone chassis, which houses a common power supply, cooling element, and network switches and connections.


rack unit (RU)

A standard increment used to express the height of a piece of rack-mounted computer or networking equipment, abbreviated as “U” and equal to 1.75 inches. For example, a server with a height of 4U takes up seven inches of vertical rack space. The most common dimensions for an industry-standard rack are 42U (73.5 inches) high and 19 inches wide.


RAD (rapid application development)

An application development (AD) approach that includes small teams (typically two to six people, but never more than 10) using joint application development (JAD) and iterative-prototyping techniques to construct interactive systems of low to medium complexity within a time frame of 60 to 120 days.


radio PAD (radio packet assembler/disassembler)

PAD with an integrated radio transceiver for use with packet radio systems.


RAID (redundant array of independent disks)

A method of mirroring or striping data on clusters of low-end disk drives; data is copied onto multiple drives for faster throughput, error correction, fault tolerance and improved mean time between failures.

With the exception of RAID 0, all RAID levels provide automated recovery of data in the event of a disk failure. The RAID levels and their key features are:

  • • RAID-0 – provides disk striping without parity information; data is written by segment across multiple disks sequentially until the end of the array is reached, and then writing starts at the beginning again. Provides greater logical disk capacity with faster access time on reads (multiple segments read simultaneously). However, RAID-0 provides no data redundancy – if one drive fails, the entire disk array subsystem is unavailable.
  • • RAID-1 – provides fault tolerance by using disk mirroring (also called shadowing). Each byte of data on a disk is duplicated on another physical drive, providing 100 percent data redundancy. RAID-1 provides immediate access to data when either the primary or secondary drive fails, but it has the highest cost of all RAID types, since duplicate hardware is required.
  • • RAID-2 – eliminates the 100 percent redundancy overhead of RAID-1 by using a powerful error detection and correction code (Hamming), with bits of the data pattern written across multiple disks.
  • • RAID-3 – similar to RAID-2, but uses a single check disk per group that contains the bit parity of the data disks; data is interleaved across all disks. Because disk reads are performed across the entire array and all data is transferred to the controller in parallel, RAID-3 is well suited for applications that require high data read/write transfer rates for large sequential files.
  • • RAID-4 – instead of interleaving blocks of data across all drives, writes the first block on drive 1, the second block on drive 2, and so on. This technique dramatically improves read time, since many reads are single block (single drive), freeing other drives for additional read requests.
  • • RAID-5 – eliminates the dedicated parity drive by writing parity with the data across all drives in the array. Consequently, the single-write restriction and some performance degradation of RAID-1 through RAID-4 are eliminated. If a drive fails, the controller can rebuild the data from the parity and data on the remaining drives.
  • • RAID-6 – provides two-disk parity and one spare, so that two simultaneous disk failures per array of disks can be tolerated. With the occurrence of a failure, a spare is brought online and transparent reconstruction begins automatically in the background with negligible impact on performance.
  • • RAID-10 – a combination of RAID-0 and RAID-1 that provides the benefits of striping and fault tolerance (disk mirroring).


RAS (reliability, availability and serviceability)

A reference to a product’s quality, availability of optional features, and ease of diagnosis and repair.


RBISO (role-based IS organization)

A distributed type of IS organization that represents an association of multiple IS organizational styles and sources fulfill different roles for the enterprise. Instead of a single, integrated IT function within the enterprise, this newer RBISO encompasses consultants, business liaisons, resource pools and services.


RDBMS (relational database management system)

A database management system (DBMS) that incorporates the relational-data model, normally including a Structured Query Language (SQL) application programming interface. It is a DBMS in which the database is organized and accessed according to the relationships between data items. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables. Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers. This allows a high degree of data independence.


RDM (requirements definition and management)

Requirements definition and management (RDM) tools streamline development teams’ analysis of requirements, capture requirements in a database-based tool to enable collaborative review for accuracy and completeness, ease use-case and/or test-case creation, provide traceability, and facilitate documentation and versioning/change control. Increasingly, RDM tools support business analysts with graphical tools for process workflow definition, application simulation and prototyping, and other visual, collaborative tools. The database approach uses special-purpose repositories that are part of the requirements management solution or ship with a general-purpose commercial database integrated with the tool.


real time

The description for an operating system that responds to an external event within a short and predictable time frame. Unlike a batch or time-sharing operating system, a real-time operating system provides services or control to independent ongoing physical processes. It typically has interrupt capabilities (so that a less important task can be put aside) and a priority-scheduling management scheme.


receiver sensitivity

Measurement of the weakest signal that a wireless receiver can receive and still translate into data. Receiver sensitivity is affected greatly by a number of factors, including location and placement within the wireless device.


record management

The systematic organization and managed storage of diverse information sources through the end of their life cycles. Record management can be viewed as a subset of integrated document management (IDM) and is one of the five most important IDM library service functions. The others are check-in/check-out, version control, document-level security and attribute, and full-text index search and retrieval.



  1. Portion of the total information contained in a message that can be eliminated without loss of essential information.
  2. Provision of duplicate, backup equipment or links that immediately take over the function of equipment or transmission lines that fail.


relational DBMS

The RDBMS architecture is based on a formal method of constructing a database in rows and columns using rules that have formal mathematical proofs. RDBMSs originated in the work of E.F. Codd. In an RDBMS, relationships among tables are created by comparing data, such as account numbers and names. In addition, an RDBMS has the flexibility to take any two or more tables and generate a new table from the rows that meet the matching criteria.

RDBMSs are implemented in many different ways. For example, they can be implemented on disk storage using relational or row storage techniques, stored as columns or indexes as in column-based storage, implemented in memory as the in-memory storage model, and even implemented in flash memory. In addition, RDBMS engines are available with different footprints that can be used as embedded DBMS engines in edge devices, as well as in portable or mobile devices. We also do not distinguish data types any longer because most RDBMSs available today allow multiple data types, including objects, user-defined data types, BLOBs and native XML structures.



This is the named index belonging to $Reparse.

See also: Index, $Reparse.


RCRD Record

This record is used in the $LogFile. Each represents an atomic transaction that is to be performed.

See also: $LogFile and Transaction



There are several record types in NTFS. FILE Record are used in the $MFT, INDX Records in indexes, RCRD and RSTR Records in the $LogFile.

See also: FILE Record, INDX Record, RCRD Record and RSTR Record


Recursion (See Recursion)



file (are there any others?)



This metadata file stores information about reparse points.



This attribute stores information about reparse points.


repeatable solutions

Replicable, integrated solutions to a specific process improvement or application requirement. A repeatable solution typically exhibits the following characteristics:

  • • Fixed pricing, sometimes with a shared business-benefit upside.
  • • Fixed delivery schedule with rapid implementation.
  • • Specified performance.
  • • Initial pilot solution with rapid prototype, followed by roll-out and incremental additions.
  • • A prime contractor with one point of contact for the client.
  • • Long-standing and battle-proven partner relationships.
  • • Joint research and development (R&D) and joint marketing among the partners.
  • • Opportunity for residual values in the form of royalties, licensing, etc.


Repeatable solutions, as the basis for the portfolio of technology solutions (POTS), must be targeted at specific processes, technologies, subindustries or topical issues. They require high-end professional services such as business process re-engineering, system and network integration and software customization.



A facility for storing descriptions and behaviors of objects in an enterprise, including requirements, policies, processes, data, software libraries, projects, platforms and personnel, with the potential of supporting both software development and operations management. As a single point of definition for all system resources, it should stimulate both program and installation management productivity. A system repository would include configuration definitions, tuning parameters and performance goals, while an application repository would include data definitions.


residential/small-office gateway/router with embedded DSL modem

This device is part of a home networking solution for residential consumers, but can also be used in a small office/home office (SOHO) environment. It can be a wired device or include a wireless access point. Most residential/SOHO gateways incorporate a built-in DSL modem, routing functionality, a wireless access point and a firewall.


Resource Fork

In MacOS’s filesystem, HFS, files are allowed to have multiple data streams. These are called resource forks.

See also: HFS and Stream.


resource requirements planning

The process of converting the production plan or the master production schedule into the impact on key resources, e.g., man hours, machine hours, storage, standard cost dollars, shipping dollars and inventory levels.


response time

The time period between a terminal operator’s completion of an inquiry and the receipt of a response. Response time includes the time taken to transmit the inquiry, process it by the computer, and transmit the response back to the terminal. Response time is frequently used as a measure of the performance of an interactive system.


retail sales

This category includes the additional collection of sales applications required for a retail environment. It includes point-of-sale applications for recording sales transactions, usually a cash register and merchandising software.



Number of mobile devices ceasing to be in use during a given year. The retirements figure is complicated by the existence of secondhand equipment. When a used mobile device from one region is sold in another region in conjunction with a new connection, the device is not added to the sales-to-end-user line, but it is accounted for in the installed baseline. A high number of secondhand sales may lead to a negative figure for retirements.



An application development methodology that catalogs and makes available application components so that they may be incorporated into other applications.



Revenue consists of the gross billings generated by a vendor, measured in unit currency.


RFID (radio frequency identification)

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an automated data collection technology that uses radio waves to transfer data between a tag and a reader to identify, track or locate the item attached to the tag. The transfer of data is then transmitted from the reader to a computer or server for processing and management. RFID does not need a line of sight or contact between the reader and the tag. The market is segmented into hardware and software.


RFID reader

An RFID reader is a radio frequency device that emits a signal through an antenna. This signal is received by RFID tags that respond to interrogation by the reader. Responses are read by the reader, and through a variety of protocols the reader can communicate with all the RFID tags in its field. Readers generally take three forms. Portal readers are fixed in one location; RFID tags pass through them and communicate with the reader. Handheld readers are portable devices that can communicate with RFID tags. Mounted readers are a special type, placed on mobile equipment such as forklifts and cranes. They often communicate with tags in fixed locations.


RFID tags

RFID tags are generally small devices that respond to an RFID reader’s interrogation via radio frequency. Tags vary in terms of memory, the range over which they can be read, the level of read and write capabilities, and the availability of other computational functions. The tag can hold just a product’s serial number all the way up to a mass of information about the product and its history.

Passive RFID

A passive RFID tag has no battery. It harvests all its power from the radio interrogation of the RFID reader, including enough power to respond. This yields fairly low-cost devices, but they can be read only at a fairly short range (about 20 feet in the best operating conditions).

Active RFID

Active tags have batteries attached to them so that they can respond to a reader with more power. They are much more expensive than passive tags but have a much-greater range (up to 300 feet).

Smart Cards

Contactless smart cards are often referred to as RFID tags. From a technical perspective, they are just a specially packaged form of RFID tags.


RFID tags don’t tell you anything about their environment. They can only tell you what is in the memory of the tag. However, a common application of RFID is to attach the tag to a sensor that can fill the tag’s memory with data. This is then communicated to other systems through RFID protocols. The sensory technology, while intertwined with RFID, is independent.


RISC (reduced instruction set computer)

A processor architecture that shifts the analytical process of a computational task from the execution or runtime to the preparation or compile time. By using less hardware or logic, the system can operate at higher speeds. RISC cuts down on the number and complexity of instructions, on the theory that each one can be accessed and executed faster, and that less semiconductor real estate is required to process them. The result is that for any given semiconductor technology, a more powerful microprocessor can be produced with RISC than with complex instruction set computer (CISC) architectures.

This simplification of computer instruction sets gains processing efficiencies. That theme works because all computers and programs execute mostly simple instructions. RISC has five design principles:

  • • Single-cycle execution – In most traditional central processing unit (CPU) designs, the peak possible execution rate is one instruction per basic machine cycle, and for a given technology, the cycle time has some fixed lower limit. Even on complex CPUs, most compiler-generated instructions are simple. RISC designs emphasize single-cycle execution, even at the expense of synthesizing multi-instruction sequences for some less-frequent operations.
  • • Hard-wired control, little or no microcode – Microcode adds a layer of interpretive overhead, raising the number of cycles per instruction, so even the simplest instructions can require several cycles.
  • • Simple instructions, few addressing modes – Complex instructions and addressing modes, which entail microcode or multicycle instructions, are avoided.
  • • Load and store, register-register design – Only loads and stores access memory; all others perform register-register operations. This tends to follow from the previous three principles.
  • • Efficient, deep pipelining – To make convenient use of hardware parallelism without the complexities of horizontal microcode, fast CPUs use pipelining. An n-stage pipeline keeps up to “n” instructions active at once, ideally finishing one (and starting another) every cycle. The instruction set must be carefully tuned to support pipelining.


RM (relationship manager)

A staff member who acts as an organizational liaison, typically between an information services (IS) department and business-unit or function. The relationship manager may fulfill a combination of roles that correspond to the degree of trust and authority granted to the person in that role by his/her customer. The job content of the position (in order of increasing business trust and responsibility) is classified in four levels:

  • • Level 1: Inform and Communicate
  • • Level 2: Advise and Influence
  • • Level 3: Coordinate and Integrate
  • • Level 4: Manage and Oversee


Relationship management is essentially a matrixed position, with reporting requirements to at least two managers (typically a chief information officer – CIO – and business function or division manager). In practice, however, the position is usually linked more strongly to one side than another, and is most often aligned to the business management side.


RMA (record management application)

An application that enables enterprises to manage electronic and paper-based records throughout the life cycles of those records.


RNC (radio network controller)

Plays a role similar to the BSC in a GSM network, but supports B nodes used in UMTS networks.



Ability of a mobile user to access cellular services while away from the home network. This includes automated roaming between GSM networks, SIM-based roaming, where a user switches the SIM card into a mobile phone from a different network, or roaming across technologies (for example, between a WCDMA network and the GSM network of another operator). Roaming can take place within one country and across national boundaries. In a WLAN context, roaming occurs when a mobile device disassociates from one access point and then re-associates with a new access point.


ROC (return on competitiveness)

A nomenclature and philosophy that goes beyond the traditional return on investment (ROI) concept by focusing the metric or calculation on how competitiveness is affected by investment. A good way to visualize and quantify the overall return on IT competitiveness is to build a spider diagram that identifies and maps all the relevant dimensions of competitiveness within a given industry sector, and then measure the changes in the overall mapping area during a given time interval (e.g., a year).


ROE (return on equity)

A measure of a company’s financial performance (net income divided by the value of the stockholders’ equity, and expressed in percent).


ROI (return on investment)

Financial gain expressed as a percentage of funds invested to generate that gain.


ROIT (return on information technology)

Financial gain expressed as a function of an enterprise’s investment in information technology.


ROLAP (relational online analytical processing)

A relational approach to multidimensionality, offering multidimensional operations (initially read only) on top of relational data (heavily denormalized).



When an NTFS volume is mounted, it is checked to see if it is in a consistant state. If it isn’t then the $LogFile is consulted and transactions are undone until the disk returns to a consistant state. This does not guarantee data integrity, only disk integrity.

See also: $LogFile, Transaction and Volume.


Root Directory (See Dot, Root Directory)


RSA (rural service area)

Geographic area designation used for the allocation of 1,900MHz cellular licenses to mobile service providers in the U.S. that determines where they can operate. An RSA is a non-urban area. There are 306 MSAs and 428 RSAs in the U.S. There is considerable overlap with the older BTA and MTA designations. See also BTA, MSA and MTA.


RSTR Record

Two copies of this are in $LogFile. A restart area has the magic number ‘RSTR’ followed by a fixup and some other data, including three LSNs. A restart area has a pointer into the log area, such as the first and last log records written and the last checkpoint record written. (that is three – now which is which?)


RTT (round-trip time)

Measure (in milliseconds) of the latency of a network – that is, the time between initiating a network request and receiving a response. High latency tends to have a greater impact than bandwidth on the end-user experience in interactive applications, such as Web browsing. See also latency.


R-UIM (removable user identity module)

Introduced by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) and the 3GPP2, an R-UIM card is a smart card for use with CDMA-based mobile phones. It enables customers to switch phones without changing their mobile numbers, stores frequently called numbers and provides some functions similar to the SIM card in GSM mobile phones.


Runs (See Data Runs)




SaaS (software as a service)


SAC (subscriber acquisition cost)

Cost to operator of net subscriber addition, typically including the cost of sales and marketing, and handset subsidies, if applicable.


SAE (system architecture evolution)

3GPP architectural framework for the evolution of the core network to LTE. The SAE provides a lower-latency, packet-optimized system that supports multiple radio access technologies, including UTRAN, Wi-Fi and WiMAX, as well as wired technologies.


sales configuration systems

These systems are used to configure ship-to-order, assemble-to-order and engineer-to-order products and to configure nonproduct information and customized financing plans.


sales to end users

Branded, finished, new products sold directly to end users or leased for the first time during the year in question. Products distributed by manufacturers into a country or region (“sell in”) – but not connected to networks in that region – are excluded. Conversely, products sold by a manufacturer to a distributor in one region but sold by that distributor in another region are counted as sales (“sell through”) to end users in the latter region.


SAM (software asset management)

A process for making software acquisition and disposal decisions. It includes strategies that identify and eliminate unused or infrequently used software, consolidating software licenses or moving toward new licensing models.


SAM tools (systems administration management tools)

A flexible set of application maintenance utilities and application administration tools. The key value of such tools is derived from how well they manage changes. A well-designed tool permits an administrator to describe either a database or a form field change, ensures the integrity of all of the application components tied to the change and propagates the change to all affected users. SAM tools for central administration are used by system administrators and thus provide a level of technical competency, whereas administrative functionality for managers (e.g., sales managers, marketing content managers and call center supervisors) must be limited by the capabilities of the end user.


SAN (storage area network)

A SAN consists of two tiers: The first tier – the storage plumbing tier – provides connectivity between nodes in a network and transports device-oriented commands and status. At least one storage node must be connected to this network. The second tier – the software tier – uses software to provide value-added services that operate over the first tier.


satellite broadcasting operator

An entity that leverages satellite  infrastructure to transmit TV channels to viewers as a main business.


satellite communications

The use of geostationary orbiting satellites to relay transmissions from one earth station to another or to multiple earth stations.


satellite communications operator

An entity that leverages satellite network to provide telecommunication services.


satellite computer

A programmable machine that relieves a primary processor of such time-consuming operations as compiling, editing, and controlling input/output devices.


satellite dish

Parabolic microwave antenna used to transmit and receive satellite signals. On the downlink, the dish collects data or video signals from orbiting satellites and focuses them to where a feed horn collects them and passes the signal on to be amplified and sent to a satellite receiver or IRD. The term is derived from the shape of the reflector surface but also represents the entire antenna subsystem, including the feed horn and antenna structure.


satellite phone (satphone)

Handheld device that uses satellite infrastructure to effect wireless voice and SMS communications without the use of a terrestrial infrastructure. Satphones can be handheld, fixed or portable and use satellites that can be stationary or orbiting. The user requires line of sight to a satellite in the coverage area of the service provider. Services typically include two-way voice, low-speed data, SMS and fax. Satphone service providers include Globalstar, Inmarsat, Iridium Satellite and Thuraya.


SAX (Simple API for XML)

A public domain alternative to Document Object Model (DOM) that defines an event-oriented interface for Java applications.



The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum allotted for satellite transmission in the 2GHz to 4GHz frequency range. A number of MSS providers operate part of their satellite networks using the S-band. See also Ka-band, Ku-band and L-band.


SBM (skills-based management)

A program that objectively defines what skills an enterprise possesses, what skills it will need in the future, when it will need those skills, what strategic value it will place on those skills and how the information technology (IT) employees’ competency levels match the value of the strategically significant skills. It is, in effect, a road map for developing competency improvement programs and other methods to fill any skill gaps.


SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)

A system used in manufacturing for acquiring measurements of process variables and machine states, and for performing regulatory or machine control across a process area or work cell.



The measure of a system’s ability to increase or decrease in performance and cost in response to changes in application and system processing demands. Examples would include how well a hardware system performs when the number of users is increased, how well a database withstands growing numbers of queries, or how well an operating system performs on different classes of hardware. Enterprises that are growing rapidly should pay special attention to scalability when evaluating hardware and software.



A device that resolves a two-dimensional object, such as a business document, into a stream of bits by raster scanning and quantization.



A cause of light wave signal loss in optical fiber transmission. Diffusion of a light beam caused by microscopic variations in the material density of the transmission medium.


SCCM (software change and configuration management)

Software change and configuration management (SCCM – mainframe and distributed) tools implement a set of disciplines used to stabilize, track and control the versions and configurations of a set of software items and also may include development change management, defect tracking, change automation, development release management, integrated test management, integrated build management and other related processes.


SCE (supply chain execution)

Supply chain execution (SCE) is focused on execution-oriented applications, including warehouse management systems (WMSs), transportation management systems (TMSs), global trade management (GTM) systems and other execution applications, such as real-time decision support systems (for example, dynamic routing and dynamic sourcing systems) and supply chain visibility systems within the enterprise, as well as throughout the extended supply chain. Sometimes, order management systems are also included in SCE, but, generally, order management is not included in the definition of SCE. Typical modules and applications include:

  • • WMSs:
  • • Labor management systems
  • • Yard/dock management
  • • Returns management
  • • Inventory control
  • • TMSs:
  • • Domestic transportation management software
  • • Global multimodal transportation management (managing transportation around multimodal processes)
  • • GTM systems:
  • • Trade compliance
  • • International/global logistics
  • • Global order management
  • • Global trade financial management


SC-FDMA (single-carrier frequency division multiple access)

A multiplexing technique similar to OFDMA but where the subcarriers assigned to each user must be contiguous, which reduces the processing power and battery requirements for mobile devices. See also OFDMA.


SCIV (supply chain inventory visibility)

Applications that allow enterprises to monitor and manage events across the supply chain to plan their activities more effectively and pre-empt problems. SCIV systems enable enterprises not only to track and trace inventory globally on a line-item level, but also submit plans and receive alerts when events deviate from expectations. This visibility into orders and shipments on a real-time basis gives enterprises reliable advance knowledge of when goods will arrive.


SCM (software configuration management)

Also known as “software change management,” SCM is a methodology for software problem/change request initiation and tracking; change impact analysis; version control; security administration of software assets; software promotion; quality reviews; and software distribution.


SCM (supply chain management)

SCM is a business strategy to improve shareholder and customer value by optimizing the flow of products, services and related information from source to customer. SCM encompasses the processes of creating and fulfilling the market’s demand for goods and services. It is a set of business processes that encompasses a trading partner community engaged in a common goal of satisfying the end customer. Thus, a supply chain process can stretch from a supplier’s supplier to a customer’s customer.

At a high level, SCM software is segmented into planning, execution and procurement components. Planning typically deals with activities to develop demand forecasts, establish relations with suppliers, plan and schedule manufacturing, and develop metrics to ensure efficient and cost-effective operations. Execution functions manage the processes and activities to ensure completion of the plans, including creating purchase orders, taking customer orders, updating inventory, managing movement of products in the warehouse, and delivering goods to the customer. Procurement applications are used to help companies understand and improve the terms and conditions of trade to understand enterprise spending.


SCP (supply chain planning)

Supply chain planning (SCP) is the forward-looking process of coordinating assets to optimize the delivery of goods, services and information from supplier to customer, balancing supply and demand. An SCP suite sits on top of a transactional system to provide planning, what-if scenario analysis capabilities and real-time demand commitments, considering constraints. Typical modules include:

  • • Available/capable to promise
  • • Sales and operations planning/integrated business planning
  • • Collaborative planning (including forecasting and replenishment)
  • • Vendor-managed inventory/direct point of sale
  • • Event planning (promotion, life cycle)
  • • Demand planning
  • • Inventory planning
  • • Production/factory planning and scheduling
  • • Distribution planning (unconstrained, distribution requirements planning [DRP] and deployment)
  • • Strategic network design
  • • Inventory strategy optimization (simultaneous, multitiered)
  • • Supply planning (optimized, DRP and deployment)
  • • Production/multiplant capacity planning (master production scheduling, rough-cut capacity planning)


SCPC (single channel per carrier)

A transmission system in which a physical channel is allocated solely to one carrier for the duration of the transmission.


SCR (sustainable cell rate)

In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), the average cell rate a source is allowed to maintain.



A coding device applied to a digital channel that produces an apparently random bit sequence. A corresponding device is used to decode the channel, i.e., the coding is reversible.



Prevention of electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields from escaping or entering an enclosed area by means of a barrier. Also called shielding.


screen popping

Populating a call center agent’s screen with just-in-time customer information.


screen sharing

Similar to application sharing, but not all parties can update the document simultaneously.



This is one of the named indexes belonging to $Secure.

See also: Index, $SII and $Secure.



SDH/SONET technology differs by region. SONET is sold only in North America. SDH is sold outside North America and comes in two types: SDH (Japan) is sold only in Japan, while SDH (ETSI) is sold in the rest of the world. SDH/SONET supports ring and mesh topologies, and protection of circuits through automatic protection switching (APS) is standard, via various protection programs.

SDH/SONET comes in standardized bit rates, with SDH circuits referred to as synchronous transfer mode (STM)-x (where x = 1, 4, 16, 64 and 256) connections and SONET circuits known as Optical Carrier Rate (OC)-n (where n = 3, 12, 48, 192, 768) connections. The standardized bit rates are:

  • • STM-1/OC-3 (155 Mbps).
  • • STM-4/OC-12 (622 Mbps).
  • • STM-16/OC-48 (2.5 Gbps).
  • • STM-64/OC-192 (10 Gbps).
  • • STM-256/OC-768 (40 Gbps).


Originally, the SDH/SONET standards were defined as a rigid hierarchy optimized specifically to handle circuit-based voice traffic. With the requirement to support data services becoming more evident, additions were made to the SDH/SONET standards to allow for more flexible traffic handling, especially with regard to data services in general and Ethernet services in particular. New features such as the Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) and LCAS were added to the standards, as well as support for increased control plane functionality as defined in the standards for Automatic Switched Transport Network (ASTN)/Automatic Switched Optical Network (ASON).

In addition, vendors have added cross-connect functionality to SDH/SONET equipment to support add/drop functionality. Also, convergence between SDH/SONET and WDM products has become the norm in the optical transport market.


SDK (software development kit)

A set of development utilities for writing software applications, usually associated with specific environments (e.g., the Windows SDK).


SDMA (spatial division multiple access)

Advanced multiple antenna technique that increases the spectral efficiency, range and bandwidth available to moving wireless devices. Traditional cellular base stations radiate power in all directions, because they have no information about where the mobile device is located. This wastes power and causes interference to adjacent cells, as well as making it harder to distinguish weaker incoming signals from among the noise and interference. By using smart antenna technology to track the spatial location of mobile devices, the radiation pattern of the base station can be adjusted to optimize both transmission and reception for each user device. By rapidly adjusting the phase of signals from several antennas, the base station can effectively steer a beam or a spot of RF power to or from each user. Unlike MIMO, only one antenna is required at the client device, potentially reducing customer premises equipment (CPE) costs. SDMA techniques are used in proprietary wireless broadband systems, such as Navini Networks’ Ripwave and ArrayComm’s iBurst, and are likely options for mobile WiMAX and LTE. See also smart antenna.


SDR (software-defined radio)

Radio hardware and software design that can tune to any frequency across a wide range of spectrum and can decode any modulation technique or protocol – all under software control. SDRs are complex and expensive to build and have mainly been used for military applications until recently, but have now been introduced into cellular base stations. The low cost and increasing power of modern digital signal processors, as well as the huge and growing market for multiband, multimode mobile phones, will make consumer SDR devices practical and economically feasible by 2010. For example, to support global roaming and today’s feature set, a mobile phone requires six frequency bands (800MHz, 900MHz, 1,800MHz, 1,900MHz, 2.1GHz and 2.4GHz) and at least three protocol families – GSM/GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. By 2010, support will likely require two more bands (2.3GHz and 3.5GHz) and two more protocols – LTE and WiMAX.



This is the named data stream belonging to $Secure.

See also: $Secure and Stream


SDSL (symmetric digital subscriber line)

A digital subscriber line (DSL) technology that operates over voice-grade lines at 1.5 megabits per second one way, or 768 kilobits per second both ways, over an 8,000-foot distance.


search engine

A large, searchable index of Web pages that is automatically updated by spiders or Web crawlers and housed on a central server connected to the Internet. Examples include Yahoo and AltaVista.


secondary channel

A low-speed channel established on a four-wire circuit over which diagnostic or control information is passed. User data is passed on the primary, high-speed channels of the circuit.


secondary station

On a communications pathway, a terminal device that has been selected to operate under the control of another terminal device.


secondhand market

Previously owned or used mobile devices that are sold or given free to other users who typically obtain a new network connection. Secondhand devices sometimes are refurbished systematically before resale in other countries or passed on to other users in their original condition. Although most countries have a small secondhand market, it is a significant factor in price-sensitive developing markets such as China, where marginal subscribers are looking for the lowest-cost, entry-level device.


secret key

The symmetric key used in secret-key cryptography. It is a secret shared between communicating parties, but is not truly private. See secret-key cryptography, private key and public-key cryptography.


secret-key cryptography

In this cryptography method (also known as symmetric-key cryptography), the single key needed to encrypt and decrypt messages is a shared secret between the communicating parties. The biggest problem with this method is that the secret key must be communicated through an external mechanism separate from the communication channel over which the encrypted text flows. In addition, secret-key systems do not support digital signatures. These limitations are addressed in public-key cryptography (see separate entry).



Unit of data on the physical storage unit. The storage controller can only access data in multiples of this unit. A sector is usually 512 bytes, but can be 1 KB on certain Asian hard disks.



This metadata file stores a table of security descriptors used by the volume.


secure web gateway

Secure Web gateway solutions protect Web-surfing PCs from infection and enforce company policies. A secure Web gateway is a solution that filters unwanted software/malware from user-initiated Web/Internet traffic and enforces corporate and regulatory policy compliance. These gateways must, at a minimum, include URL filtering, malicious-code detection and filtering, and application controls for popular Web-based applications, such as instant messaging (IM) and Skype. Native or integrated data leak prevention is also increasingly included.



There are two levels of security in NTFS. There are the DOS File Permissions, such as Read Only and Hidden and an ACL model which grants specific permissions to specific users.

See also: ACE, ACL, Permissions, $SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR and SID.



This attribute stores all the security information about a file or directory. It contains an ACL for auditing, an ACL for permissions and a SID to show the user and group of the owner.

See also: Attribute, ACL, ACE and SID.


Security Identifier (SID)

This variable-length identifier uniquely identifies a user or a group on an NT domain. It is used in the security permissions.



security information and event management software

This category includes security information and event management software products providing:

  • • Security event management – The ability to process near-real-time data from security devices and systems to determine when security events of interest have occurred
  • • Security information management – Reporting and historical analysis to support security policy compliance management and the generation of security metrics


Sequence Array (See Update Sequence)



Japanese management practice of numbering all aspects of manufacturing.


selective sourcing

Selective sourcing is when an internal IT organization decouples or carves up the scope of business or IT processes for purposes of individually or selectively sourcing each component separately and distinctly. The main business driver is to determine the best risk/reward combination for each individual scope of work. Most often, this is done to allow for extensive competition to achieve the highest-quality performance at the best price point. The overall role of overseeing (program management) and managing the delivery, risk and overall legal compliance across the entire scope of services across all the individual components lies with the internal IT organization.



The last octet of an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) address.


self-describing messages

A message that contains data as well as the metadata that describes the format and the meaning (i.e., the syntax and the semantics) of that data. For example, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a self-describing message format that consists of tag/value pairs.


self-relocating program

A group of instructions capable of assigning blocks of memory as they are needed.


self-service business intelligence

Self-service business intelligence is defined here as end users designing and deploying their own reports and analyses within an approved and supported architecture and tools portfolio.


self-test and fault isolation

Most systems include a processor-check capability that allows the controlling computer to test itself and the rest of the system. If a fault is found, an alarm light is lit and a message is given on the system printer teletype, if one is provided. This feature also expedites service since the computer can pinpoint faulty equipment, saving diagnostic time.


sell side

Processes for companies to sell their products, including catalogs, transaction processors, payment processors, and supply chain management methods and tools.


semantic data model

A method of organizing data that reflects the basic meaning of data items and the relationships among them. This organization makes it easier to develop application programs and to maintain the consistency of data when it is updated.


Semantic nets

A type of knowledge representation that uses nodes (representing objects or events) and links (representing relationships between those objects or events).


semi-mobile wireless

Includes client device support for roaming among base station coverage areas at pedestrian speeds. At a minimum, the client mobile device is transportable to secondary fixed locations with no connection while in transit. The terms “nomadic” and “portable,” in use by the WiMAX Forum, fit into this category. The terms “nomadic,” “portable” and “mobile” often vary in definition when used by vendors. See also fixed wireless and mobile wireless.



Japanese for mentor, used in lean enterprises to describe an accomplished lean practitioner who takes on a kohai.


sensei (also lean sensei)

A master teacher of lean techniques. Similar in experience to a Black Belt or Master Black Belt in the Six Sigma methodology but more focused on facilitation and teaching than on actual practice.


sensor and RFID-based inventory and asset management business process application software

Innovative business models and processes will be the main way that RFID begins to be justified. But enterprises don’t have many applications to manage these processes today. For example, real-time management of inventory in a retail environment is almost unheard of today, and retailers will need entirely new applications to deal with it. Vendors providing these solutions are fragmented, and each solution will probably emerge as a separate market.


sensor and RFID-based inventory and asset management infrastructure software

Enterprises need software and development patterns to deal with RFID data and hardware. Currently, the most popular approach is to put in middleware that acts like an integration broker between RFID readers and business applications that need to receive the data.


serial dot matrix

An output device that creates a character image by selectively placing individual dots on the substrate using mechanical force. These include the following:

  • • 9 pin – Devices with 9-wire print heads
  • • 18 pin – Devices with 18-wire print heads
  • • 24 pin – Devices with 24-wire print heads


serial inkjet

An output device that creates the desired image by emitting ink from an array of orifices or nozzles. The array of nozzles shuttles across the page, printing one character at a time, or serially. This category includes the following types of device:

  • • Piezo electric inkjet – Print heads in which ink is ejected by electrically actuating a special crystalline or ceramic component to compress the ink and force it out of the nozzle.
  • • Thermal inkjet – Heat is used to generate vapor bubbles, which are ejected through nozzles that project droplets onto a surface to form text or images. Thermal inkjet’s advantages include small and highly controlled droplets and high system reliability. Thermal inkjet print heads are used in a wide range of serial and line inkjets. Originally developed for desktop printers, thermal inkjet printing has spread to specialty applications, such as direct-mail addressing, wide-format printing and package coding operations.


serial interface

An interconnection that transmits information bit by bit rather than a whole character at a time. It is much slower and cheaper than a parallel interface.


serial transmission

A method whereby the bits of a character are sent sequentially on a single transmission channel. See parallel transmission.



A system or a program that receives requests from one or more client systems or programs to perform activities that allow the client to accomplish certain tasks. A processor that provides a specific service to systems on a network. Routing servers connect subnetworks of like architecture; gateway servers connect networks of different architectures by performing protocol conversions; and terminal, printer and file servers provide interfaces between peripheral devices and systems on the network.


server appliance

A type of computing appliance that creates, manipulates or provides information to other network-connected computing devices. Unlike storage appliances, server appliances use an application context for the creation, manipulation or provision of information.


serverless printing

Serverless printing is peer-to-peer printing over Internet Protocol. This permits the removal of a dedicated print server for managing print queues, distributing printer drivers, and so on.


server virtualization infrastructure

Server virtualization infrastructure includes the hypervisor, VM and virtual machine monitors (VMMs). The key to “virtualizing” a server is the hypervisor. A hypervisor is a layer of software (the term “software” can mean preloaded software that runs in a protected area or microcode/firmware, depending on the implementation) that runs directly on hardware and allows the definition of fixed partitions with predefined priorities for accessing hardware resources. These partitions are incomplete VMs because they prioritize, but do not share, all hardware resources. To support flexible configuration, a hypervisor in general is implemented with a VMM. The VMM virtualizes all hardware needed for VMs to run. Most products currently labeled hypervisors bundle a VMM.


server virtualization management

Server virtualization management tools comprise management tools embedded in the hypervisor sale, as well as operations management and administration management tools. Server virtualization management technology can be found in two types of delivery vehicles. The first is embedded within the infrastructure itself – in this case, as part of the package that includes the hypervisor (companies such as VMware have historically referred to this as “virtual infrastructure”).

More manageability is seen built into infrastructure components because they provide technology suppliers with an additional source of revenue and a basis for competitive differentiation of their core technologies. Management technology can also be sourced from third-party independent software vendors, as well as emerging firms with only a virtualization-oriented lineage. In addition, hypervisor vendors are providing additional management tooling on top of that already provided within their virtualization platforms in areas such as administrative consoles, capacity planning, and process and workflow automation.


service bureau

A company that processes various types of data for a client for a fee. Station message detail reporting (SMDR) and call-costing reports are typically provided.


service desk

A help desk that is equipped with the resources for resolving service requests and problem calls. It gives the customer service representative or end user the ability to efficiently diagnose, troubleshoot and correct technical-support problems, rather than being a “pass through.”


serving area

  1. The region surrounding a broadcasting station where signal strength is at or above a stated minimum.
  2. The geographic area handled by a telephone exchange, generally equivalent to a local access and transport area (LATA).



A form of server-based Java that operates in conjunction with a Web server and offers an alternative to using Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and server application programming interfaces (SAPIs) to communicate with Web server processes. In addition, servlets are independent of a given type of Web server, as the most prominent Web servers support servlets.


service provider routers and switches

Routers are a class of network controller that determines the best route for data and voice transmissions between a transmitter (sender) and a receiver. They are typically controlled by software and can be programmed to provide the most inexpensive, fastest or least-busy routes available. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. This definition applies to service provider routers only.


session border controllers

SBCs connect IP networks (enterprise to service provider) and introduce new edge requirements in three major areas: security, service assurance and law enforcement. SBCs sit at the edge of the service provider’s network and complement established routers with their ability to perform required control functions by integrating session signaling and media control. SBCs operate as SIP back-to-back user agents, MGCP proxy/network-address translations (NATs) and/or H.323 back-to-back gateways. They are both the source and the destination of all signaling messages and media streams entering and leaving the provider’s network.

Vendors and products in this category include:

  • • Acme Packet: Net-Net Session Director.
  • • AudioCodes: nCite 1000, nCite 4000 session border controllers.
  • • Ditech Networks: PeerPoint Session Border Controller.
  • • Genband: Multiprotocol Session Controllers.
  • • Quintum Technologies: Tenor Call Relay Session Border Controllers.


The SBC space has been largely cornered by startup vendors, but other equipment vendors have taken two approaches: they have partnered with the SBC vendors or embedded SBC functionality into some of their existing solutions, such as routers. There are some embedded solutions with SBC function, but counts only those that are stand-alone. Vendors such as Cisco and Sonus Networks have integrated SBCs into their routing and switching platforms.


seven wastes

A framework of seven types of activity that do not add value; originally defined by Toyota: overproducing – producing product before there’s a valid order; unnecessary waiting – lengthened cycle time, which reduces agility; unnecessary transportation – unnecessary transportation of material between sites; overprocessing – processes longer or more complex than necessary; unnecessary inventory – buildup of work-in-process or raw materials; unnecessary movement – inefficient workplace; layout causing extra work; and too many defects – poor process quality and too much rework. This list was extended to include an eighth waste: asset underutilization or other underutilization of resources. The eight wastes are often referred to by the acronym “DOWNTIME,” meaning “Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Nonutilized resources, Transportation, Inventory, Motion and Excessive processing.”


SFA (sales force automation)

Using technology to automate the sales process. Some technologies that can be used for sales automation are:

  • • Laptop computers
  • • Personal digital assistants
  • • Contact databases
  • • Interactive selling systems


SFA (sales force automation) – direct sales (field sales/inside sales)

Direct sales software builds on the attributes of technology, functionality and value of order management systems and also includes the functionality for sales execution and sales operations. The direct B2B sales organization is the traditional sales channel, composed of internal sales resources focused on the selling of products or services directly into the client, customer and prospect base as employees of the provider company. Direct sales resources may be field-based, calling on customers face to face at their locations, or inside sales, selling from a desk environment over the phone.


SFC (shop floor control)

A system of computers and/or controllers tools used to schedule, dispatch and track the progress of work orders through manufacturing based on defined routings. SFCs typically calculate work in process based on a percentage of completion for each order and operation that are useful in inventory valuations and materials planning.


SFDR (software failure detection and recovery)

Should support the concept of a transaction, including atomicity (either all changes take place or none take effect) to enable operating-system or application data recovery mechanisms to be implemented.


SFF-LR (small-form-factor, legacy-reduced)

Small footprint PC that has reduced support for legacy technologies such as mouse and keyboard ports, PCI slots, serial and parallel ports.


SFM (store-and-forward manager)

A component that handles interapplication, asynchronous messaging for data consistency and multistep process coordination.


SGSN (serving GPRS support node)

Part of the GPRS infrastructure, the SGSN provides switching functionality, security and authentication via the HLR for GPRS users. The SGSN’s primary interfaces are with the GGSN, HLR and PCU.


shadow/mirror databases

A system-level facility to enable shadowing or mirroring (i.e., duplication) of selected databases to a separate disk or disk set. The purpose is to minimize the space required for backup data while providing for the continuation of critical processing in the event of the loss of a disk containing related databases.


shared services

“Shared services” is a delivery model in which a shared-service center, supported by dedicated people, processes and technologies, acts as a centralized provider of a defined business function for use by multiple enterprise constituencies. The service center may be physical, virtual or logical. The enterprise constituencies that use the services must either govern the services or be well-represented in the decision-making body. Shared services typically involve standardizing and streamlining data, processes, and infrastructure, as well as implementing financial disciplines around the services being delivered, regardless of whether they are delivered internally, by external service providers or by a combination of the

A cross-application operating environment accessed through a single user interface. A network connectivity shell is the environment used to access network resources – e.g., a suite with a single user interface for host, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Web access.


shielded pair

A pair of conductors in a cable that are wrapped with metallic foil designed to insulate the pair from interference.



A software modification inserted into an operating system or application, to intercept the normal data flow and provide additional functionality. Often used by third party vendors to provide enhanced networking features.



The additional equipment required to support an increase in traffic or coverage. Shipments are calculated by subtracting the current year’s installations from the following year’s installations.



Continuous optimization of workers in a work center, which relies on multiskilled workers and optimized work center design.



  1. A term used to refer to packaged software applications (from the shrink-wrapped packaging typical of such products).
  2. Term initially used to describe an unsigned software license agreement that is deemed accepted when the user breaks a shrink-wrapped seal or opens an enclosed sealed envelope in the package containing the software media, such as a floppy disk or CD. Use of the term has been expanded to refer to software license agreements that are accepted electronically. See click-wrapped.


S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol)

Also known as HTTPS, this is an extension of Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) that provides security services for transaction confidentiality, authenticity and integrity between HTTP servers and clients. For the purposes of Internet browsers, S-HTTP is a competitive alternative to the more widely used Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) standard. S-HTTP was designed for use in browser applications, so it cannot be used to secure non-browser-based Internet applications.


SI (systems integrator)

An enterprise that specializes in implementing, planning, coordinating, scheduling, testing, improving and sometimes maintaining a computing operation. SIs try to bring order to disparate suppliers.


SID (See Security Identifier)



A frequency band on either the upper or lower side of the carrier frequency within which fall the frequencies produced by the process of modulation.


signaling gateways/IP-STPs

These are an NGN component, facilitating the crossing of a policy boundary or performing protocol conversion. NGN IP-STP products include products using protocols such as SIP, Session Initiation Protocol for Telephony (SIP-T), Parlay, Electronic Numbering (ENUM) and XML. SGs use SS7 and SIGTRAN protocols.


signal-to noise ratio

Measurement of the quality of the wireless signal that is expressed as the ratio between the power of the transmitting signal and the noise that is present trying to corrupt that signal.



Any mark or symbol accepted by both parties to show intent, approval of, or responsibility for, a document. In e-business, for example, a “from” line on an e-mail, a mouse click of acceptance of terms, an e-mail closing, a biometric and electronic signatures of several types are accepted as signatures. Some laws specify a written signature to be legally acceptable. New laws give the same status to electronic signatures as written signatures.


signature verification

A biometric technique that uses characteristics of a person’s signature (including pressure, pen lifts, speed and direction of pen strokes) to authenticate identity. Signature is less accurate than some other biometrics (e.g., fingerprints, iris) but is popular in document authentication applications that have traditionally used written signatures. Some growth may be fueled by the adoption of pen-based devices (e.g., the Palm Pilot) that can double as a signature input tablet.



This is one of the named indexes belonging to $Secure.

See also: Index, $SDH and $Secure.


SIM card (subscriber identity module) card

Programmable smart card in a mobile device that gives access to a network. It contains codes (such as the IMSI) to identify a subscriber to a digital mobile service and the details of the special services the subscriber has elected to use. A SIM card may be a removable plastic card with embedded memory and a processor chip or may be fixed within the mobile device.


SIMD (single instruction, multiple data)

A design for parallel computers characterized by instructions that can directly trigger a large number (in parallel) of data operations on different data. Vector processors fall into this category.


SIM toolkit (SIM application toolkit)

ETSI standard that allows additional information and functionality to be preprogrammed on to the SIM card, providing a customized menu/user interface on the phone. This helps users directly access services provided by network operators and service providers, such as banks and entertainment organizations.


SIMM (single in-line memory module)

A small printed circuit board that plugs into a socket on a personal computer and increases the available random-access memory (RAM).



Pertaining to the capability to transmit in one direction only. See half duplex and full duplex.


simplex circuit

A circuit permitting the transmission of signals in one specified direction only. Also known as single duplex.



The use of a mathematical or computer representation of a physical system for the purpose of studying constraint effects.


simulation routines

Various routines using historical information to simulate future alternatives for supply chain operations design. Usually strategically focused for use in future operations, these may then be optimized or prioritized.


single-image mode

A mode of operation in which multiple physical central processing units (CPUs) within a complex logically appear as one system running under control of a single copy of the operating system.


single-mode fiber

A fiber with a small core diameter allowing the propagation of a single light path.


single-pass device

A color page device that passes the paper once through a print engine containing four or more imaging stations. A full-color image is built up as the paper passes each color station sequentially.


single threading

A group of instructions that completes the processing of one message before starting another. See multithreading.



The terminal connection that collects overflow transmissions on a communications pathway.


SIO (strategic information office)

A business-unit-neutral information office whose role is to propagate the importance of enterprise information management to all business units, generate excitement for these initiatives, negotiate organizational and technological issues across the enterprise, and enforce implementation of and compliance with standards at all levels of the enterprise. Members of the SIO should have in-depth knowledge of, and experience in, both business and technology, with at least one representative from senior management.


SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

Text-based protocol, similar to HTTP and SMTP, for initiating interactive communication sessions among users for voice and data communications.


SITE (strategy, iteration, testing, enablement)

Information systems (IS) departments have a history in applications development of following a design process of planning, prototyping, testing and development, resulting in justifiable design decisions. SITE is a concept that seeks to build on this long-established IS department practice by creating a structured framework within which both business unit (BU) managers and IS staff see clearly identified roles maximize their talents and skills. As a result, issues such as staffing, success factors, return on investment (ROI) guidelines, request for proposals (RFPs), interface design and graphic design are addressed in an environment where decisions are not arbitrary. Whether final execution is in-house or outsourced, adhering to SITE principles provides a project blueprint meaningful to multiple audiences.


Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a business management strategy aimed at improving the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability. “Six Sigma” refers to a six standard deviation distance between a process norm and its nearest specification limit; in practice, Six Sigma is also known by its improvement process steps: “Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control” (DMAIC).


skill mining

A knowledge management (KM) functionality that automatically identifies the skills of knowledge workers by analyzing past behavior. This behavior may be implicit (e.g., looking for recurring concepts in documents that the worker has produced), or explicit (e.g., a worker’s willingness and ability to answer a question in the past). Skill mining enables users to identify who in their enterprise has the expertise to address specific questions or problems.


SKU (stock-keeping unit)

A unique identification number that defines an item at the identifiable inventory level; for example, in retail applications, the SKU may designate style, size and color. A more detailed level would be at the serial number or unique identifier level.


SLA (service-level agreement)

An agreement that sets the expectations between the service provider and the customer and describes the products or services to be delivered, the single point of contact for end-user problems and the metrics by which the effectiveness of the process is monitored and approved.


SLED (single large expensive disk)

Traditional disk drive. That is, a conventional large-system disk system that has, on average, almost twice the diameter of a lower-cost redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system and, as its name implies, is significantly more expensive to manufacture.


SLM (service-level management)

The ongoing process of using service-level agreements (SLAs) to maintain high quality in the provision of services – and to ensure that service-level objectives (SLOs) and performance meet the changing needs of the recipient’s business – through continuous improvement of service activities, functions and processes. See SLA and SLO.


SLM (software license management)

A mechanism for systematically ensuring compliance with system vendor and independent software vendor (ISV) software licenses – for example, maximum users, maximum nodes and maximum MIPS. Examples include Digital Equipment’s License Management Facility and Hewlett-Packard’s Network License Server.


SLO (service-level objective)

Within service-level agreements (SLAs), SLOs are the objectives that must be achieved – for each service activity, function and process – to provide the best opportunity for service recipient success (see SLA).


SMA (service management agreement)

A tool for monitoring, measuring, managing and demonstrating the contribution of IT to the enterprise.


smart antenna

Also known as adaptive antennas, these use an array of antennas in combination with smart signal processing algorithms that track the location of a mobile client device using techniques such as the direction of arrival of a signal. The location or angular direction is then used to calculate beam-forming vectors to focus more of the power of the antenna beam on the mobile target. Smart antennas are used in cellular mobile phone systems and in proposed wireless broadband technologies such as 802.16e-2005 (WiMAX) and 802.11n (MIMO). See also SDMA.


smart card

A plastic card that contains a microprocessor and a memory chip or just a memory chip. The microprocessor card has the ability to add, delete and manipulate information on the card. A memory-chip card, such as a phone card, can only add information. By maintaining all necessary functions and information on the card, smart cards do not require access to remote databases. Growing interest in smart cards crosses barriers of geography, industry and business functions. However, the variety of smart card applications belies the fact that smart cards are capable of only three functions:

  1. Information Storage and Management: Storing data off-line is an important feature of the smart card. It can maintain, for example, all of an individual’s health-related information. Data can be stored and updated continuously either in a write-once format (e.g., a patient’s blood type or known allergies) or in a read/write memory (e.g., a patient’s last visit to the doctor). Memory can store information that does not change, build a history of transactions, or maintain a current data value (as in a phone card). The ability to add and subtract data value from the card makes it particularly useful in financial transactions that use electronic cash or credit and debit. The basic technique is the same whether it is applied to monetary values or frequent-flyer miles. Because the records are always in the user’s possession, privacy is enhanced since duplicate information may be stored at a secure, off-line site in case the card is lost or damaged.
  2. Authentication: Smart cards can manipulate the data they contain to enable real-time transactions. Authentication is the process that determines whether the card will allow a transaction.
  3. Encryption/Decryption: Encryption changes data into a form that can be read only by the intended receiver. To decipher the message, the receiver of the encrypted data must have the proper decryption key. By its very nature, data encryption and decryption must take place in a local, secure environment. The capability of smart cards to perform this function within the embedded chip means that secure data does not have to be transferred from the card to a reader or other device. This reduces the chance that information can be stolen from the card.


smart grid

The smart grid is a vision of the future electricity delivery infrastructure that improves network efficiency and resilience, while empowering consumers and addressing energy sustainability concerns.



Mobile communications device that uses an identifiable open OS. An open OS is supported by third-party applications written by a notable developer community. Examples are Symbian, Linux (including Android), Windows Mobile, RIM and Apple iPhone OS. Third-party applications can be installed and removed, and they can be created for the device’s OS and application programming interfaces (APIs). Alternatively, developers must be able to access APIs through a discrete layer such as Java. The OS must support a multitasking environment and user interface that can handle multiple applications simultaneously. For example, it can display e-mail while playing music.


smart terminal

A display terminal that can operate in either conversational or block mode and can support a full range of local editing capabilities.


SMBs (small and midsize businesses)

Businesses which, due to their size, have different IT requirements – and often face different IT challenges – than large enterprises, and whose IT resources (usually budget and staff) are often highly constrained. For the purposes of its research, SMBs is defined using the following approximate size categories:

  • Small business: In the United States, less than $50 million in annual revenue and up to 100 employees; in Europe, less than $10 million in annual revenue and up to 75 employees
  • Midsize business: In the United States, between $50 million and $300 million in annual revenue and between 100 and 1,000 employees; in Europe, between $10 million and $150 million in annual revenue and between 75 and 300 employees


SME (small-to-midsize enterprise)

Another name for an SMB – see SMBs (small and midsize businesses).


SMED (single minute exchange of die)

Acronym for “single minute exchange of die” – a lean approach that minimizes changeover or setup time in a process such that it can be accomplished in less than 10 minutes (the “single” referring not to one minute but single digits; i.e., less than 10).


SMFP (smart MFP)

A regular MFP can print, fax, copy and scan paper documents. An SMFP can also be programmed by a third party, the user or the technology provider to perform custom functions; easily integrates with office and enterprise applications; is management-friendly, with consistent architecture and user interface; works well on the network; and is based largely on open industry standards. SMFPs can perform usage tracking and other functions that help organizations actively manage their office printer/MFP fleet.


SMP (symmetric multiprocessing)

A multiprocessor architecture in which all processors are identical, share memory and execute both user code and operating-system code.


SMR (specialized mobile radio)

A wireless communications technology in competition with analog cellular services. In an SMR system, the base station equipment supplier is the licensee of the transmitters. Users have access to the multiple channels of the network rather than the limited number of channels of a private mobile radio network. Many users share all of the available channels. Sharing is accomplished on a first-come, first-served basis. When users want to initiate a call, they activate the push-to-talk button on the handset. Assuming the portable unit (and dispatcher or other portable unit) is tuned to an available channel, a communication path is established. If channels that the sender and receiver can use are not available, the call cannot be completed, and the operator must wait for another opportunity to try again.


SMS (short message service)

Facility developed as part of the GSM standard that enables a mobile device to send, receive and display messages of up to 160 characters in Roman text and variations for non-Roman character sets. Messages received are stored in the network if the subscriber device is inactive and are relayed when it becomes active. SMS has become available increasingly in CDMA networks and in some fixed networks.


SMS (system-managed storage)

The term used for the conceptualization of an architecture for attachment, management and reconfiguration of secondary storage. Among the SMS basic design goals is the separation of logical-device management from physical-device management.


SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

A messaging protocol governing electronic-mail transmission in Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks. It is used to transfer e-mail between computers. It is a server-to-server protocol. SMTP supports only text and cannot handle attachments. It supports negative delivery notifications, not the positive notifications required by electronic data interchange (EDI).



A network management tool that monitors data packets on a network to help administrators ensure message integrity and service quality.


SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

A Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)-derived protocol governing network management and the monitoring of network devices. Strictly speaking, SNMP is the Management Information Base (MIB) described in the SNMP standard; extensions to this MIB proposed by the Electronic Messaging Association permit the monitoring and reporting of all conforming messaging components through standard SNMP management tools for network components.


SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine)

A nomenclature created by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for use in pathology. SNOMED has gradually been extended to cover other domains of medicine. It contains over 150,000 items and includes coverage for numerous medical specialties. CAP is also developing SNOMED RT for reference terminology and SNOMED CT for combined terminology.


SOA (service-oriented architecture)

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is the dominant architectural style for agile business applications, and is used when enterprises anticipate application sharing and frequent system changes. SOA helps business managers and analysts develop new business processes, and modify processes more quickly and at a lower cost…


SOA governance technologies

SOA governance technologies are a set of tools and technologies that are used to enact and enforce governance processes and policies. They include technologies for SOA policy management, SOA registries and repositories, and SOA quality assurance and validation.


SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)

A protocol introduced by Microsoft in conjunction with some small vendors. Designed to be simple, it creates transparent mapping of the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) interface definition language (IDL) and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) definitions. It provides the key technology for transport in the next-generation Internet as a set of e-services.


SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment and plan)

A process used by clinicians to identify and assess a patient’s health status, and the subsequent treatments or course of therapy to improve this status.


SOC (software oversight committee)

A healthcare committee charged with ensuring that patients are not placed at risk by implemented software solutions. SOCs contain representative from all aspects of the healthcare enterprise. It has been suggested that SOCs be formed along the lines of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations’ (JCAHO’s) institutional review boards (IRBs). IRBs typically are composed of risk management lawyers, medical ethicists, physicians and other interested parties within the care delivery organization (CDO).

Because of the technical nature of the task, an SOC must have information systems (IS) representation. An SOC should meet on a regular basis to review all current and planned medical software implementations. In addition, it should form, and possibly enforce, a policy designed to ensure patient safety where medical software is concerned.

Specific SOC responsibilities include validating that applications perform reliably and as expected, for example, by creating and running trial scenarios looking at both system and clinical functionality. A SOC should ensure that all decision support applications are based on accurate data, that they are implemented correctly and that the rule base is kept current. It should also examine how the various packages operate in tandem, paying close attention to combinations of functions that could potentially lead to errors that place patients at risk.


social BPM

“Social BPM” is a concept that describes collaboratively designed and iterated processes. These processes mirror the way work is performed from a “doer” perspective and experienced from a “receiver” perspective to harness the power of continuous learning from “the collective.”


social CRM

Social CRM is “a business strategy that entails the extension of marketing, sales and customer service processes to include the active participation of customers or visitors to an Internet channel (Web or mobile) with the goal of fostering participation in the business process.”


social media

An online environment where content is created, consumed, promoted, distributed, discovered or shared for purposes which are primarily related to communities and social activities rather than functional, task-oriented objectives. “Media” in this context is an environment characterized by storage and transmission, while “social” describes the distinct way that these messages propagate in a one-to-many or many-to-many fashion. A distinction is drawn in this definition between media (the enabling environment) and content (what the environment contains).


social software

“Social software” is the tools that encourage, capture, and organize open and free-form interaction between employees, customers, and partners. It is a “socializing” technology – sometimes also referred to as Enterprise 2.0 – that enables a grassroots approach to creating and exploiting collective knowledge.



The Berkeley interprocess communications model. A socket specifies the end points of a two-way communications channel which connects two processes together so they can exchange information.


softswitch architecture

Softswitch architecture comprises softswitches/MGCs, VoIP gateways and application servers. These are among the terms used to identify the major network elements of softswitch architecture. For our purposes, the terms “softswitch” and “softswitch architecture” refer to the softswitch/VoIP gateway/application server approach to distributed switching technology.

Softswitches for cable networks are essentially the same as those used by traditional telephone companies, but they must comply with the NG standards from Cable Television Laboratories (CableLabs) for packetized voice-over-cable networks.

Softswitch architectures are mostly being deployed in traditional operators’ core networks for wireline or mobile trunking, and in the networks of long-distance service providers. Many voice-over-broadband networks are based on Class 5 architecture to provision Class 5 services, as well as calling card services using VoIP technology. In mobile networks, deployment of mobile softswitches in the radio access network (RAN) is limited by the slow deployment of third-generation (3G) infrastructure and the highly optimized TDM architecture in the RAN.

With the migration to SIP, softswitch architecture lends itself to the 3GPP and ETSI TISPAN standards to develop IMS-compliant applications.



To provide services without a physical switch, a softswitch is connected to a server (a Sun Microsystems or Unix machine, for instance) that runs the application. A softswitch is also connected to a media gateway, which is the element that physically connects to the PSTN, IP network or ATM network.

A softswitch is also known as a call agent, a call server or an MGC. It is a device that provides the traditional call control functions or switching matrix of a Class 4 and Class 5 switch. In a mobile network, a softswitch is also called a mobile switching center (MSC). At minimum, a softswitch provides:

  • • Intelligence that controls connection services for a media gateway or native IP endpoint.
  • • The ability to select processes that can be applied to a call.
  • • Routing for a call in the network, based on signaling and customer database information.
  • • The ability to transfer control of a call to another network element.
  • • Interfaces to, and support for, management functions, such as provisioning fault-tolerant billing.
  • • Support for multiple protocols, including some subsets of MGCP, Media Gateway Control Protocol (Megaco), SIP, SS7, call processing language, H.323 and Q.931/Q.2931.
  • • DiffServ, Resource Reservation Protocol, Real-Time Transport Protocol, Real-Time Control Protocol, MPLS and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11p.
  • • Compliance/interoperation with some subsets of standards from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Frame Relay Forum, ATM Forum, IEEE’s IMS Forum and 3GPP/3GPP2.


software as a service (SaaS)

SaaS (software as a service) is software that’s owned, delivered and managed remotely by one or more providers. If the vendor requires user organizations to install software on-premises using their infrastructure, then the application isn’t SaaS.


software development

Project management, specifications, design, programming, testing, installation and training associated with a specific application development project of any size.


software maintenance

Updating software, adding new functions, fixing bugs and solving problems. Technology vendors often sell a maintenance contract with their software. This contract is usually calculated as an annual fee based on some percentage of the total software cost. It generally provides for overall support and maintenance of a software product, including applications. Support may include telephone assistance time as well.


software support services

Software support services are generally technical support or break/fix services that are delivered for specific software products. These services include revenue derived from long-term technical-support contracts or pay-as-you-go, incident-based support. Software support services typically include remote troubleshooting capabilities, installation assistance and basic usability assistance. Remote troubleshooting capabilities may be delivered via telephone and online communication media or without human assistance through automated means that reside on the customer’s device or are available on the Web.

Software support services may include new product installation services, installation of product updates, migrations for major releases of software, other types of proactive or reactive on-site services, and support for custom application or infrastructure software. Services may be delivered by a product vendor, a consulting firm or third-party software maintainers.

Software products and technologies covered under this category include commercial and custom operating systems, application software, and infrastructure software. Software support services do not include software license code updates and upgrades, which vendors often report as software maintenance.

The segments covered in software support map directly to market segments covered in software market statistics.


SOHO (small office/home office)

A market segment for office equipment or computing peripherals (e.g., printers or copiers). Products targeted to the SOHO market tend to be lower in price and functionality than those designed to support large, corporate office environments.


SONET (Synchronous Optical Network)

A International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications standard for synchronous transmission up to multigigabit speeds. The standard includes multivendor interoperability, improved troubleshooting and network survivability. As a Layer 1 standard, it is a foundation for Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) services.


source encoding

A compression technique that takes into account the nature of the information to be compressed. See entropy encoding.


source routing

A technique used in local-area networks (LANs) in which the source of the frame specifies the route that the frame has to follow; the source furnishes a routing information field that designates the entire route to the destination.


source traffic descriptor

In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a set of parameters used during the setting up of a connection.


SOW (statement of work)

The statement of work includes an objectives section allowing the customer to emphasize the desired end state or performance metric to be achieved. It also mandates the assessment of past performance, technical approach and cost for each task order. The customer determines the relative importance of each criterion.


SP (service pack)

A minor revision to a software product that contains feature updates or bug fixes, but not enough new code to warrant a new version number.


space segment

In-orbit satellite portion of a particular satellite communications system or network. See also ground segment.


spaghetti chart

A graphical representation of movement of materials, people or process steps to identify motion or transport wastes for elimination.



Usenet messages flooded to many newsgroups indiscriminately. The term is also loosely applied to junk mail.



A slang term for the practice of hiding a slew of words or phrases in a Web page to increase the number of hits the page will register in Internet searches.


Sparse File

NTFS supports sparse files. If a file contains large, contiguous, blocks of zeros, then NTFS can choose to not waste any space storing these portions on disk. They are represented as data runs containing nothing. When read from disk, NTFS simply substitutes zeros.

See also: Data Runs.


SPC (statistical process control)

Maintaining or improving process capability by employing statistical techniques to analyze process outputs and provide feedback for process control loops.


speaker verification

A biometrics-based alternative to typed passwords or personal identification numbers. A computer matches a person’s spoken voice to an electronically captured voice sample (analogous to a unique fingerprint).


SPEC (System Performance Evaluation Cooperative)

A vendor consortium that selects and standardizes benchmark programs submitted by members or others, for the purpose of rating and comparing the performance of processors.


SPECfp (SPEC floating point)

A test of floating-point computations, established by the System Performance Evaluation Cooperative (SPEC).


specialty center

A specialty center, or center of excellence, is a group of people dedicated to identifying best practices in an area of expertise and to building an internal service organization around that expertise. A center of excellence is a central clearinghouse for knowledge capital that is used across all business transformation projects. Specialty centers are an excellent means to leverage specialized skill sets, and are typically staffed to address a known demand.


SPECint (SPEC integer)

A System Performance Evaluation Cooperative (SPEC) benchmark to measure the integer performance of a processor.



A continuous range of frequencies, usually wide in extent, within which waves have some specific common characteristics.


spectrum harmonization

A global effort under the auspices of the ITU to encourage governments and regulators to allocate RF spectrum consistently across borders, thereby enabling global roaming, interoperability and global markets for telecom equipment. Every four years, the ITU holds the World Radiocommunication Conference, where global/regional spectrum assignments are negotiated and agreed. A recent example is the 1.9GHz to 2.1GHz band, which has been allocated to UMTS in almost every geography. The WiMAX Forum is undertaking similar efforts to support global allocation of 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz for wireless broadband.


speech circuit

A circuit designed for the transmission of speech, either analog or encoded, but which can also be used for data transmission or telegraphy.


speech recognition

A computer’s ability to convert spoken input to text. Special software takes vocal sounds, digitizes them and then compares them to a library of sound patterns. When matches are found, the computer can use those words just as if they had been typed on a keyboard. Speech recognition can improve personal productivity in the workplace, increase the effectiveness of interactive voice response (IVR) systems, and bring computing to untraditional environments (e.g., a hospital emergency room). The term “voice recognition” is also commonly used to refer to the ability of a machine or program to recognize and carry out voice commands or take dictation.

Speech recognition software generally falls into three categories along a continuum:

  • • Command systems were the earliest and simplest form; the computer learns a small number of voice commands like “open file” or “print document,” freeing the user from having to use a keyboard or mouse to perform those tasks.
  • • Discrete speech recognition, the second stage in this evolution, can be used for dictation and other natural speaking conditions, but pauses are required between words.
  • • Continuous speech recognition software is emerging today. These systems understand natural speech without pauses, and their vocabularies and accuracy will continue to expand and improve.


SPF (Shortest Path First)

A link-state protocol that uses a set of user-defined parameters to find the optimum route between two points.



A piece of software (also called a Web crawler) designed to follow hyperlinks to their completion, and return information on Internet addresses passed.



  1. A process whereby a router responds to keep alive messages from a host rather than passing them on the remote client, thus saving call charges. Used mainly in Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
  2. Of a packet, falsely claiming to be from an address different from that from which it actually originated.


spot beam

An antenna radiation pattern designed to focus on or serve a relatively small or isolated geographic area, usually with high gain or power. A spot beam is the RF equivalent of a spotlight. Many next-generation satellite designs, including newer, high-capacity Ka-band satellites, have spot beam technology that can be activated to direct service to key markets where demand is highest. When combined with frequency reuse capabilities, DVB-S2 and MPEG-4 advanced compression technology, spot beams can significantly boost an operator’s satellite capacity more than older Ku-band, MPEG-2, DVB-S satellite systems. See also DVB-S2, frequency reuse, Ka-band and Ku-band.


SPP (service parts planning)

Service parts planning (SPP) supports the optimal stock quantities and location of items used to service internal assets or customer equipment in the aftermarket. SPP applications address processes such as:

  • • Forecasting and demand planning
  • • Inventory planning and optimization
  • • Distribution/allocation and supply planning
  • • Collaboration
  • • Workforce planning
  • • Analytics and BAM (such as visibility and event management)
  • • Pricing optimization
  • • Returns and repair center management


spread spectrum

Radio technology that enables a number of radio communication links to use the same band of frequencies simultaneously without mutual interference.


SQL (Structured Query Language)

A relational data language that provides a consistent, English keyword-oriented set of facilities for query, data definition, data manipulation and data control. It is a programmed interface to relational database management systems (RDBMSs). IBM introduced SQL as the main external interface to its experimental RDBMS, System R, which it developed in the 1970s. SQL statements include:

  • • Data manipulation language statements: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE
  • • Data definition language statements, including the CREATE and DROP statements for tables and indexes
  • • Statements that control data consistency, and grant and revoke authority


SQL statements are called “dynamic” when they are not completely specified until the program is executed. They are called “static” when they are completely specified when the program is compiled. SQL is precise, because it is based on predicate logic, but is difficult for average users to deal with, and its most fruitful position is as a protocol for software-to-software connectivity, rather than for human-to-software access.


SRM (storage resource management)

Storage resource management (SRM) products provide data collection and automation agents that consolidate and operate on information from multiple platforms supporting storage management tools on multiple OSs, storage devices and storage area network (SAN) devices. Key functions include capacity reporting and analysis, performance reporting and analysis, capacity and performance management automation, resource availability, storage provisioning, storage management product integration, application and database integration, and hardware integration. Basic network and system management (NSM) integration should provide the ability of the SRM product to externalize events to other management products. Product-specific integration includes the ability to launch the SRM product from the NSM console. Integration with device resource management products and media management products should include launch of hardware configuration utilities from the SRM console, collection and reporting of agent information, and integration of logical-level data. Typical SRM tools require a SAN management tool to manage and collect data from heterogeneous devices on the SAN. Stand-alone SAN management tools are also included in the SRM segment. Products that provide for discovery, topology mapping and monitoring of SAN components are also included in this segment because many are being included with SRM suites or are expanding to include SRM functionality. SRM tools may offer real-time or historical views into one or several of the physical, volume/virtual, file or database levels, and/or point and time copy views.


SSB (single sideband)

To make efficient use of the frequency band available, the carrier and the unwanted sideband of an amplitude-modulated wave can be filtered out so that only the sideband that contains all the information is transmitted. This is known as SSB transmission.


SSEM (System and Server Evaluation Model)

A model that focuses on the six major categories of differentiation that exist between server platforms: performance and scalability, high availability, software vendor enthusiasm, platform architectural longevity, systems and network management software, and maintenance.


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

An Internet security standard from Netscape Communications, used for its browser and server software.


SSN (switched service network)

A telephone network consisting of terminals, transmission links, and at least one exchange, on which any user can communicate with any other user at any time.


SSO (single sign-on)

A term describing the function of consolidating the number of log-on processes for end users among various information technology (IT) resources.


SSP (service switching point)

The telecommunications switch in an intelligent network which handles a call with reference to supplementary routing and database information contained at a service control point (SCP).


SSP (storage service provider)

A company that provides computer storage capacity and management services. In addition to the storage itself, SSPs typically offer periodic backup and archiving, and some offer to consolidate data from multiple enterprise locations so that all locations can share the data effectively.


SSPC (structure, scripting, populating and channel outputs)

A framework for creating documents that requires four core mechanisms for defining the structure, scripting, populating (filling) and output channels of documents.

  1. Structure definition consists of tools to define components (e.g., title, author, introduction, conclusion) and their sequence (e.g., “introductions” precede “conclusions”). The defined sequence cannot be modified or removed through editing.
  2. Scripting is procedural logic that defines how to derive (i.e., calculate) content, and how to access or create queries that test and conditionally incorporate content from external sources (e.g., databases), other applications and content repositories.
  3. Populating executes scripts against the structural definition to create an instance of the content model expressed in the document definition. This includes executing data and content retrieval, queries and computations to generate a fleshed-out document (an “instance”) from the document skeleton defined by the structural and scripting elements.
  4. Output channels control the content so that the same content can be formatted and composed for multiple media, such as print, Web or CD-ROM delivery.


stalking horses

Conceptual models used to test out new concepts and stimulate dialog about them.



A document that recommends a protocol, interface, type of wiring, or some other aspect of a system. It may even recommend something as general as a conceptual framework or model (e.g., a communications architecture). De jure standards are developed by internationally or nationally recognized standards bodies or vendors. De facto standards are widely used vendor-developed protocols or architectures.



This attribute contains information about a file, such as its file permissions and when it was created.



Specifications or styles that are widely accepted by users and adopted by several vendors. Standards are critical to the compatibility of hardware, software, and everything in between. Industry standards enable the essential elements of a computer and related infrastructure to work together. Standards provide specifications to hardware manufacturers and software developers that allow them to create products that will work together. Deviation from standards could result in the following problems:

  • • A plug on a keyboard does not fit into the related outlet on a computer.
  • • A piece of software does not work with a particular operating system.
  • • An Internet browser cannot read a certain page on the Web because the page is not formatted according the browser requirements.
  • • Proprietary software does not work on the Internet.


statistical multiplexing

A time-division multiplexing technique in which time slots are dynamically allocated on the basis of need (i.e., slots are allocated to equipment with data to be transmitted).


statistical quality control/statistical process control

A set of techniques based on statistical principles and methods used to regulate the quality of products and processes.


STDM (statistical time-division multiplexing)

Time shared dynamically between active channels on a multiplexer.


STE (signal-terminating equipment)

A network node used in the interconnection of public data networks.


STEP (specification, tracking, evaluation, production)

The four stages on which essential activities in the successful deployment of advanced technology are based. They are:

  • • Specification – which aligns corporate strategy and technology focus
  • • Tracking – which assesses individual technologies for maturity and business impact
  • • Evaluation – which involves prototyping and other in-depth evaluation activities to further gauge the readiness and relevance of the technology
  • • Production – which sees the technology being piloted and, if successful, rolled out into full deployment.



The general term applied to Web site qualities that attract and hold visitors. A sticky Web site is assumed to be offering higher value than one that is not sticky.


STM (synchronous transfer mode)

A technique for multiplexing several circuits over transmission links and switches whereby time is divided into slots or buckets, and circuits are given time units whether or not they have any data to transmit. See asynchronous transfer mode.


storage appliance

A type of computing appliance that provides data to, or manages data for, other network-connected computing devices. Unlike server appliances, storage appliances provide or manage data without an application context. This category of computing devices includes network-attached storage (NAS) and storage-area network (SAN) devices. See computing appliance, server appliance, NAS and SAN.


storage management software

The storage management software market includes all software products that are sold as value-added options to run on a server, storage network device or storage device to aid in managing the device or managing and protecting the data. Revenue is for new license sales and for maintenance and support services that include new version license sales to update an existing license to a new version, telephone support and on-site remedial support. Revenue does not include professional services. For products to be included in this coverage, they must represent a revenue stream for the company that is separately tracked and not be only part of a bundled product or service.

Storage management software coverage spans from the desktop to the mainframe and includes products that focus on a single or limited set of devices, as well as those products that support a heterogeneous set of devices.

The storage management software market is divided into seven segments. Storage management software is the sum of all the segments and represents all the tools needed to manage capacity, performance and availability of data stored on disks, tapes and optical devices, as well as the networking devices that the data may pass through.


storage subsystem hardware services

This segment includes other storage subsystem services and redundant array of independent disks (RAID)-based storage system services.

  • • RAID-based storage system services – This category includes the total of all external controller-based RAID-based disk storage, host-based external RAID storage, host-based internal RAID storage and network-attached storage. RAID refers to a set of disk drives (at least two) with input/output activity that is managed by external-based or host-based RAID technology.
  • • Other storage subsystem services – This category includes tape libraries, optical libraries and hard-disk drive upgrades/replacements.


storage support services

This segment includes tape libraries, optical libraries, hard-disk drive upgrades/replacements, and RAID-based storage system services.


strategic document outsourcing

Subset of business process outsourcing focused on the printed and electronic publication of customer communications, including content creation, multimedia presentation and incoming-document processing. The outsourced documents may be transactional forms, sales collateral, direct-marketing pieces or informational materials.



All data on NTFS is stored in streams, which can have names. A file can have more than one data streams, but exactly one must have no name. The size of a file is the size of its unnamed data attribute.



Technique that supports the continuous, one-way transmission of audio and/or video data via the Internet and, more recently, via a mobile network. In contrast to audio (for example, MP3) and movie (for example, MPEG) files that must first be downloaded, streaming media begins playing within a few seconds of the request. Streaming requires a streaming encoder (which converts the audio or video source to a data stream), a streaming server that delivers the encoded media over a network, and a client media player that cooperates with the server to deliver uninterrupted media. To compensate for variations in network quality and latency, the client buffers a few seconds of audio or video before beginning delivery, then tries to stay ahead during playback. Examples of streaming systems include Windows Media, QuickTime and RealPlayer.


sub-11GHz proprietary BWA

Sub-11GHz proprietary broadband wireless access (BWA) systems are not WiMAX-certified or designed for IEEE 802.16. They include technologies such as IPWireless, Flarion and iBurst. In most cases, they are deployed to provide service providers with quick and easy access to business subscribers or to allow the delivery of broadband data services or fast Internet access to business and residential subscribers. In addition, these systems enable cost-effective network access in remote rural areas. Sub-11GHz proprietary BWA systems provide more than 1 Mbps per subscriber.



A portion of network that may be physically independent of another network portion, but both portions of the network share the same network address, and the portion is distinguished by a subnet number.


subnet mask

The bits of an Internet Protocol (IP) address used for a subnetwork.


subnet number

The portion of the Internet address that designates a subnet. It is used for intranet routing but is ignored for Internet-routing purposes.



Person who controls the subscription. Because subscribers may have more than one connection (multiple connections), it cannot be assumed that one connection equals one subscriber.


sub-voice-grade channel

A channel with a bandwidth narrower than that of voice-grade channels. Such channels are usually subchannels of a voice-grade line.



3GPP working group formed in January 2005 by a consortium of mobile carriers and infrastructure vendors led by NTT DoCoMo and Vodafone. It proposed an alternative to HSDPA and HSUPA known as HSOPA. The working group evolved into what is now known as LTE. See also LTE.



Multiprocessor machines designed as network servers, combining input/output (I/O) capabilities of minicomputers with the capability to run industry-standard network operating systems.



A term describing the emerging, ubiquitous network infrastructure that links the “e-world” (i.e., the world of electronic devices such as computers, phones and televisions) and the “p-world” (i.e., the physical world of paper, houses, people, vehicles and other objects) within natural human interactions.

The Supranet is enabled by four key phenomena:

  • • Embedded computers in many everyday objects
  • • Next-generation wireless networking, providing global indoor and outdoor connectivity to the Internet
  • • Interfacing technologies that enable bidirectional communication between p-world and e-world components (e.g., bar code scanning, speech recognition and electronic identification)
  • • The design of applications that satisfy user needs in a natural way with combinations of media and devices


SVC (switched virtual circuit)

A virtual connection with a call establishment and tear-down procedure to allow its temporary use.


SVG interface (Scalable Vector Graphics interface)

An imaging application and language written in XML, supported by key electronic publishing vendors. The SVG interface offers a solution to the problem of sharing many sophisticated, Web-based images. Vector graphics are more compact than bitmapped images and can potentially be altered by client devices to best suit display parameters.


SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array)

A Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) display standard that provides higher resolution than the 640 x 480 Video Graphics Array (VGA) standard. It can support as many as 16 million colors, depending on the computer system and amount of available memory.


SWAP (Simple Workflow Access Protocol)

An Internet-based protocol designed to provide a Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)-based way to access a generic workflow service or a workflow enabled process or to interoperate with it. SWAP, which has been endorsed by the Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC), will offer a set of standard definitions for the type and structure of messages passed between cooperating workflow systems. SWAP will allow a workflow system to start, monitor, exchange data with and control workflow instances on a different workflow system. It will also provide a way to integrate workflow systems with other Web-based services.


SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication)

A self-describing messaging format that is used within the banking and finance industry to support electronic funds transfer. SWIFT is also the name of the format’s creator, an organization that provides messaging and transaction-processing services to member banks and other financial organizations, including brokers, securities depositories, clearing organizations and stock exchanges.



A device that makes, breaks, or changes the connections in an electrical circuit; to shift to another electrical circuit by means of a switch. In the telecommunications industry, the term is often used as a synonym for private branch exchange (PBX) or central office (CO) switch.


switched line

One of a series of lines that can be interconnected through a switching center; a line on the public telephone network.


switched network

A multipoint communications pathway with circuit-switching capabilities, e.g., the telephone network.



The establishment of a transmission path from a particular inlet to a particular outlet, within a group of such inlets and outlets.


switching center

A location that terminates multiple circuits and is capable of interconnecting circuits or transferring traffic between circuits.



When a failure occurs in the equipment, a switch to an alternative component can occur. Also called failover.



A mobile OS originally derived from Psion’s EPOC. Up until 2009 Symbian was developed by an independent company jointly owned by Nokia, Ericsson, Sony Ericsson, Panasonic, Siemens and Samsung, which licensed the platform to mobile handset manufacturers. In 2009 Nokia bought out the other owners and converted Symbian into an open source foundation. From 2010, Symbian will be run as an open source project managed by the Symbian Foundation, the governing body for open source Symbian.



This attribute This attribute, like $VOLUME_VERSION existed in NTFS v1.2, but wasn’t used. It does not longer exist in NTFS v3.0+.



Establishment of common timing between sending and receiving equipment.



Having a constant time interval between successive bits, characters or events. Synchronous transmission uses no redundant information to identify the beginning and end of characters, and is faster and more efficient than asynchronous transmission, which uses start and stop bits. The timing is achieved by transmitting sync characters prior to data; usually synchronization can be achieved in two-or three-character times.


synchronous communications

High-speed transmission of contiguous groups of characters. The stream of monitored and read bits uses a clock rate.


synchronous network

A network in which all the communications links are synchronized to a common clock.


synchronous transmission

Timing is achieved by transmitting sync characters prior to data. It does not use such redundant information as the start and stop bits in asynchronous transmission to identify the beginning and end of characters and is thus faster and more efficient.


SyncML (Synchronization Markup Language)

An initiative originally set up to develop a uniform synchronization protocol operating on any device over any network and among various vendors’ products. The protocol was intended to provide support for a wide range of transports and media types.



Message format or grammar (e.g., field lengths and delineators, headers, footers and optional fields).


systems management

Any of a number of “housekeeping” activities intended to preserve, maintain or correct the operation of a computer system. Included are such routine but critical processes as hardware diagnostics, software distribution, backup and recovery, file and disk integrity checking, and virus scanning.


systems integration

The process of creating a complex information system that may include designing or building a customized architecture or application, integrating it with new or existing hardware, packaged and custom software, and communications. Most enterprises rely on an external contractor for program management of most or all phases of system development. This external vendor generally also assumes a high degree of the project’s risks.


systems integrator

An organization or an individual that integrates two or more systems so they work together. For example, an organization can integrate its payroll system with its check processing system to process paychecks. System integration can be done internally or through an external contract. It requires specific technical knowledge of the programming languages. Major systems integration projects often require the assistance of a specialty firm that has the resources and expertise to manage a project plan that could last over several months or even years.





Common-carrier-provided, point-to-point digital line service used in private data networks and cellular, Wi-Fi and fixed-network backhaul. A T1 (so called because it was first sold by AT&T in the 1960s) delivers 1.544 Mbps capacity that can be split into multiple 64 Kbps channels, and is typically charged by distance. See also E1 and T3.



Common-carrier-provided, point-to-point digital line service typically used in the Internet. A T3 line delivers 44.736 Mbps capacity that can be split into 672 x 64 Kbps voice or data channels, and is typically charged by distance. See also E1 and T1.


T&A (time and attendance)

Business applications used for the collection and tracking of hours worked, scheduled time and nonproductive work time. These applications support the payroll process, project accounting, workforce planning and other business processes.


table driven

  1. A logical computer process, widespread in the operation of communications devices and networks, where a user-entered variable is matched against an array of predefined values.
  2. A frequently used logical process in network routing, access security and modem operation.



A computing device that weighs less than 4 pounds and is operated by direct screen contact via a pen or touch interface.


tablet PC

Tablet PCs meet all criteria for mobile PCs but are equipped with a pen and on-screen digitizer and are configurable into a tablet format.


tacit knowledge

The personal knowledge resident within the mind, behavior and perceptions of individuals. Tacit knowledge includes skills, experiences, insight, intuition and judgment. Tacit knowledge is typically shared through discussion, stories, analogies and person-to-person interaction and is, therefore, difficult to capture or represent in explicit form. Because individuals continually add personal knowledge, which changes behavior and perceptions, tacit knowledge is, by definition, uncaptured.


TACS (total access communications system)

Analog cellular standard first used in the U.K. for services in the 900MHz frequency band. It allows up to 1,320 channels using 25kHz channel spacing.


takt time

German for “beat” – the pace of production based on customer demand or pull.


TB (See Units)


TCH (traffic channel)

Channel used for voice, data or signaling.


TCO (total cost of ownership)

A comprehensive assessment of information technology (IT) or other costs across enterprise boundaries over time. For IT, TCO includes hardware and software acquisition, management and support, communications, end-user expenses and the opportunity cost of downtime, training and other productivity losses.


TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

A communications protocol based on the U.S. Department of Defense’s standards for reliable internetwork delivery of data.


TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

A set of protocols covering (approximately) the network and transport layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model. TCP/IP was developed during a 15-year period under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense. It has achieved de facto standard status, particularly as higher-level layers over Ethernet.


TD-CDMA (time division duplexing-code division multiple access)

TD-CDMA and its Chinese cousin, TD-SCDMA, are 3GPP-approved time division duplexing (TDD) air interfaces defined by the UMTS 3G cellular mobile phone standard, and used mainly to provide Internet access. In TDD, the same spectrum is shared for the uplink and the downlink via time division. TD-CDMA uses 5MHz channels, each divided into 10 ms frames and each containing 15 time slots (1,500 per second). CDMA is used in each time slot to support multiple users. TD-SCDMA uses 1.6MHz channels.

In much of Europe and Asia, specific UMTS-TDD spectrums of 1,900MHz to 1,920 MHz and 2,010MHz to 2,025MHz have been set aside, and operators were often obliged to buy a TDD spectrum along with the UMTS-FDD paired-frequency spectrum they needed for 3G voice. A band of 2,500MHz to 2,690MHz has been used for TDD in some countries (for example, in the U.S.), and 3.5GHz in others (for example, in the U.K. and New Zealand). Although TD-SCDMA is still undergoing trials in China, TD-CDMA has been deployed in more than a dozen commercial wireless broadband and public-safety networks globally by IPWireless (NextWave). See also TD-SCDMA.


TDD (time division duplex)

Radio transmission technique in which the uplink and downlink share one channel, with the transmit and receive pulses separated by time. Users can be allocated multiple time slots in the uplink and downlink, permitting asymmetric data transmission.


TDM (time division multiplexing)

A data, voice and video communications technique that interleaves several low-speed signals into one high-speed transmission channel.


TDMA (time division multiple access)

Digital modulation technique that allocates a discrete amount of frequency bandwidth to each user to permit many simultaneous conversations. Each caller is assigned a specific time slot for transmission. TDMA provides improved spectral efficiencies over analog systems. A derivative of this standard used in North America is called NA-TDMA. Other TDMA-based cellular systems include GSM, D-AMPS, PDC, DECT and enhanced TDMA.


TDM extension line

A line that terminates with a digital or analog (non-IP) phone set that was shipped, installed, and in use and attached to an IP-enabled PBX or traditional PBX/KTS system.


TDOA (time difference of arrival)

Method of processing cellular phone signals to identify the location of a switched-on mobile phone. Based on triangulation, TDOA determines the position by comparing the time difference of the arrival of the reverse control channel at various cell sites. In ideal circumstances, accuracy is 50 meters to 150 meters, but the average is 150 meters to 200 meters. See also LBS.


TDR (time domain reflectometry)

A technique used to track faults in networks, such as cable breaks or loose connections. A pulse of a known shape is transmitted over the network and an echo is created when the pulse hits an obstacle or cable end. The time lapsed between the sending of the pulse and receiving the echo can be used to locate the origin of the echo and therefore the break. Sophisticated testing equipment is available to perform this test and to analyze the results.


TDS (telecommunications data systems)

A frequency allocation technique based on allotting discrete time slots to users, permitting many simultaneous transmissions.


TD-SCDMA (time division synchronous code division multiple access)

One of the international 3G standards approved by ITU and driven by China, with Datang Mobile Communications Equipment as one of the original conceivers of the technology. TD-SCDMA has been deployed in China as one of the 3G technologies, along with WCDMA and cdma2000, following the issue of 3G licenses in January 2009. See also TD-CDMA.


TDM seat license

A telephony seat that is in use and part of an IP-enabled PBX or traditional PBX/KTS system that terminates with a digital or analog (non-IP) phone set.



A contraction of the term “telephone company.” It generally refers to the local-exchange carrier (LEC).

telecom equipment support services

This segment includes enterprise equipment services and infrastructure equipment services.

  • • Enterprise equipment services – Enterprise equipment consists of telecom equipment and systems that are based in business locations, and that connect either with the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or to private data voice networks.
  • • Carrier infrastructure equipment services – Infrastructure equipment includes all forms of equipment (and some systems and integrally related services) that combine to form the communications networks used by public service operators worldwide. A good example is the PSTN. Others include IP and other data networks as well as mobile networks. Infrastructure equipment includes six major building blocks: switching, transport, access, signaling, support and mobile infrastructure.


telecommunications carrier

Catch-all/generic phrase covering all entities that provide some form of telecommunication services (fixed and/or mobile; voice and/or data) as their primary business to all or a subset of consumers, enterprises, governments and other telecom service providers.


telecommunications equipment

Telecom equipment now includes mobile devices, PBX equipment (contact center, telephony and IP telephony), and network equipment (LAN and WAN).

Enterprise networking and communications – Enterprise networking and communications includes telecom equipment and systems that are based in consumer and business locations and that connect either with the PSTN or to private data or voice networks.


telecommunications services

Telecom services now include fixed-network services (data retail, Internet retail, voice retail and wholesale) and mobile services.

Fixed-data services – Includes all dedicated/private line, packet and circuit-switched access services (for example, frame relay, asynchronous transfer mode, IP, Integrated Services Digital Network, DSL, multichannel multipoint distribution service [MMDS] and satellite) retail revenue. No differentiation is made between the type of traffic or application carried by these services. All types of transmissions – nonvoice data, image, video, fax, interactive services and even voice – can be carried by these services regardless of whether the source format is analog or digital. All revenue reflects service provider annualized retail revenue – paid for by the business and residential end user of the service; no wholesale or carrier-to-carrier revenue is included.

Fixed-voice services – This reflects retail voice service revenue for all services that are sold as such to end users and includes the provision of local and long-distance services related to voice (calling charges, line rental/subscription and connection fees are included in this category), enhanced voice services, data and fax transmission over the circuit-switched PSTN, and retail voice over IP revenue – paid for by the business and residential end user of the service; no wholesale or carrier-to-carrier revenue is included.

Mobile telecom services – Income from mobile telephone calls and mobile data usage (Short Message Service [SMS] and mobile data access) from all mobile operators in that regional market. Consumer charges are removed. Income from mobile telephone calling charges, mobile data access, SMS charges, line rental/subscription and connection fees are included in this category.

Wholesale/carrier services are not included as a component of business IT spending. Wholesale/carrier services reflect carrier revenue from carrier-to-carrier service transactions.



Number of fixed (landline) telephone connections per 100 people in a specified geographic area. Teledensity is often used to compare the level of access to voice and data communications services between metropolitan and rural areas, or between one country and another. The governments of many emerging economies are focused on increasing teledensity as an economic enabler. Because of fixed-mobile substitution, teledensity is decreasing in some countries. See also FMS.


telephony-centric UC approach

These solutions are extensions of IP PBX and unified messaging (UM) products. In many cases, UM is tightly integrated with PBX; in others, the two are offered by separate vendors. The functionality offered is telephony-centric and typically includes: one-number service, supporting phone twinning, softphones (which may be proprietary), remote phones (phone login over the Internet) and fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). Examples of PBX- and IP PBX-centric solutions include all the leading PBX vendors.


TEM (technology-enabled marketing)

Also known as marketing automation, TEM involves analyzing and automating the marketing process. Because the role of technology in all aspects of business is growing, marketing departments must make it a strategic imperative to use information and IT to build competitive differentiation. TEM includes a proactive strategy for using information and IT in marketing, with the ultimate goal of TEM is to allocate marketing resources to the activities, channels and media with the best potential return and impact on profitable customer relationships. The new metrics of customer profitability, customer lifetime value and share of customer will be needed to supplement the traditional metrics of market share and penetration. The components of TEM include:

  • • Data Cleansing: This involves the use of tools for data support (e.g., cleansing, manipulation and reconciliation) to produce quality data and data consistency.
  • • Data Analysis: Also called business intelligence, this involves the use of software for ad hoc query, reporting and analysis capabilities, supporting strategic decision-making processes with a data warehouse or data mart. A data warehouse is a consolidated database that stores all – or significant portions of – the data collected by an enterprise’s multiple business systems. Data from online transaction-processing applications and other sources is selectively collected, extracted, integrated, transformed and cleaned. A data mart contains a subset of the data typically found in a data warehouse and is designed to support the unique business intelligence requirements of a specific business process/application requirement.
  • • Content Management Systems: Also known as marketing content management (MCM) systems or marketing encyclopedia systems (MES), this category of applications allow enterprises to view and access marketing content.
  • • Campaign Management System (CMS): A CMS is a database management (DBM) tool used by marketers to design single-channel or multichannel marketing campaigns and track the effects of those campaigns by customer segment over time. CMS applications are also used by sales organizations to execute sales campaigns, such as achieving a specific market share with a particular product by a certain date.


TEO (technology exchange option)

A guaranteed residual value (RV) for equipment at 12-,18-, 24- and 30-month intervals that allows the user to use the RV toward the purchase of additional capacity, features or functionality, or toward trade-in for newer technology. TEOs guarantee that future acquisitions will be at a lower original discount rate or current average selling price.


TERM (technology-enabled relationship management)

The concept of forming one enterprisewide view of the customer across all customer contact channels (i.e., sales, marketing, and customer service and support). It is a complex area, requiring complex solutions to problems of integration, data flow, data access and marketing strategy. A critical component is the database that serves as the customer information repository.



A device, combining keyboard and display screen, that communicates with a computer. Terminals are divided into different classes depending on whether they are able to process data on their own.

  • • Dumb terminals – display monitor or simple input/output (I/O) devices that send and accept data from a network server or mainframe. They have no built-in processing capabilities. Workers enter data and commands, which are sent to a computer located elsewhere.
  • • Smart terminals – monitors that process limited amounts of information.
  • • Intelligent terminals – devices that contain main memory and a central processing unit (CPU) to perform special display functions. Examples include an information kiosk and AT&T Display Phones.
  • • 3270 terminals – IBM display stations used to communicate with mainframes made by IBM and other manufacturers. They are in widespread use, and are widely copied.


terminal emulation

Imitation of a specific terminal (VT100, for example) by a device, such as a PC, through software. PCs often use terminal emulation methods to connect to specific hosts, such as Digital Virtual Address Extensions (VAXs) or IBM mainframes, with which they would otherwise be incapable of communicating.


terminal job

In systems with time sharing, the processing done on behalf of one terminal user from log-on to log-off. See time sharing.


terminal server

A local-area network (LAN) device that allows asynchronous dumb terminals to communicate with a host computer also attached to the LAN. It is useful in minimizing the amount of cabling where several terminals need to be attached to a mainframe.


terminal user

In systems with time sharing, anyone who is eligible to log on. See time sharing.


TES (technology-enabled selling)

Also known as “sales automation” or “technology-enabled sales,” this refers to the application of technology to enable selling through all desired sales channels, including field/mobile sales, inside sales/telesales, selling partners (i.e., e-partners), Web selling (i.e., e-sales) and retail sales. The goal of TES is to integrate technology with optimal processes to provide continuous improvement in sales team effectiveness, as well as balance and optimize each enterprise sales channel. The components of TES include:

  • • Field sales: Also known as mobile sales or sales force automation (SFA), this includes applications for salespeople who most often work outside the boundaries of the enterprise and without the benefit of continuous LAN or high-speed WAN connections.
  • • Inside sales: Also known as telesales or inside selling, this involves applications for salespeople who most often work inside the boundaries of the enterprise and with the benefit of continuous LAN or high-speed WAN connections. To perform their jobs, they spend a majority of their time using the phone, the Web or e-mail.
  • • e-partner: Also known as extended selling enterprise (ESE), this includes applications and technologies provided by the enterprise to assist third-party selling channel partners (e.g., brokers, agents, distributors and value-added resellers) in achieving selling objectives.
  • • e-sales: Also known as technology-enabled buying (TEB), unassisted selling or Web selling, this component of TES involves customer-direct, business or consumer Web-selling applications. These are customer-facing technologies and applications that allow consumers and businesses to “sell themselves” and conduct transactions without the assistance of a salesperson.
  • • Retail sales: Includes applications that enable retailers to sell their products to consumers through traditional brick-and-mortar outlets (such as department stores, specialty shops and outlet malls) or via new options such as home shopping, the Internet and warehouse clubs. Merchandising, relationship marketing and e-retailing are typical examples of retail sales applications.


test data generator

Communications instructions for forming files containing sets of information developed specifically to ensure the adequacy of a computer run or system.


tethered remote access

A terrestrial or nonmobile connection of individual users or small workgroups to a data source or network interface beyond the boundary defined by a building or campus. The connection is generally via a wide-area network (WAN), which, in most cases, is outside the sphere of ownership and management of the enterprise making the remote connection.


TETRA (terrestrial trunked radio)

ETSI standard for digital private mobile radio and public access mobile radio technology for police, ambulance and fire services, security services, utilities, the military, public access services, fleet management, transport services, closed user groups, factory site services, mining and other uses. TETRA is a TDMA-based system with four user channels on one radio carrier and 25kHz spacing between carriers.


text analytics

The application of linguistic and/or statistical techniques to extract concepts and patterns that enable the categorization and classification of text-based documents. These applications can transform “unstructured” text into “structured” data for processing in traditional business intelligence (BI)-type applications and in search engine applications. Text analytics can give users insight into previously inaccessible or prohibitively expensive-to-mine data sets.


text analytics program (TAP)

A TAP provides program management for text analytics initiatives. Organizations often accumulate numerous products and prepare categorization models and other analyses for small groups of users; this leads to duplicated efforts and inconsistent best practices. Future-development needs and platform investments may also be improperly specified. To address current and future business needs, a TAP is the best way for business and IT to jointly drive a comprehensive use of text analytics technology.


text mining

The process of extracting information from collections of textual data and utilizing it for business objectives.


text retrieval

Software used for finding units of textual information such as documents by matching a user’s search terms to those in a full-text index derived from the collection of textual units.


TFA (trusted financial advisor)

TFAs provide or facilitate access for their clients to consumer banking functions, budgeting and expense-tracking services and financial advice. They also serve as middlemen between individuals and prequalified best-of-breed financial-services vendors, actively seeking out “better deals” for their subscribers. It is not necessary for a TFA to be an existing financial-services provider because TFA functions can be fulfilled by a wide range of firms or by low-cost existing or developmental personal software products. All other functionality offered by the TFA can be outsourced.


THA (time horizon to action)

A measurement used in system compliance efforts, such as euro currency conversion. The THA is the time period between the present and the point at which at which conversion efforts must begin if the compliance deadline is to be met.


THC (time horizon to compliance)

A measurement used in system compliance efforts. The THC is the time period between the present and the point at which all systems must be compliant with a new format or requirement (e.g., euro currency support).


THD (time horizon to decision)

A measurement used in system compliance efforts, such as euro currency conversion. The THD is the time period between the present and the point at which a decision must be reached as to how compliance efforts will proceed (e.g., which systems must be changed, replaced or retired).


thermal printing

Thermal printing is a process that uses the heat from a thermal print head to darken chemically treated paper. Thermal paper is coated paper that reacts to heat. When the paper passes through the printer assembly, it comes into contact with a thermal print head array and the heater elements turn on to activate the thermal coating, creating the image. The only supply item used is thermal paper.


thermal transfer

An output device that creates the desired image one dot at a time, using point-specific heat to transfer ink from a ribbon to a receiving substrate.


THF (time horizon to failure)

Defines the date on which a system will cease to function properly if corrective action is not taken.


thin client

Term used to describe a type of client/server computing where applications are run, and data is stored, on the server rather than on the client. Because the applications are executed on the server, they do not require client-resident installation, although the graphical user interface and some application logic may be rendered to the client.

A common misperception is that a thin-client application requires the use of a thin-client device (i.e., a stripped-down desktop machine that costs less to buy and maintain than a regular PC). However, while thin-client applications enable such devices to be used, they do not require it. In fact, more than 85 percent of devices used to display thin-client Windows applications are regular PCs, typically configured with both “fat-client” applications and access to thin-client ones.


three-schema architecture

A framework for managing access to data that involves three layers or schemas: the external or programming view, the conceptual or data administration view, and the internal or database administration view. Such ideas were developed by an American National Standards Institute/Scalable Processor Architecture subcommittee in 1971 but received little practical implementation by database management system (DBMS) vendors. The principle is that the conceptual schema consists of business rules derived from a semantic data model, which provides independence between programs and data structures. The emphasis has since shifted to computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools and “repository” standards.



A computer term for the volume of work or information flowing through a system. Particularly meaningful in information storage and retrieval systems, in which throughput is measured in units such as accesses per hour.


tightly bundled UC approach

These solutions provide a broad set of UC functionality. They offer a high degree of integration across the components, which are typically built into a media server handling a broad range of real-time communications functions. Functionality usually includes integrated audio conferencing, Web conferencing, videoconferencing, rich presence, IM and one or more desktop-client options. These sometimes also include softphone functionality, find-me and one-number services, some mobility services, and basic telephony capabilities built around Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This functionality is integrated with complete PBX capabilities, which are often on a separate application server. These solutions don’t provide e-mail, but will integrate with leading e-mail platforms.


TIM (transaction incident management)

The art and practice of ensuring that business transactions enable users, consumers and suppliers to perform business transaction tasks securely and in privacy according to business specifications and service-level agreements. The objectives of TIM are to detect any kind of abnormal incidents in real time and to resolve them rapidly, depending on their levels of business criticality.


time-division signaling

Signaling over a time-division multiplex system in which all voice channels share a common signaling channel, with time division providing the separation between signaling channels.


time-division switching

The switching method for a time-division multiplexing (TDM) channel requiring the shifting of data from one slot to another in the TDM frame. The slot in question can carry a bit, a byte, or, in principle, any other unit of data.


time out

The set time period before a terminal system performs some action. Typical uses include a poll release (when a terminal is disconnected if the time-out period elapses before keying resumes) or an access time out (when a terminal on a local area network is prevented from transmitting for a specified time period).


Time Stamp

NTFS stores four significant times referring to files and directories. They are: File creation time; Last modification time; Last modification of the MFT record; Last access time. NTFS stores dates as the number of 100ns units since Jan 1st 1601. Unix, stores dates as the number of seconds since Jan 1st 1970.

TISPAN (Telecommunications and Internet Converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networking)

TLM (technical license management)

The management and control of software via a platform-independent automated facility that:

  1. Ensures that access and use are in alignment with associated licensing agreements.
  2. Provides the basis for determining enterprise use requirements.
  3. Integrates with systems and network management tools.


TLP (transmission-level point)

Any point in a transmission system at which the power level of the signal is measured.


TLS (transport layer security)

Internet-based transaction security provided by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol.


TMG (trunk media gateways)

A trunk media gateway (TMG) serves as the bridge between a circuit-based trunk switch and a packet-based IP or ATM backbone network. In certain implementations, it completely bypasses the tandem switch (Class 4). It takes care of the PSTN-to-packet-network transition at the trunk level and is connected to the local or trunk exchange. A TMG has a Class 4 interface and supports VoIP and/or VoATM.


T-MPLS (Transport Multiprotocol Label Switching)

TMS (transportation management system)

System used to plan freight movements, do freight rating and shopping across all modes, select the appropriate route and carrier, and manage freight bills and payments.


TOA (time of arrival)

Measures the arrival times of a signal from a mobile device to three network base stations to calculate the location by triangulation. It requires synchronization of base stations, which is not supported by GSM and has a rather long response time (about 10 seconds). Accuracy in ideal circumstances is 50 meters to 150 meters, but 150 meters to 200 meters on average. See also LBS.


token bus

A local network access mechanism and topology in which all stations actively attached to the bus listen for a broadcast token or supervisory frame. Stations wishing to transmit must receive the token before doing so; however, the next physical station to transmit is not necessarily the next physical station on the bus. Bus access is controlled by preassigned priority algorithms.


token passing

A LAN access technique in which participating stations circulate a special bit pattern that grants access to the communications pathway to any station that holds the sequence. It is often used in networks with a ring topology.


token ring

A LAN access mechanism and topology in which a supervisory frame or token is passed from station to station in sequential order. Stations wishing to gain access to the network must wait for the token to arrive before transmitting data. In a token ring, the next logical station receiving the token is also the next physical station on the ring. The ring may be a logical, rather than physical, ring in the case of switched token ring.


total connections

Number of individual (mobile) network connections at the end of a given period. In this regard, multiple SIM cards bearing one number would count as one connection, while two numbers associated with one SIM card would count as two connections. Prepaid SIM cards would count as one connection, provided that they are in operation at the end of the given year. Total connections include connections that are inactive but still in operation.


total IPTV subscribers

The previously described business models define the total IPTV subscriber market, with each representing an STB installed in a home and capable of receiving some form of IPTV. The STB may be free, rented or bought by the customer. Additional services such as premium channels, VOD and person-to-person video-calling can only be sold only after a subscriber has an STB.

In certain specific cases consumers receive IPTV for “free” or by default as part of a “triple play” bundle of wireline voice, IPTV/video and broadband Internet. In other words, IPTV is supplied to them whether they want it or not – they do not really make a choice to buy it.

These subscribers receive from their IPTV provider a “free” STB and access to a small selection of channels, in return for signing a longer-term contract for broadband or a voice/broadband package. This category of IPTV subscriber does not have an equivalent in the existing pay-TV environment. It reflects the need for new IPTV operators to find ways to popularize the service.

Hong Kong provides a good example. The carrier PCCW offers all its long-term broadband customers a “free” STB and access to a small number of channels. Though many of these customers may choose to buy extra channels, a sizable proportion stick with only the free channels – if, indeed, they use the IPTV service at all.

In France, the carrier Free offers all its subscribers a home gateway device with STB capability built-in. All Free’s customers who live close enough to its asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)-enabled exchanges receive a selection of basic IPTV channels automatically for no extra payment.


total revenue

AWP multiplied by the sum of the manufacturer’s sales to end users.


total service revenue

Sum of value-added service revenue, connection revenue, subscription revenue and call-charge revenue accrued by a mobile communications service provider.



A contact point between an enterprise and its customers. Touchpoints may occur in any channel (e.g., via phone, the Web or direct contact with a salesperson).



Refers to the technology that enables a system to identify a point of contact on the screen by coordinates and transmit that information to a program.


TP (transaction processing)

A mode of processing characterized by short transactions recording business events that normally requires high availability and consistent, short response times. A category of application that requires a request for service to be answered within a predictable period that approaches real time, and a transaction that transforms this model from one business state to another. Tasks such as making reservations, scheduling and inventory control are especially complex; all the information must be current.


TPC (Transaction Processing Performance Council)

An organization that has developed several standardized transaction processing (TP) benchmarks, among which are TPC-A, TPC-B, and TPC-C. TPC prohibits testing systems that are specially optimized for benchmarking or lack real-world applicability.


TPC-A (Transaction Processing Performance Council Benchmark A)

A revised and superior version of the debit/credit online transaction processing (OLTP) benchmark. Ratified in late 1989, it came into widespread use in 1990. The major improvements in TPC-A were the requirements for full disclosure and the inclusion of the front-end network and terminals. TPC-A is intended to replace debit/credit as the only industrywide measure for OLTP performance and price/performance. It is a good test since it measures end-to-end performance, but it still is only one test reflecting a single type of transaction.


TPM (transaction processing monitor)

The earliest form of platform middleware was the mainframe TPM. Products such as IBM’s CICS and IMS and Unisys’ TIP have been used on mainframes since the late 1960s. Unix-based distributed TPMs, such as BEA’s Tuxedo (now owned by Oracle), NCR’s Top End and IBM’s Encina, originated in the 1980s. Through the years, these products added support for distributed servers, intelligent desktop clients (rather than dumb terminals) and Web browser clients, and component support using CORBA or Java EE architecture.


TPS (Toyota Production System)

Acronym for Toyota Production System, the approach that Toyota takes to managing its processes; and often thought of as synonymous with lean.


trace packet

In packet switching, a special kind of packet that functions as a normal packet but causes a report of each stage of its progress to be sent to the network control center.


traditional processing

The availability of traditional and basic data processing facilities at the midrange system. Examples include sequential and keyed files, compilers such as COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/I, BASIC and C, interactive access, batch processing, multiprocessing and multitasking.



  1. Messages sent and received over a communications channel.
  2. Quantitative measurement of the total messages and their length, expressed in hundred call seconds (CCS) or other units.


traffic flow

The measure of the density of traffic on a telephone network expressed in Erlangs.


traffic matrix

Matrix of which the X, Y element contains the amount of traffic originated at node X and destined for node Y. The unit of measurement may be telephone calls or data packets per second, depending on the kind of network.


TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India)

The telecommunications regulator in the Republic of India. See also Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.


train time

The initialization time for full-duplex operation on a modem.



A logical update that takes a database from one consistent state to another. A transaction on a system is a set of operations (on that system) that constitutes a unit. This unit can’t be divided. Before the transaction, the state of the system is well defined. During the transaction, it is undefined. After the transaction, it is well defined again. A transaction can’t be half-realized: if no operation fails, the transaction is realized. If on the contrary an error occurs in one or more of the operations, the transaction is not realized. A set of (even atomic) operations is not atomic by definition. A transaction is a model that provides a kind of atomicity to this set of operations.


transaction logging

A concept in which a detailed record is kept of all operations in a transaction; in case of a failure, the transaction could be backed out and the former state reconstructed.


transaction monitor

A subsystem that ensures that all transactions against a database leave it in a consistent state or, in case of a transaction failure, returns the database to its pre-transaction state.



A device that can transmit and receive traffic. It is used to connect nodes to Ethernet (LAN).


transcoding server

See gateway (transcoding) server.



A device for converting signals from one form to another, such as a microphone or a receiver.


transfer rate

The speed at which information can be sent across a bus or communications link.


transit VLAN starvation

The condition a switch suffers in a non-ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) network when it becomes congested and cells or cell streams representing Layer 3 virtual local-area network (VLAN) packets are missed or dropped, leading to the VLAN becoming unstable. Also known as beatdown.



A device that converts information from one system of representation into equivalent information in another system of representation.



Sending information in the form of electrical signals over electric wires, waveguides, or radio.


Transmission Convergence Sublayer

In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a protocol for preparing cells for transmission.


transmission speed

The rate at which information is passed through communications lines, generally measured in bits per second (bps).



To send information from one location to another.



If a signal passes through a network or facility unchanged, that network or facility is said to be transparent to it.



Transmitter-receiver device on a satellite that transmits signals automatically when it receives pre-determined signals. The term “satellite transponder” refers collectively to a transmitter-receiver subsystem on board the satellite that processes, amplifies and retransmits a range of frequencies (the transponder bandwidth) to another location/terminal/antenna on the earth. There are many transponders on a typical satellite, each capable of supporting one or more communication channels. In a few limited instances, satellite transponders can transmit directly to other satellites; this is known as satellite mesh topologies. These systems tend to be more expensive to build, and services are more expensive for end users.


transportation planning and scheduling

Specifies how, when and where to transport goods. Transportation planning and scheduling applications may provide weight/size restrictions, merge-in-transit, continuous move, mode or carrier selection, and truckload planning functionality.


treasury and trading

A bank treasury manages the bank’s liquidity, along with interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks arising from market conditions. The capital market trading activity, also called “treasury,” encompasses different functions. Trading uses many financial instruments across various asset classes; the instruments with which it deals are more complex; a premium is placed on timely information and execution capabilities, because of the speed of capital markets; and transaction volumes tend to be higher than in the bank treasury. Bank treasury operations increasingly are also entering the capital markets to better align a bank’s cash flows and exposures. This latter activity is blurring the distinction between the two treasuries.



A type of bus network topology in which the medium branches at certain points along its length connect stations or clusters of stations. Also called a branching bus.


Trellis Coding

A method of modulation that combines both amplitude and phase.



Mobile device that supports voice and data communications conforming to one bearer technology, such as GSM, but on three different sets of frequencies. For example, many European and Asia/Pacific countries/markets have licensed deployment of GSM networks on a 900MHz and 1,800MHz spectrum, and in North America GSM has been deployed on 1,900MHz. A tri-band phone enables the user to roam automatically among networks on any of these frequencies in any of these countries, providing its home operator has roaming agreements with local mobile network operators. See also dual-band and dual-mode.



An abbreviation of the Russian expression for “theory of innovative problem solving” consisting of nine distinct action steps that relate to 40 basic principles.


Trojan horse

A form of malicious code that may be deliberately planted to perform a destructive act on a computer. It is effective because it is not what it appears to be. That is, the execution of a Trojan horse may have an undesirable and unexpected effect on the user’s work environment, but it is the user who initiates the execution of the code (e.g., by clicking on a button in a graphical user interface that appears harmless). Unlike a computer virus, a Trojan horse is unable to replicate and is not parasitic.


trouble ticket

A record of a customer complaint or problem, usually created in a call or contact center. The ticket remains active until the issue has been resolved.



Radio transceiver that is part of a BTS. Each TRX supports a number of channels that are dependent on the radio access technology.


TTC&M (tracking, telemetry, control and monitoring)

Specialized ground stations used to track and control satellites and to monitor their performance.



The process of adjusting computer system control variables to make a system divide its resources most efficiently for a workload.



Provides services on a point-to-point basis without the necessity to change the data to accommodate differing network types or protocols.


turnaround time

The time required to reverse the direction of transmission, e.g., to change from receive mode to transmit mode in order to acknowledge on a half-duplex line when individual blocks are acknowledged, as is required in certain protocols. The turnaround time has a major effect on throughput, particularly if the propagation delay is lengthy, such as on a satellite channel.


turnkey system

A complete communications system, including hardware and software, assembled and installed by a vendor and sold as a total package.


Type A, B and C enterprises

A framework that classifies enterprises or their subdivisions according to a technology adoption profile. Classification is based not only on an enterprise’s current technology adoption strategy, but also on whether the strategy is supported by top management and is adequately funded.

  • • Type A enterprises are typically technically aggressive and well-funded, and use information technology (IT) to gain a competitive advantage.
  • • Type B enterprises, which are in the majority, are mainstream IT users with adequate funding that use IT for productivity.
  • • Type C enterprises are technologically conservative and risk-averse, and seek to control IT costs.


Recognizing an enterprise’s type offers company strategists a meaningful way to compare an enterprise’s use of technology against that of competitors, and to make decisions about when, how and where to adopt new technologies.




UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration)

A specification for business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce integration introduced by Microsoft, IBM and Ariba in August 2000. UDDI provides a standard format with which enterprises can describe themselves and their method of conducting e-business transactions within an Internet-based business registry. UDDI is designed to jump-start B2B integration and e-commerce by enabling businesses to publish and locate available Web services, their characteristics and interfaces. More than 200 companies have agreed to support the specification, which is described on the UDDI Web site at See Web services.


UI (user interface)

The connection between the user and a computer’s hardware or software that permits the user to work productively with a system or a program. User interface design requires significant skill and attention and has become a recognized specialty.


ULP (ultra low power Bluetooth)

Now known as Bluetooth LE (Low Energy). Please refer to Bluetooth LE definition above.


ultra-high-speed broadband Internet

Ultra-high-speed broadband Internet is defined as residential services that support download speeds in excess of 50 Mbps. They are based mostly on fiber to the home (FTTH), fiber to the building (FTTB) and 100Base-T Ethernet access technologies.



A computer system that meets all the criteria for a notebook PC but is lighter and may not have an internal floppy disk drive. It typically weighs 4 pounds or less with the battery and weight-saver modules. The keyboard and screen are often compromised to meet weight targets and the unit must be augmented with a standard keyboard and mouse for long-term use.


ultraportable PC

Ultraportable PCs meet all the criteria for mobile PCs but typically weigh less than 4 pounds and have a screen size 11 inches or more but less than 13 inches.


UM (unified messaging)

Messaging system that enables subscribers to collect e-mail, fax and voice mail messages from one message box by using fixed or mobile devices.


UMA (unlicensed mobile access)

See GAN.


UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband)

Brand name for the now-abandoned cdma2000 1xEV-DO Rev. C standard. UMB was intended to support peak download speeds of up to 280 Mbps in a mobile environment, and combines CDMA, OFDM, OFDMA and TDM air interface techniques, plus MIMO and SDMA advanced antenna techniques. The standard was published in September 2007 but Qualcomm ceased development work on UMB in November 2008 in order to focus on LTE.


UML (Unified Modeling Language)

A language for specifying, visualizing, constructing and documenting the artifacts of software systems.


UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

Part of the ITU’s IMT-2000 family of 3G mobile communications systems, UMTS will play a key role in creating a mass market for high-quality wireless multimedia communications. It comprises two separate standards: WCDMA for the paired-frequency bands using FDD; and TD-CDMA, which is used in the unpaired TDD bands. See also 3G and WCDMA.


Unfragmented (see Fragmented)



International character set coded on 16 bits (ASCII is coded on 7 bits and Latin-1 coded on 8 bits). Unicode can represent every symbol of almost every language in the world.


unified communications (UC)

Unified communications (UC) is defined as the contextual integration of communications services within business activities, enabling situational awareness across people and information within those activities, delivering seamless transition across applications and platforms.


unified communications products

UC products (equipment, software and services) are those that facilitate the use of multiple enterprise communication methods in an integrated way. This can include control, management and integration of these methods. UC products may be integrated with business communication channels (media), networks and systems, as well as IT business applications. These products may be made up of a suite from one vendor or may be a portfolio of integrated applications and platforms from multiple vendors.



Every size in this document is measured in bytes (unless clearly marked). The abbreviations for sizes are:

Abbr. Name Exactly Approx.
KB Kilobyte 210 103
MB Megabyte 220 106
GB Gigabyte 230 109
TB Terabyte 240 1012


see also Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal

N.B. Technically, the correct abbreviation for 1024 bytes is KiB, which stands for kilobinary bytes.


universal queue

A process (and technology) whereby all contact channels and media – e.g., phone, interactive voice response, fax, Web and e-mail – are integrated into the same queue to standardize processing and handling.



Originally developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Unix is a multitasking, multiuser OS, which is portable to multiple server platforms. It also was developed as an open alternative to proprietary minicomputer OSs. Today, Unix can be found on platforms based on Intel’s Itanium product family and Xeon, AMD’s Opteron, IBM’s Power, HP’s PA-RISC, Sun and Fujitsu’s UltraSPARC and SPARC-64, and other reduced instruction set computer (RISC) platforms.

We segment software running on Unix OSs into these categories:

  • • Sun Solaris
  • • IBM AIX
  • • HP-UX
  • • Mac OS
  • • Other Unix, including Tru64, IRIX and other unspecified Unix



This metadata file contains 128KB of capital letters. For each character in the Unicode alphabet, there is an entry in this file. It is used to compare and sort filenames.


Update Sequence

Several structures in NTFS have sequence numbers in them to check for consistency errors. They are FILE, INDX, RCRD and RSTR records. Before the record is written to disk, the last two bytes of each sector are copied to an array in the header. The update sequence number is then incremented and written to the end of each sector. If any disk corruption occurs, this technique could detect it.

See also: FILE Record INDX Record RCRD Record RSTR Record



Communication link from the earth station or ground-based satellite terminal/antenna to the orbiting satellite. See also downlink.


UPOS (unified point of service)

An international initiative to produce an architectural specification that is both operating-system-independent and language-neutral for retail point of sale (POS) systems, standardizing the POS application programming interfaces (APIs). While UPOS specifies the APIs for peripheral devices, such as scanners, printers and cash drawers, JavaPOS and OPOS outline the implementations, mapping the architecture to a retailer’s specific hardware and software computing environment.


UPS (uninterruptible power supply)

A device that provides temporary power upon failure of the main power source.


URL (uniform resource locator)

The character string that identifies an Internet document’s exact name and location.


USB (Universal Serial Bus)

A commercial desktop standard input/output (I/O) bus that provides a single peripheral connection and vastly increases bus speed. It simplifies peripheral connections via a “daisy chaining” scheme whereby the desktop system has only one I/O port to which all peripherals are connected in a series. Up to 120 peripherals can be connected to a single system.


user provisioning

User provisioning encompasses user account management (creating, modifying and deleting user accounts and privileges) for access to heterogeneous IT resources. Enterprises typically use user provisioning to manage internal user access. User provisioning products act as the single point of administration for legacy and client/server application environments, as well as for corporate utilities, such as e-mail. Most user provisioning products offer password management functionality, delegated administration, a role-based access control model, workflow (a distinguishing feature from earlier consolidated security administration products) and automated fulfillment of the access request. Some products offer synchronization of user profile information among authoritative sources of user identity information.


USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module)

Enhancement of the GSM SIM card that is designed to be used in UMTS networks.


used for logging


USSD (unstructured supplementary service data)

GSM bearer service similar to SMS. However, unlike SMS messages, USSD messages are not stored and forwarded. USSD acts more like a transactional environment in which a message generates a near-real-time reply. USSD is available on all GSM phones.


UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access)

UMTS system supporting TDD and FDD access.


UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

Defines the radio portion of the network, including B nodes and RNCs.


UWB (ultrawideband)

Also known as pulse radio, UWB is an emerging wireless technology that uses pulsed radio techniques to transmit data. The transmitter sends a low-power broadband signal, with each channel ranging from 10 million to 40 million pulses per second. The correlator, which knows the timing code of the transmitter, listens at these intervals and decodes the signal. UWB uses OFDM and very wide frequency bands, occupying several gigahertz of spectrum. The IEEE 802.15.3 Task Group 3a considering UWB standards was disbanded in January 2006 after a long stalemate between two warring factions: MB-OFDM UWB, supported by the WiMedia Alliance, and direct-sequence UWB, supported by the UWB Forum. However, the Alliance announced in March 2009 that it would be disbanded after it had transferred its specifications to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, the USB Promoter Group and the USB Implementers’ Forum. See also MB-OFDM.





Value can be defined as something of perceived importance (needs and wants) for which you are willing to pay.


value adding

Those activities within a company or supply chain that directly contribute to satisfying end consumers, or those activities consumers would be happy to pay for.


value stream

The specific activities within a supply chain required to design, order and provide a specific product or service.


value stream map

Visual representation of a value stream.


VAN (value-added network)

A private network through which value-added carriers provide special data transmission services.


VAR (value-added reseller)

An organization that buys equipment from a vendor at a discount, adds value (such as application software packaged and sold with underlying system software) and remarkets it.


variable-measure trade item

An item always produced in the same predefined version (e.g., type, design and packaging) that may be sold at any point in the supply chain. However, it may vary in weight and size by its nature, or it may be traded without a predefined weight/size/length.


VAS (value-added service)

Offered by a network or its resellers; generates additional revenue by offering increased benefits to subscribers. Total VAS revenue is calculated from the total of SMS, data-over-cellular and information-service revenue. All other VAS revenue is considered transparent and is included with call charges or subscription revenue.


VB (Visual Basic)

A high-level programming language from Microsoft.


VBA (Visual Basic for Applications)

A version of Microsoft’s Visual Basic used to create basic and customized programs.


VBR (variable bit rate)

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service category, defined by the ATM Forum. Both real-time variable bit rate (rtVBR) and non real-time variable bit rate (nrtVBR) are defined. Apart from the traffic parameters for peak cell rate (PCR) and sustainable cell rate (which defines the average bit rate required by the application), additional quality-of-service parameters such as maximum cell transfer delay, cell delay variation and maximum burst size must be agreed upon. The typical application for which it is used is compressed voice and videoconferencing for rtVBR, and response-time-sensitive data such as Systems Network Architecture (SNA) for nrtVBR.



A Microsoft proprietary language derived from Visual Basic (VB). Like JavaScript, VBScript is intended for use as a browser-based language, a server-side (Active Server Pages – ASP) language, and an administrative (Windows Scripting Host – WSH) language. Unlike JavaScript, support for it in browsers is limited to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.


VBX (Visual Basic Extension)

A Visual Basic add-on that Microsoft is converting to an Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Custom Controls (OCX) infrastructure.


VC (virtual channel)

In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), a communications track between two nodes giving the bandwidth needed for a virtual connection across the network.


VC (virtual circuit)

In packet switching, network facilities that appear to users to be an end-to-end circuit, but are in fact a dynamically variable network connection in which sequential user data packets may be routed differently during the course of a “virtual connection.” Transmission facilities may be shared by many virtual circuits simultaneously.


VCN (See Virtual Cluster Number)


VDSL (very-high-bit-rate DSL)

VDSL offers speeds from 13 Mbps to more than 100 Mbps over distances of between 1,000 and 4,500 feet – the shorter the distance, the higher the speed. VDSL comes in both asymmetrical and symmetrical flavors and in different configurations. Most advanced VDSL deployments use VDSL2, which promises up to 100 Mbps bandwidth. We account for all VDSL technologies together in our generic VDSL (VDSLx) category.


VDSL (very high-speed digital subscriber line)

Extremely high-speed digital subscriber line (DSL) connections over short distances.


vector quantization

A source-encoding compression technique based on the division of the data stream into blocks called vectors, which are compared to vectors in a code book, the references of which are transmitted.



A vendor is the last entity in the chain that brands a product and sells it directly to end users or through a channel. A vendor may design and manufacture its own products, assemble complete systems from components produced by others, or procure products from an original equipment or contract manufacturer. A vendor may also provide services, maintenance or nonmaintenance for its own products or for other vendors’ products and may also provide services for IT technologies.


vendor management

Vendor management is a discipline that enables organizations to control costs, drive service excellence and mitigate risks to gain increased value from their vendors throughout the deal life cycle…



A state in which no one vendor can control the definition, revision or distribution of a specification. Vendor-neutral specifications encourage the development of competing yet compatible implementations, freeing the purchaser to choose from a multitude of vendors without suffering a loss of functionality. Vendor-neutral specifications must be comprehensive, consistent, and either publicly available or licensed at a nominal fee. Additionally, they must be defined by a multilateral association that is representative of a broad cross-section of the computer industry, open to new members, publishes the rules of membership and operates according to democratic principles. Preferably, a vendor-neutral specification is supplemented with at least one reference implementation. This reference would be available in a format that allows re-creation – that format would be source code for software implementations – and a set of conformance tests that sufficiently ensure the implementation’s integrity under all reasonable conditions of projected use.


vendor revenue

Revenue earned by technology providers for the sale of printer, copier and MFP hardware (that is, excluding supplies). It would be calculated by end-user spending minus channel margins.


vendor risk management

Vendor risk management is the process of ensuring that the use of third-party service providers and IT suppliers does not create an unacceptable potential for business disruption or a negative impact on business performance.


vendor/technology provider

The last entity that brands a product and sells it directly to the end users or through a channel. A vendor, also called technology provider, may design and manufacture its own products, assemble complete systems from components produced by others, or procure products from an OEM or contract manufacturer. A technology provider may also provide services for its own products or for other technology providers’ products, and may also provide services for other technologies. Subsidiaries with different brands will be considered as a technology provider only if they maintain a separate marketing, sales and support structure independent of the parent company.


vendor total software revenue

This includes the revenue of a manufacturer or vendor that is generated by sales of software and software maintenance and support services. It excludes revenue from professional services and the sale of products manufactured by other vendors.


VF (vector facility)

An attachment to a processor that enables the processor to run programs that issue vector instructions, which are particularly useful in scientific calculations, but are not particularly useful for database operations.


VHDL (VLSI Hardware Description Language)

An industry standard format for describing integrated-circuit logic and behavior.



Communication by individuals or groups using systems that support image, voice and data transfer over digital networks or telephone circuits. Videoconferencing systems can take the form of large, dedicated units for group meetings or can be integrated with desktop personal computers.


video server

A server that delivers streams of digital video and audio.


video signal

A signal comprising frequencies normally required to transmit pictorial information (1 to 6 MHz).


VIM (Vendor Independent Messaging)

An application programming interface (API) developed to support the exchange of electronic mail among programs from different vendors.


VIM (virtually interoperable manufacturing)

A way for manufacturers to gain competitive advantage by integrating business processes across core disciplines and the supply chain, while customizing and integrating the underlying business application products.


Virtual Cluster Number (VCN)

When representing the data runs of a file, the clusters are given virtual cluster numbers. Cluster zero refers to the first cluster of the file. The data runs map the VCNs to LCNs so that the file can be located on the volume.

See also: Cluster, LCN and Volume.



IT virtualization is the abstraction of IT resources in a way that masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from resource users. An IT resource can be a server, a client, storage, networks, applications or operating systems. Essentially, any IT building block can potentially be abstracted from resource users.


virtualization software

The virtualization software market includes all software products that are sold as value-added options to run on an x86 server or a desktop to create or manage a specific virtualized environment. Revenue is for new license sales and for maintenance and support services that include new version license sales to update an existing license to a new version, telephone support and on-site remedial support. Revenue does not include professional services. For products to be included in this coverage, they must represent a revenue stream for the company that is separately tracked and not be only part of a bundled product or service.

The virtualization software market is divided into three segments: server virtualization infrastructure, server virtualization management and HVDs. Other forms of virtualization software, such as application virtualization, shared OS virtualization, mainframe virtualization and thin provisioning, are not included in specific virtualization revenue reporting at this time.


virtual network operator

An entity that does not own a telecom network infrastructure but provides telecom services by purchasing capacity from telecom carriers.


virtual storage

A computer that appears to have a much larger memory than its real memory. This is accomplished by software that moves pages rapidly in and out of a high-speed, random-access storage device, usually a disk.


virtual tape library (VTL)

A virtual tape library is a disk appliance that has special software that makes the device appear as a physical tape drive or tape library to the backup application; the device is accessed through standard tape interfaces. The backup software believes it is writing the backup data to a real tape cartridge when it is, in fact, writing to a specially configured file on the disk appliance. Similarly, the backup software will use the appliance for recovery, accessing the device as if the recovery is coming from tape, when it is actually being transferred from disk spindles on the appliance.

At its essence, a VTL is both a disk-based appliance and a tape-like interface.



Software used to infect a computer. After the virus code is written, it is buried within an existing program. Once that program is executed, the virus code is activated and attaches copies of itself to other programs in the system. Infected programs copy the virus to other programs.



To illustrate information objects and their relationships on a display. Strategic visualization graphically illustrates the strength of relationships by the proximity of objects on the display. Advanced technology can make a significant difference in users’ ability to interface to large knowledge repositories. These advances use the distance between objects on the display to reflect the similarity of meaning, similarity of content or other relationships (e.g., association with a group).


visualization-centric data discovery tool

Centrifuge complies with the definition of a visualization-centric data discovery tool, in that it has an intuitive interface enabling users to explore data with minimal training, a proprietary data structure and a RAM-based performance layer.


VLAN (virtual LAN)

A virtual LAN (local-area network) is a set of systems that, regardless of higher-layer addressing or location, is designated as a logical LAN and treated as a set of contiguous systems on a single LAN segment. Virtual LANs can be proprietary or standardized using the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1Q. Typical grouping parameters for VLANs include the port number of the hub, switch or router, the higher-layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP) or Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), the Media Access Control (MAC) address, and the traditional subnet. The goal of VLANs is to provide simpler administration, simple moves/adds/changes to network devices, and partitioning at the MAC layer.


VLR (Visitor Location Register)

Server in a cellular network that supports roaming functions for users outside the coverage area of their own HLR. The VLR uses Signaling System 7 to obtain information about the user from the HLR, and then establishes a temporary record on the VLR while the user is within the VLR coverage area, ensuring mobility management and call-handling functions.


VLSI (very large-scale integration)

A technology that makes it possible to place the equivalent of between 100,000 and 1 million transistors on a chip.


VM (virtual machine)

A software implementation of a hardware-like architecture, which executes predefined instructions in a fashion similar to a physical central processing unit (CPU). A VM can be used to create a cross-platform computing environment that loads and runs on computers independently of their underlying CPUs and operating systems. A notable example is the Java Virtual Machine, the environment created on a host computer to run Java applets. Although VMs have existed longer than Java, Java has made VMs highly visible (see Java).


VoATM (voice over ATM)


VOC (voice of customer)

Voice of customer; the activities that ensure that customer wants and needs are articulated.


VOD (video on demand)

The ability to offer VOD is an important strength of IPTV, though one that will take some time to mature. VOD is generally seen as additional to the main broadcast channels; it generates very little revenue at present, as users need time to adjust to becoming active rather than passive viewers. VOD is usually offered in combination with multichannel pay-TV services. In a few cases, service providers cannot or do not want to offer multichannel TV, leaving VOD as the only IPTV service available; we classify users in this situation as VOD-only IPTV subscribers.

VOD is a generic term covering several areas. It includes all video content requested on-demand by users. This could be premium movies or libraries of TV shows, sporting events or concerts. It could also include user-created video content. In addition, some IPTV operators are starting to offer the ability to see all the TV programs aired on their multichannel pay-TV channels in the previous 24 or 48 hours on demand. This video content is held in a constantly updated library hosted by their network.

VOD services are sold either on a pay-per-view basis or as monthly subscriptions. Bundling in flat-rate packages with multichannel subscriptions is also common. Our definition of VOD excludes free VOD downloads, which may be used to increase customers’ awareness of these services or to generate advertising revenue.


VoDSL (voice over DSL)


voice application servers

Voice application servers consist primarily of software, operating on Sun or Linux servers located in a service provider network, and functioning in conjunction with other standard network elements such as routers, gateways, integrated access devices (IADs) and telephones. This category is made up of IP-SCPs and IP Centrex platforms.


voice band

A voice-grade channel.


voice browser

System that enables telephone access to voice portal sites. It prepares and presents information to callers. It also interprets commands and enables navigation. Architectures and implementations vary, but many will use VoiceXML or a similar protocol to access the portal application. This is sometimes called a VoiceXML gateway.


voice browser usability group

Group within the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) responsible for developing voice portal usability and best-practice guidelines.


voice digitization

Conversion of an analog voice signal into digital form for storage or transmission.


voice-enabled residential/small-office gateway/router with embedded DSL modem

This device, also known as an xDSL IAD, is part of a voice-over-DSL solution. It enables the bundling of multiple derived voice lines, high-speed data and continuous Internet access over a single DSL connection. It typically combines a DSL modem with a router, firewall and varying plain old telephone service (POTS) port configurations. It can be a wired device or include a wireless access point.


voice encryption

A function that enables a device to transport digitized voice signals.


voice endpoint

The description that defines a voice device, like a telephone, as a terminating device. This could be a physical extension or a logical IP address. This particularly applies to IP telephones where 100% IP system functions are not fully used for voice telephones and terminals.


voice-grade channel

A channel with bandwidth equivalent to a telephone line obtained through the public telephone network. The maximum potential bandwidth of a voice-grade channel is approximately 20 kilohertz (KHz); however, most voice grade channels in a transmission facility are usually spaced 4,000 hertz (Hz) apart, and not all of that bandwidth is generally available to a user due to the presence of noise-limiting loading coils. The telephone network itself is usually defined in terms of channels, with frequencies from 300 to 3,400 Hz.


voice mail

Network system that enables unanswered phone calls to be diverted to a personal answering service. Revenue may be generated by making a connection charge to the service, a subscription charge for the service, or by charging the subscriber for messages deposited or retrieved.


voice-messaging system

Also called voice mail and, incorrectly, voice-processing systems. Voice-messaging systems are hardware and software products that operate with most private branch exchange (PBX), hybrid, or key telephone systems, enabling users to send, receive, and redirect voice messages through office telephone systems and computers. Voice-messaging hardware includes a central processor, analog-to-digital converters, disk storage and input/output ports.


voice-operated device

A piece of equipment that can be controlled by spoken commands.


voice over IP

See VoIP.


voice over wireless local-area network



voice portal

System that uses advanced speech recognition technology and provides access to information on the Internet. Key components of most voice portals are speech recognition, text to speech, information aggregation, categorization software, telephony and Internet interfaces, and administrative interfaces. Optional components include software to support context-sensitive, personalized assistance (for example, an intelligent assistant) and support for VoiceXML.


voice-processing system

A hardware and/or software product that encompass voice messaging, voice recognition, voice response and any other applications that deal with the processing of voice communications.


voice recognition

A hardware and software system that translates human speech into binary text. Also called speech recognition.


voice switching, control and applications

In its widest sense, switching refers to the functions performed in a network that alter the path taken by information as it traverses that network, whether in real time or near real time. In this sense, switching includes packet-routing technologies (for example, Internet Protocol [IP], asynchronous transfer mode [ATM] and frame relay). The markets tracked in the switching category include well-known ones, such as softswitches, call session control function (CSCF), application servers and media gateways.

Signaling defines the control plane of a network and can include in-band or out-of-band connections. It is a specialized, rapidly changing and important topic. Signaling deals with the protocols and technology required to enable network equipment to communicate for the purposes of altering connectivity or getting database information. As such, it includes topic areas such as Signaling System 7 (SS7) common channel signaling, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), H.323, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), next-generation intelligent networks (NG INs) and advanced intelligent networks (AINs). Data topics include Q.2931 ATM (broadband), Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Profile (MPLS-TP), Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

Transitioning to IP from time division multiplexing (TDM) networks has enabled service providers to provide voice over IP (VoIP) to subscribers in both fixed and mobile networks. VoIP is a term for transmission technologies that allow delivery of voice communications over IP networks, such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony and voice over broadband (VoBB). Most VoIP systems interface with traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) equipment to convert TDM to IP for transitioning to an all-IP network. VoIP adoption in the consumer and enterprise space has not been as quick as anticipated because of continued reliability issues, consumer lack of understanding, latency, jitter, packet loss and increased security risks. However, ongoing technology developments will improve the quality of service (QoS), as well as ensure a more secure communications network.

VoIP switching equipment is measured by revenue and includes the following market segments: softswitches, media gateways, voice application servers, signaling gateways and session border controllers (SBCs).



An XML-based language supported by more than 200 companies. It was founded by AT&T, IBM, Lucent and Motorola. The purpose of VoiceXML is to develop interactive voice-controlled applications.


VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol)

The term describes the transmission of IP packetized voice traffic over a communications infrastructure (for example, LAN and WAN). Confusingly, VoIP is not the same as Internet telephony or IP telephony, although the terms are commonly and erroneously interchanged. See also IP telephony and Internet telephony.



(=drive=partition) (extended, striped, mirrored (not supported)) A logical NTFS partition. It is a group of physical partitions (see the fdisk utility, you can set up mirroring and stripping) that act as one (somewhat like the Linux md block devices).



This metadata file contains information such as the name, serial number and whether the volume needs checking for errors.



This attribute contains information such as the serial number, creation time and whether the volume needs checking for errors.



This attribute stores the name of the volume in Unicode.



This attribute This attribute, like $SYMBOLIC_LINK existed in NTFS v1.2, but wasn’t used. It does not longer exist in NTFS v3.0+.


VoWLAN (voice over wireless LAN)

Use of VoIP technology and wireless network components to support voice over Wi-Fi.


VP (virtual path)

In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), the bandwidth between two points on a network used by one or more virtual channels (VCs).


VPA (volume purchase agreement)

An agreement between a computer vendor and a customer under which the vendor grants discounted prices in return for the customer’s commitment to purchase a minimum quantity of products.


VPDM (virtual product development management)

A vision that describes a new application realm combining characteristics of computer-aided design (CAD), product data management (PDM) and Web technologies focused primarily on the front end of the design process, where the greatest competitive gains for design innovation occur. While PDM and enterprise resource planning (ERP) technologies have proven themselves in the detail and production stages of product design, they are not yet effective in the conceptual product design stage, which has a much different process model and functional demands, particularly when interenterprise collaboration on large design projects is required.


VPDN (virtual private data network)

A data networking service offered by the provider in a virtually private mode, using virtual private network (VPN) technologies.


VPL (virtual private LAN)


VPLS (virtual private LAN service)


VPN (virtual private network)

System that delivers enterprise-focused communication services on a shared public network infrastructure and provides customized operating characteristics uniformly and universally across an enterprise. The term is used generically to refer to voice VPNs. To avoid confusion, IP-based data services are referred to as data VPNs. Service providers define a VPN as a WAN of permanent virtual circuits, generally using asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or frame relay to transport IP. Technology providers define a VPN as the use of encryption software or hardware to bring privacy to communications over a public or untrusted data network.


VR (virtual reality)

A computerized process, usually including special equipment, that projects the user into a simulated three-dimensional space. It gives the user the sensation of being in the simulated environment and the ability to respond to the simulation.


VRAM (video random-access memory)

A type of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) used in high-speed processing of visual data.


VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)

A means of rendering 3-D worlds from mathematical equations or descriptions. A VRML browser can create shapes and text within a navigable 3-D context. The v.2.0 specifications further enhance the immersive experience, allowing for such real-world events as interaction between “visitors” and collision detection when a user “bumps into” an object or other users.


VRS (voice response system)

Specialized technologies designed for providing callers with verbal and faxed answers to inquiries without assistance from a person. They provide account information, fulfill requests for mailable items, pre-screen callers for script customization, interact with host systems (read and write) and produce reports.


VRU (voice response unit)

An automated telephone answering system consisting of hardware and software that allows the caller to navigate through a series of prerecorded messages and use a menu of options through the buttons on a touch-tone telephone or through voice recognition.


VS (Visual Studio)

A Microsoft package of several applications development (AD) tools with complementary, albeit overlapping, focuses, including Visual Basic, Visual C++ and Visual J++.


VSAT (very small aperture terminal)

Small-sized earth station used in the transmit/receive of data, voice and video signals over a satellite communication network, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT consists of two parts: a transceiver placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite, and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user’s communications device, such as a PC. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system. Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network. For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission must first go to the hub station, which then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user’s VSAT.

VSAT data throughput speeds have increased significantly throughout the years and now can provide multimegabit service in downstream and upstream. Antenna/dish sizes usually range from 1.2 meters to approximately 3 meters in diameter. Generally, these systems operate in Ku-band and C-band frequencies, but with the launch of Ka-band satellites by a number of operators in North America and Asia/Pacific, and with newer Ka-band satellites planned for Europe, high-bandwidth, bidirectional VSAT services for enterprise, government and other users will increasingly migrate to these satellites.


VSF (voice store-and-forward)

A processor-controlled system that enables voice messages to be created, edited, sent, stored and forwarded. Users access and operate the system by means of any 12-button dial pad in response to voice prompts from the system.


VSF (Virtual Server Facility)

A feature of second-generation Advanced CMOS-ECL (ACE) technology that effectively allows a user to physically partition a system into multiple systems, all within the cabinetry of the bigger system.


VSM (value stream mapping)

The process of charting out or visually displaying a value stream so that improvement activity can be effectively planned.


VTS (virtual tape subsystem)

Tape library hardware and software extensions that utilize direct-access storage device (DASD) buffers to multiply the tape device count, throughput and storage density of tape library systems.




W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

Nonprofit group based in the U.S. that develops and recommends standards for the Web.


WAC (Web authorization and control)

An access-control technology that works at the Web server, enabling an administrator to define generic user roles and authorize the user access to Web-based data and resources across multiple Web servers, generally at the sub-uniform-resource-locator (URL) level. Solutions are likely to include a central server where a user presents authentication credentials and then receives an encrypted “cookie” or embedded information in the URL. The URL or the cookie is then acknowledged by each of the Web servers in the systems running the WAC agent.


WAE (WAP application environment)

The components used to develop applications for WAP devices. It essentially consists of WML, WMLScript and WTAI specifications.



A thin, flat piece of semiconductor material used in integrated circuits.


WAG (wireless application gateway)

A server-based gateway that provides wireless access to enterprise applications. WAGs plug into the enterprise’s application infrastructure, separating the data from the presentation layer and avoiding redundant development efforts. Leading WAGs provide secure access to any data source and the ability to render the data to any device (e.g., PDA, wireless telephone, pager or desktop). A WAG server can be deployed either as an internal platform installed within the enterprise, or as an outsourced platform hosted by a third party operating as a service bureau.


WAM (web access management)

Web access management (WAM) offers integrated identity and access management for Web-based applications. Initial implementations focused on external user access. However, the growing use of portals for employee access is also driving demand for WAM solutions. Most products offer self-service password reset, delegated administration (including user self-service), a role-based access control model, workflow and automated fulfillment of the access request.


WAM (Web authorization management)

A building block of an extranet. In addition to authorization and management features being offered as part of an e-commerce system, there are security software products that work with Web servers and e-commerce systems, allowing administrators to define generic user roles and authorize user access to Web-based data and resources across multiple applications (generally at the sub-URL level).


WAN (wide-area network)

A communications network that connects computing devices over geographically dispersed locations. While a local-area network (LAN) typically services a single building or location, a WAN covers a much larger area such as a city, state or country. WANs can use either phone lines or dedicated communication lines.


WAN performance monitor

A tool or toolset (hardware and software) to allow monitoring of wide-area network (WAN) traffic and problems.


WAN replacement

Wide-area network (WAN) replacement uses Internet-based virtual private networks (VPNs) or managed VPN services to connect branch offices.


WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

Open, global specification that enables users of wireless devices to access and interact with wireless information services and applications. WAP specifications are based on Internet standards, with extensions to reflect the wireless device environment. Specifications in WAP architecture are arranged in a protocol stack consisting of application, session, transaction, security and transport layers. The application layer includes WML and WMLScript for content and Wireless Telephony Application Interface (WTAI) for telephony service capabilities.


WAP browser

A microbrowser used to locate and display information on WAP-enabled devices. WAP browsers perform the client-side functions required to render Web content to a WAP device. See also microbrowser.


WAP Forum

Founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia and Unwired Planet (now, the WAP Forum is responsible for publishing and developing Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) specifications. The WAP Forum works closely with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). The goal of the WAP Forum is to provide an industry standard to foster interoperability among wireless devices.


warehouse simulation

A detailed mathematical or computer model of all relevant activities of a distribution center. The simulation recreates the center’s activities , determines how long the activities take and considers any physical constraints. Warehouse simulations typically focus on capacity planning, throughput calculations, inventory analysis, and the overall performance and cost impacts of selected logistics strategies.


WASP (wireless application service provider)

Vendor that provides hosted wireless applications so that companies do not have to build their own sophisticated wireless infrastructure.



All those activities that occur within a company or wider supply chain that do not add to the value of a product or service supplied to a final consumer.


waste walk

Going to the source or going to see where the action occurs (rather than seeing it through someone else’s eyes).


WATS (wide-area telephone service)

A telephone company service providing reduced costs for certain telephone call arrangements. It may be IN-WATS or 800-number service, for which calls can be placed to a location from anywhere at no cost to the calling party, or OUT-WATS, for which calls are placed from a central location. The cost is based on hourly usage per WATS circuit and on distance-based zones, or bands, to which (or from which) calls are placed.


WBS (work breakdown structure)

Work breakdown structure; another form of process mapping.


WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access)

UMTS standard for 3G digital mobile networks, using CDMA technology. It is the evolution path for GSM and EDGE to UMTS and offers increased voice capacity and theoretical peak data speeds of up to 2 Mbps. The 3GPP task group continues to work on the evolution of WCDMA toward 4G and has defined a series of evolutionary steps:

  • • R.99 (Release 99) – Specifications (completed in 1999) for the original version of WCDMA, a 3GPP standards project to define the requirements and basic framework for UMTS 3G mobile networks. R.99 defined the UTRA and the basic features of this early 3G development.
  • • R.4 (Release 4) – Specifications (released in 2004) for the next evolution beyond R99. R4 was the first step toward an all-IP core network, adding separation of the control channel from the connection in the circuit-switched core network, and basic VoIP routing.
  • • R.5 (Release 5) – Specifications (released in 2005) for the next evolution beyond R4. R.5 extends WCDMA to include HSDPA and HSUPA for high-speed packet data services and IMS for multimedia and converged IP network support. It added IP transport in the UTRAN.
  • • R.6 (Release 6) – Specifications (completed in 2006) for the next evolution beyond R5. R.6 extends WCDMA to include MBMS for mobile TV services, PoC and EUDCH for enhanced uplink speeds and system capacity. R.6 adds IMS Phase 2 and UMTS/WLAN interworking.
  • • R.7 (Release 7) – Also known as LTE, the specifications (frozen at the end of 2007) for the next evolution beyond R.6. It will add radio enhancements, MIMO, end-to-end IP telephony and evolved EDGE. See also LTE.
  • • R.8 (Release 8) – Further extension of LTE and SAE capabilities prior to the advent of 4G. R.8 is likely to add OFDMA for the downlink and SC-FDMA for the uplink in the UTRAN. R8 specifications were frozen in December 2008. See also LTE and SAE.


WCS (Wireless Communications Service)


WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol)

Enables WAP to be bearer-independent by adapting the transport layer of the underlying bearer service and presenting a consistent data format to the higher layer of the WAP protocol stack.


wearable computer

Devices that can be carried or worn on the human body and used by an individual for networked computing. Wearable computer form factors include handheld devices, badges, personal clothing and jewelry.



The web (short for World Wide Web) is a hypertext-based global information system that was originally developed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. It is a subset of the Internet, technically defined as the community on the Internet where all documents and resources are formatted using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML, and the related Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP), make it easy to find and view data and documents stored on computers connected to the Internet. HTML creates the links (“hyperlinks”) that enable the user to move among many Web documents with the click of a mouse.


Web analytics

The use of a range of quantitative analyses to understand Web site performance and visitor experience. These analyses include usage levels and patterns on an individual and aggregate level. Data sources may include clickstream data from the Web server log, Web transaction data, submitted data from input fields on the Web site and data in the Internet customer repository. The results may be used to improve site performance (from a technical and content perspective), enhance visitor experience (and thus loyalty), contribute to overall understanding of customers and channels, and identify opportunities and risks.



An umbrella term for several different versions of technology that link the Internet and an automated teller machine (ATM) networks.


Web conferencing and shared work spaces/team collaboration

Web conferencing products are synchronous in nature and support interaction between participants in a meeting or presentation format. Web conferencing consists of real-time electronic meeting and content delivery, screen and application sharing, text chat, and group document markup with electronic whiteboarding, augmented by audio, data and video. More-advanced features include integrated voice over IP audio, file sharing, remote control, content archiving, media streaming and polling.

Shared work spaces are team-oriented collaboration tools that provide virtual work spaces for sharing documents and files, supporting asynchronous and real-time collaboration activities, such as threaded discussions, document-based collaboration and chat functions.

Other forms of collaboration that are not included in this market definition include IM and chat, videoconferencing, audioconferencing, and a wide variety of social software, such as blogs, communities of practice, social bookmarking and tagging, expertise location, social network analysis, and wikis. A blog represents a form of asynchronous but collective Web publishing, usually in a journal-writing style. A community of practice represents a group of people engaged in joint experiences and shared practices, and it is similar to a network of Web bloggers. A wiki is a discussion system that includes server software for Web-based editing of, and commenting on, content created by others. Wikis include a simple text syntax for creating pages and linking pages in real time.


Web crawler

A piece of software (also called a spider) designed to follow hyperlinks to their completion and to return to previously visited Internet addresses.


Web e-mail

An e-mail option that requires only a browser. A user can walk up to any Internet-connected device (e.g., a PC or airport kiosk), launch a browser, connect to a Web mail server, enter a user name and password and check e-mail.



Refers to any application or document that uses the Internet as a communication backbone while exploiting Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) as a means to link to other applications or content.


Web hosting

A service in which a vendor offers the housing of business-to-business (B2B) or business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce Web sites via vendor-owned shared or dedicated servers and applications for enterprises at the provider-controlled facilities. The vendor is responsible for all day-to-day operations and maintenance of the Web site. The customer is responsible for the content.


Web integration servers

Web servers that directly support Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP); execute a proprietary, high-level 4GL or scripting language; and include one or more adapters for databases, legacy systems and packaged applications. Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based Web integration servers are similar; however, they also use XML data internally within the server and externally with clients and other applications.


Web phone

A cell phones equipped with a microbrowser and network data capability through Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) or other Web integration technologies. These devices differ from smart phones (see separate entry) in that the latter are more data-centric, offering network-independent (offline) applications such as contact management and expense reporting.


Web server

The central location that hosts Web pages or a Web site and enables a remote “client” (system or program) to access the material held.


Web services

A software concept and infrastructure – supported by several major computing vendors (notably Microsoft and IBM) – for program-to-program communication and application component delivery. The Web services concept treats software as a set of services accessible over ubiquitous networks using Web-based standards and protocols.

Specifically, a Web service is a software component can be accessed by another application (such as a client, a server or another Web service) through the use of generally available, ubiquitous protocols and transports, such as Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP). Joint efforts between IBM and Microsoft, with the support of other vendors such as Ariba and Iona Technologies, have produced agreement on a basic set of XML-based standards for Web service interface definition, discovery and remote calling. They include:

  • • Web Services Description Language (WSDL) for describing Web service interfaces
  • • Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) as the means for users to publish and locate available Web services, their characteristics and interfaces
  • • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), which enables an application to call a Web service




Web services software

Deploying Web-services-enabled software will be an evolutionary process, not a revolutionary one. The majority of software vendors have committed to supporting Web services software standards within their established product lines, but it will take more than four years to evolve these immature standards, build up skills, and plan, build and test for new versions of software that gradually incorporate these standards. Web services standards will be deployed through multiple markets, such as integration suites, AD tools and some enterprise application segments.



A collection of files accessed through a Web address, covering a particular theme or subject, and managed by a particular person or organization. Its opening page is called a home page. A Website resides on servers connected to the Web network and is able to format and send information requested by worldwide users 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Websites typically use HTML to format and present information and to provide navigational facilities that make it easy for the user to move within the site and around the Web.


Web TV

Web TV services enable a user to access the Web on a television set using a special remote control and a decoder that sits on top of the TV. Services are offered by various types of provider – e.g., TV broadcasters, satellite operators, and telecom operators. The connection can be provided over various media – analog or digital telephone lines, cable network or satellite links – depending on local infrastructure.


WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance)

Now known as the Wi-Fi Alliance. See Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi Alliance.


WEP (wired equivalent privacy)

Feature used to encrypt and decrypt data signals transmitted among WLAN devices. An optional IEEE 802.11 feature, WEP provides data confidentiality equivalent to a wired LAN that does not employ advanced cryptographic techniques to enhance privacy. WEP makes WLAN links as secure as wired links. See also WPA.


WfM (Wired for Management)

A blueprint, developed by Intel in partnership with and supported by leading information technology (IT) vendors, for making PC-based systems – including desktops, mobile systems and servers – universally manageable. The initiative encompasses advances in hardware and software that enable system management software applications that provide management to the desktop, mobile system or server, and the integration with systems management tools and frameworks. The innovations in hardware and software collectively enterprises should understand, evaluate and incorporate into all PC acquisitions.


WFM (workforce management)

A system intended to maximize the use of agent labor by projecting incoming call volumes and scheduling staff to meet needs exactly, by time of the day, day of the week, week of the month, etc. WFM systems use historical calling records, which are collected from the automatic call distribution system, to project future calling patterns and volumes for specified time frames. Features include:

  • • Call volume forecasting
  • • Calculation of the required number of agents, based on the desired average speed of answer
  • • Agent scheduling
  • • Meeting and vacation planning
  • • Reporting
  • • “What if” analysis


wholesale carrier

An entity that owns/operates a telecom network and sells network capacity to other telecom service providers.



Please refer to Bluetooth Low Energy (see entry above).


WiBro (wireless broadband)

Mobile wireless broadband service for handsets and laptops first offered commercially in South Korea in June 2006 by KT and SK Telecom. WiBro was originally intended as a South Korean standard, but it has been harmonized with the IEEE 802.16-2005 mobile WiMAX standard. WiBro emerged from a South Korean MIC-sponsored project to develop a standard for high-speed portable Internet (HPi). The former MIC had hoped that HPi would lead to new global opportunities for South Korean industry, similar to those arising from its early adoption of CDMA.


Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)

Certification mark issued by the Wi-Fi Alliance to certify that a product conforms to the 802.11b, g and a standards for WLANs.


Wi-Fi Alliance

Non-profit international association formed in 1999 to certify interoperability of WLAN products based on IEEE 802.11 specification. See also WECA.


Wi-Fi mesh

Mesh topology network based on Wi-Fi standards but typically linked together by proprietary extensions. The Wi-Fi Alliance Task Group 802.11s is developing an IEEE standard for Wi-Fi mesh. See also mesh network.



The provisional name for a 60 GHz in-room wireless technology which is being developed by a group of companies known as the Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WGA). The goals of WGA are to develop and promote a technology capable of short-range transmission at speeds of at least 1 Gbps at 10 meters range; the Alliance envisages that some implementations will exceed 6Gbps. WiGig is intended to be a general-purpose standard which will be used for a wide range of devices including PCs, handheld equipment and consumer electronics. Potential applications include media streaming, PC docking, general-purpose networking and file transfer.


WiHD (wireless HD)

Consumer electronics industry special interest group set up to define a next-generation standard for a wireless digital interface for streaming high-definition (HD) content among source devices and HD displays. The first version of WiHD aims to achieve 4 Gbps data rates using the unlicensed 60GHz frequency band.


WIM (WAP identity module)

Used in Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) and application-level security functions. A WIM can be used to process and store user identification and authorization information. It also can be used to store encryption and authentication keys, and to perform encryption and digital signature functions on the module. A WIM can be a hardware device, such as a smart card or SIM.


WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

Refers to the standards body known as the WiMAX Forum and to the broadband wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. See also 802.16, 802.16-2004, 802.16e-2005 and 802.16m.


WiMAX-certified Sub-11GHz BWA

We define the WiMAX Forum-certified sub-11GHz IEEE 802.16-2004 and IEEE 802.16-2005 as follows:

  • • Fixed wireless: Client terminals are located at a stationary location.
  • • Semimobile wireless:
  • • Portable: Client terminal support for roaming between base station coverage areas at pedestrian speeds.
  • • Nomadic: Client terminal is transportable to secondary fixed locations with no connection while in transit.
  • • Mobile wireless: Client terminal support for roaming at vehicular speeds without dropping a session.


WiMedia Alliance

Industry body supporting and developing the UWB standard. The Alliance announced in March 2009 that it would be disbanded once it had transferred its specifications to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, the USB Promoter Group and the USB Implementers’ Forum. See also Bluetooth and UWB.



A display technique that uses multiple screen segments to display different items of information. The display can take two forms: tiling (breaking up the screen into discrete segments) and overlapping (producing a three-dimensional effect by having a screen segment partially or fully obscure another segment).


Windows CE

Windows CE is an OS for resource-constrained embedded applications. Windows Mobile is built on top of Windows CE, but CE is used to support many other devices and applications, not all of which are mobile, including set-top boxes. See also Windows Mobile 6.


Windows client

Microsoft’s Windows client operating environment is targeted and priced for consumer and business end users. This category includes all Windows predecessors, as well as Windows XP and Vista.


Windows Live Messenger

An enterprise IM service operating via Microsoft Exchange servers but compatible with MSN IM.


Windows Mobile 6, 6.5 and 7

Windows Mobile 6 runs on top of the Windows CE 5 OS and replaced Windows Mobile 5. Windows Mobile 6 was not a major upgrade – that is, users didn’t immediately notice significant differences from devices with the last version of Windows Mobile 5. The next major upgrade, Windows Mobile 7, has been delayed and is now scheduled for release in 2010. In the meantime, Microsoft introduced enhancements to the OS in the form of version 6.5 in February 2009, providing improved browsing and touchscreen functionality. The main thrust of Windows Mobile 6 is to provide a level of compatibility between Windows Mobile and Exchange Server 2007, Windows Vista and Office 2007, and the upcoming Office Communications Server and Windows Live. Three versions of Windows Mobile 6 have been defined:

  • • Professional (previously known as Pocket PC Phone Edition): Supports data-centric devices with touchscreen displays used in a two-handed operation. Generally, this version offers the largest number of third-party software titles and the largest number of Windows Mobile devices in use.
  • • Standard (previously Windows Mobile for Smartphones): Supports voice-centric devices designed for one-handed operation (no touchscreens), typically in a candy-bar-shaped form factor.
  • • Classic (previously Pocket PC): Supports devices that lack cellular connectivity; sales of this category are rapidly declining.


Windows server

These are Microsoft’s 32-bit and 64-bit server operating environments for more-powerful hardware platforms, including multiprocessor and multicore platforms, and that include networking and sharing features not found in Windows client OSs. Products here include all Windows server predecessors, as well as Windows 2003 Server and Windows 2008 Server.


WIPS (wireless intrusion prevention system)

Operates at the Layer 2 (data link layer) level of the Open Systems Interconnection model. WIPS can detect the presence of rogue or misconfigured devices and can prevent them from operating on wireless enterprise networks by scanning the network’s RFs for denial of service and other forms of attack.


wireless data communication

Form of communication that uses the radio spectrum rather than a physical medium. It may carry analog or digital signals and may be used on LANs or WANs in one- or two-way networks.


wireless IM (wireless instant messaging)

See mobile IM.


WISP (wireless Internet service provider)

At minimum, a provider of wireless gateway services that connect the wired Internet to one or more wireless bearer services.


WLAN (wireless local-area network)

LAN communication technology in which radio, microwave or infrared links take the place of physical cables. The 802.11 family of standards issued by the IEEE provides various specifications covering transmission speeds from 1 Mbps to 54 Mbps. The four main physical-layer standards are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.


WLL (wireless local loop)

Wireless connection of a telephone to a fixed telephone network. See also mobile WLL.


WML (Wireless Markup Language)

Defined as part of the WAP for rendering WAP content on a mobile device.



Similar to JavaScript, WMLScript is a scripting language based on WAP’s WML programming language. See also WML.


workflow management

There are two types of workflow management:

  1. Internal and external process integration – a workflow approach that allows for the definition of business processes that span applications, including those that come from different vendors. This usually requires a standards-based commercial workflow development environment
  2. Automated events or processes – a workflow approach that enables automated tasks (e.g., the automation of steps in a marketing campaign or a sales process) to be performed

workforce analytics

An advanced set of data analysis tools and metrics for comprehensive workforce performance measurement and improvement. It analyzes recruitment, staffing, training and development, personnel, and compensation and benefits, as well as standard ratios that consist of time to fill, cost per hire, accession rate, retention rate, add rate, replacement rate, time to start and offer acceptance rate.


work management

A set of software products and services that apply workflow structure to the movement of information as well as to the interaction of business processes and human worker processes that generate the information. Work management streamlines and transforms crucial business processes and thus can improve results and performance.



Workstations have typically been high-end complex instruction set computer (CISC), Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) or reduced instruction set computer (RISC)-based CPU architectures with high-performance graphics, OS and system architecture. In general, workstations must include a 32-bit or 64-bit multitasking OS, as well as configurations that support high-resolution graphics capabilities and three-dimensional (3-D) graphics functionality. The workstation market includes traditional Unix workstations, such as Linux, and workstations running Windows XP/Vista or other advanced OSs.


WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)

Security solution developed as a migration step toward 802.11i. Wi-Fi vendors introduced WPA in late 2002, before 802.11i was ratified. WPA formalized the choice for encryption but left open the choice of authentication. WPA was used as an improvement over the vulnerable WEP but was superseded by WPA2.


WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2)

Final version of WPA agreed on by the Wi-Fi Alliance; implements all aspects of the ratified 802.11i security standard and is mandatory in the Wi-Fi certification process. WPA2 is backward-compatible with WPA and can be implemented in two versions – WPA2 personal and WPA2 enterprise. See also 802.11i.


WPKI (wireless public-key infrastructure)

Proposed method for handling public and private keys, and digital certificates on the client (handset) side. The standards for WPKI and WTLS are complementary.


WPP (Wireless Performance Prediction)

See 802.11t.


WRED (weighted random early detection)


WSP (Wireless Session Protocol)

In the WAP framework, this layer links the Wireless Application Environment (WAE) to two session services:

  • • Connection-oriented service operating above the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP).
  • • A connectionless service operating above the WDP.


WTAI (Wireless Telephony Application Interface)

Specifies how WAP applications can access mobile phone functionality (for example, to initiate a call or send an SMS message).


WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security)

Within the WAP framework, WTLS provides security functions similar to those of the secure sockets layer protocol used on the Web. Vendors such as Entrust, Baltimore Technologies and Certicom have announced software development toolkits to enable application developers to build WTLS support into WAP gateway and cell phone software. The initial focus of WTLS is the use of digital certificates at the WAP gateway to provide strong authentication to the cell phone that it is connected to a legitimate server. This involves cell phones being pre-loaded with root certificates signed by certificate authorities with which the wireless device manufacturer has entered into trust relationships.


WTP (Wireless Transaction Protocol)

In the WAP framework, WTP runs on top of a datagram service, such as WDP, to provide a simplified protocol suitable for low-bandwidth mobile applications. The protocol offers three classes of transaction service:

  • • Unreliable one-way request.
  • • Reliable one-way request.
  • • Reliable two-way request/respond.




XHTML Basic (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language Basic)

Supported in WAP 2.0, XHTML Basic is a subset of the XHTML constructs that enable authors to create Web content deliverable to a range of devices (including mobile phones, PDAs, pagers and TV-based Web browsers). The standard is the result of collaboration by a number of participants, including AOL, IBM, Microsoft and Sun Microsystems.


XML (Extensible Markup Language)

A W3C open standard for describing data using embedded tags. Unlike HTML, XML does not describe how to display elements on the page but rather defines what the elements contain. It has become the standard for business-to-business transactions, electronic-data interchanges and Web services.


XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language)

XSL associates presentation characteristics (e.g., layout) with the markup used in Extensible Markup Language (XML). One of the XML family of languages developed by the World Wide Web Consortium, XSL is used to create XML “stylesheets,” which describe how XML documents are presented. XSL provides independent control of presentation from content and can describe output of the same content to different formats (e.g., audio or print).

XSL is made up of three components:

  • • XSL Transformations (see XSLT)
  • • XML Path Language (see XPath)
  • • XSL Formatting Objects, an XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics


XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)

A component of Extensible Stylesheet Language (see XSL), XSLT controls views of Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents and the ordering of XML elements. It is used to create new content structures from existing structures or subsets, based on interest, access privileges or security, and it transforms XML structure to Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).



The software system written for managing windows under Unix. A graphics architecture, application programming interface (API) and prototype implementation developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, X-Windows defines a client/server relationship between the applications program and the workstation. It is not, however, a complete graphical user interface (GUI), but rather the basis upon which one can be built.




Yahoo Messenger

Free public IM service.




zero latency

A goal to keep moving goods or information in the supply chain to provide near-real-time information management and reduce in-transit inventory costs.



Proprietary initiative based on IEEE 802.15.4 operating in the 2.4GHz band, with data rates less than 220 Kbps over 75 meters. It is designed for “command and control;” therefore, it does not support audio or video, but it can be used to send text messages and voice. A ZigBee network can control lights, fire or smoke detectors, thermostats or home-security systems. It can be used as a cable replacement technology. The ZigBee Alliance consists of 15 major promoters and 193 participating members. It is responsible for developing applications, as well as a certification process, program, logo and marketing strategy. It is a spinoff of the Home Radio Frequency Working Group.


ZLE (zero-latency enterprise)

Any strategy that exploits the immediate exchange of information across technical and organizational boundaries to achieve business benefit. For example, technical boundaries exist between different operating systems, database management systems and programming languages. “Immediate” implies being fast enough to bring all of the business benefits that simultaneous knowledge can potentially achieve. Latency cannot literally be zero in any real system because computers need time to “think.”




1xRTT (cdma2000 1x RTT)

A 2.5G transmission technology; an evolution of cdma2000 that adds voice capacity and supports peak downlink data rates of up to 144 Kbps in a single 1.25MHz channel, typically delivering 80 Kbps to 100 Kbps in the field.


2G (second generation)

The second generation of wireless networks designed to improve on analog with digital circuit-switched solutions. The three main 2G technology standards are Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), which is based on European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standards, time division multiple access (TDMA) IS-136 and code division multiple access (CDMA). The Japanese personal digital cellular (PDC) standard was similar to IS-136. GSM and IS-136 are TDMA technologies. 2G services typically support data rates of 9.6 Kbps, 14.4 Kbps and up to 64 Kbps in certain IS-95B deployments.



Enhancements that provide packet data capabilities over 2G networks. 2.5G improves the available data rates supported by the air interface, thereby permitting the introduction of new, data-oriented services and applications. The increased data rates rise to a theoretical maximum of 384 Kbps, although in the field available data rates may often be as low as 20 Kbps. General packet radio service (GPRS) is an example of a 2.5G technology.


3G (third generation)

3G wireless networks support peak data rates of 144 Kbps at mobile user speeds, 384 Kbps at pedestrian user speeds and 2 Mbps in fixed locations (peak speeds), although some initial deployments were configured to support only 64 Kbps. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) coordinates 3G standards through its International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) project and incorporates the key standards bodies, Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and 3GPP2. See also High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE).


3GDSL (third-generation DSL)


3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)


3GPP2 (Third Generation Partnership Project 2)



A broad term referring to enhancements that provide high-speed data extensions to 3G (wideband code division multiple access [WCDMA]) that go beyond the 384 Kbps downlink and 64 Kbps uplink provided by basic WCDMA. The term 3.5G covers technologies such as High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) and HSPA+.


3GPP (Third-Generation Partnership Project)

Collaborative project among various standards bodies, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and enterprise application integration-41 (EAI-41), under the auspices of the ITU, which is developing global specifications for the evolution of 3G technologies. 3GPP focuses on the evolution of GSM and WCDMA, while 3GPP2 focuses on the evolution of cdma2000.


4G (fourth generation)

Also known as International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-Advanced (IMT-A), 4G is the subject of a global standardization effort involving the ITU, 3GPP, 3GPP2, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), vendors and operators that aims to define the next-generation local-area and wide-area cellular platform. Spectrum assignments in the 450MHz to 470MHz and 698MHz to 872MHz bands were decided at the World Radiocommunication Conference in 2007 (WRC-07). Standardization has continued through 2009, and fully commercial services should be introduced by 2012.

Key 4G features are likely to include: support for peak data transmission rates of 100 Mbps (wide area) and 1 Gbps (fixed/low mobility); seamless hand-over between different wireless bearers; and an all-Internet Protocol (IP) core and radio transport for voice, video, multimedia and data services, as well as call control/signaling. 4G is likely to require orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), software-defined radio (SDR) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technologies. LTE is the ITU-defined evolution path for the GSM family to 4G, but WiMAX 802.16m is also a candidate.



Five-part checklist to help eliminate waste in the workplace: In Japanese – “Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke”; loosely translated as “Sort, Straighten, Sanitize, Standardize and Sustain.” Using the 5S approach is frequently a “kaizen event.”


5 whys

A form of root-cause analysis that entails asking “why” (at least) five times until the underlying causes of an outcome are understood.


7 wastes

A framework of seven types of activity that do not add value; originally defined by Toyota: overproducing – producing product before there’s a valid order; unnecessary waiting – lengthened cycle time, which reduces agility; unnecessary transportation – unnecessary transportation of material between sites; overprocessing – processes longer or more complex than necessary; unnecessary inventory – buildup of work-in-process or raw materials; unnecessary movement – inefficient workplace; layout causing extra work; and too many defects – poor process quality and too much rework. This list was extended to include an eighth waste: asset underutilization or other underutilization of resources. The eight wastes are often referred to by the acronym “DOWNTIME,” meaning “Defects, Overproduction, Waiting, Nonutilized resources, Transportation, Inventory, Motion and Excessive processing.”


8-step process of successful change:

A change management methodology defined by John Kotter. (See Kotter, John P., “Leading Change,” Harvard Business Press, 1996, ISBN-13: 9780875847474.)



See Wi-Fi and wireless LAN (WLAN).



Previously known as 802.11m, 802.11-2007 was approved in March 2007 and merges into a single authoritative document all previous amendments to the original 802.11 standard (a, b, d, e, g, h, i and j). It does not currently include 802.11n. See also 802.11a through to 802.11j.



Standard for the physical layer of WLANs operating at 5GHz. The number of available channels depends on the country where the system is operating, with 13 channels available in the U.S. and 11 more pending local ratification of the global ITU agreement governing these frequencies. The maximum link rate is 54 Mbps per channel, but maximum user throughput will be about half this, and the throughput is shared by all users of the same radio channel. Frequency bands for 802.11a may differ in different parts of the world. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Standard for the physical layer of WLANs operating at 2.4GHz. It has 11 defined radio channels, which provide three non-overlapping channels when deployed. The maximum link rate is 11 Mbps per channel. Data rates fall off as the distance between the user and the radio access point increases. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Supplement to the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the base 802.11 WLAN standard. It aims to promote worldwide use of 802.11. It will enable access points to communicate information on the permissible radio channels and at power levels acceptable to user devices. The current 802.11 standards cannot operate legally in some countries, and the purpose of 802.11d is to add features and restrictions to WLAN systems that would enable them to operate in the specific regulatory guidelines of these countries. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Supplement to the MAC layer to provide quality of service (QoS) support for LAN applications. The amendment was approved in 2005 and was integrated into the standard as part of 802.11-2007. This applies to all 802.11 physical-layer standards (a, b and g). The purpose is to provide classes of service with managed QoS levels for data, voice and video applications.



Recommended practice document. It aims to achieve access point interoperability within a multivendor WLAN network. The document defines the registration of access points within a network and the interchange of information among access points in case of the handover of users. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Physical-layer standard for WLANs in the 2.4GHz radio band. It has 11 defined channels that, when deployed, provide three nonoverlapping radio channels with a maximum link rate of up to 54 Mbps per channel. Support for complementary code keying modulation makes 802.11g backward compatible with 802.11b. The addition of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and packet binary convolution coding modulation schemes achieves higher link rates. See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Supplement to the MAC layer to meet the regulatory provisions for European 5GHz WLANs. It was integrated into the standard as part of 802.11-2007. European radio regulations for the 5GHz band require products to have transmission power control (TPC) and dynamic frequency selection (DFS). TPC limits the transmit power to the minimum needed to reach the farthest user, while DFS selects the radio channel at the access point to minimize interference with other systems (interference with radar systems is of particular concern). See also Wi-Fi and WLAN.



Supplement to the MAC layer to provide improved WLAN security. It applies to all 802.11 physical standards (a, b and g). The purpose is to provide an alternative to Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) with new encryption methods and authentication procedures. A key part of 802.11i is Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1X. See also 802.1X, WEP, Wi-Fi, WLAN, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and WPA2.



The 802.11j standard specifies 802.11 WLAN operation in the 4.9GHz to 5GHz band to conform to Japanese radio operation rules for indoor and outdoor radio use. The standard was finalized in 2004. This specification paved the way for public safety bands at 4.9GHz in other geographic locales. Public-safety channels are dedicated for such use and although still “public,” these channels are not available for general use. 802.11j also defines uniform methods that let access points move to new frequencies or change channel width for better performance or capacity – for example, to avoid interference with other wireless applications.



An obsolete term for a maintenance effort to re-craft the master 802.11 specification incorporating the various amendments that have been approved to date. This task was completed in 2007, and the new master specification is now known as 802.11-2007. See also 802.11-2007.



A extension of 802.11 technology intended to increase the network speed up to 600 Mbps and to improve the operating range. 802.11n accomplishes these improvements through changes in the MAC layer, frequency banding (which expands the communication channel from 20MHz to 40MHz) and the addition of MIMO technology, which uses multiple antennas at the source (transmitter) and destination (receiver) to optimize speed and range. 802.11n is not expected to be ratified by the IEEE 802.11n task group until the first half of 2010, with certification in place later in 2010. Pre-802.11n Draft 2 equipment may be certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance to be compatible with the final standard.



An amendment ratified in 2008 that governs the way roaming clients communicate with access points for reassociation, reauthentication and QoS resources. It is aimed at refining the transition process and minimizing latency as a mobile client moves among access points.



An IEEE working group formed in July 2005 that is defining a protocol for autoconfiguring paths among access points in a wireless mesh network distribution system. The original 15 proposals were whittled down to two sets of ideas in January 2006 – one from the Wi-Mesh Alliance (WiMA), led by Nortel and other communication organizations, and the other from the SEEMesh group backed by Intel, Nokia, Motorola, NTT DoCoMo and Texas Instruments. In March 2006, these two groups merged to create a single joint proposal, which the IEEE working group has approved.



Also called Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP). The goal of the 802.11t project is to provide a set of recommended measurement methods, performance metrics and test recommendations that enable manufacturers, independent test labs, service providers and end users to measure the performance of IEEE 802.11 standard equipment and networks. 802.11t will not be considered a standard.



Concerned with improvements to internetworking with external networks. 802.11 has focused on providing service for pre-authorized users. 802.11u covers users that are not pre-authorized but have a relationship with an external network. This will permit a limited set of services, such as emergency calls.



Intended to deal with wireless network management. 801.11v will focus on the configuration of client devices while they are connected to IEEE 802.11 networks. The standard may include cellular-like management paradigms, such as listing only access points that have a cooperative arrangement with the user’s home service.



Targeted toward increasing the security of WLAN management frames. WLAN data is encrypted, but management frames are not. Although vulnerability is low and mostly related to denial-of-service attacks, this would be a last step in completely securing all aspects of WLAN transmissions. The adoption of 802.11w would remove threats caused by malicious systems that attack through repeated disassociation requests appearing to be sent by valid equipment. 802.11w will work with 802.11r and 802.11u.



Working group of the IEEE focusing on standards for short-distance wireless networks, such as wireless personal-area networks (WPAN). WPANs address wireless networking of portable- and mobile-computing devices, such as PCs, PDAs, peripherals, cell phones, pagers and consumer electronics, enabling these devices to communicate and interoperate with one another.


802.16 (WiMAX)

The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) Standards is developing standards and recommended practices to support the development and deployment of broadband wireless metropolitan-area networks (WMANs). 802.16 was designed to bring broadband wireless connectivity into buildings from an ISP or other carrier, offering an alternative to wired T1 and DSL lines in the last mile. It can be used to provide high-speed connectivity among Wi-Fi networks across large campuses and to create a WMAN throughout a city, suburb or region. The WiMAX Forum promotes 802.16 standards and provides interoperability certification. See also 802.16-2004, 802.16e-2005, 802.16m.


802.16-2004 (fixed WiMAX)

Originally known as 802.16d, this approved standard uses 2GHz to 11GHz frequencies, which can penetrate walls and other dense objects. 802.16-2004 provides transmission to stationary devices and replaces prior 802.16 and 802.16a specifications. The WiMAX Forum industry certification process for 802.16-2004 has been in place since early 2007.



Approved in 2002, the original (and now obsolete) 802.16a standard provided for up to 70 Mbps of shared point-to-multipoint transmission in the 10GHz to 66GHz frequency bands, as far as 37 miles.


802.16e-2005 (mobile WiMAX)

Originally known as 802.16e, 802.16e-2005 is an evolving extension of 802.16-2004 for mobile use in the 2GHz to 6GHz band. It enables people to communicate while walking or moving at vehicular speeds. Products conforming to 802.16e-2005 may be used as infrastructure for fixed, semi-mobile and mobile networks. WiMAX Forum compliance and interoperability certification testing for 802.16e-2005 began in late 2007, and it was admitted into the IMT-2000 3G standard. In June of 2009 the WiMAX Forum announced that certification will replace wave testing with a testing procedure in three modules for more clarity and transparency. Those modules encompass radiated performance testing and network conformance testing for all profiles in a commercial retail launch, which will enable any operator to bring forward requirements on the networking side to be included. Certification of Tri-Mode devices for 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz is due to begin in 1Q10.



The 802.16 Task Group m (TGm) is working on a draft standard that will define a new air interface supporting data rates of up to 100 Mbps for mobile applications and 1 Gbps for fixed applications. 802.16m will require 20MHz or more of bandwidth and, as with LTE, will likely use OFMDA, MIMO and spatial division multiple access (SDMA). TGm is aiming to complete the standard and to submit it to the IEEE for approval by late 2009. 802.16m will support both frequency division duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD) simultaneously, so this will assist operators that do not have access to FDD spectrum. In the IMT-A discussion, LTE-A and 802.16m could be compatible, but this would inhibit the principle of backward interoperability with 802.16e.2005.



The IEEE WLAN security standard 802.11i includes the 802.1X framework for authentication. 802.1X uses Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which works on wired and wireless LANs for message exchange during the authentication process. In a wireless LAN with 802.1X, there are three main components:

  • • A supplicant – Client software on a device requesting authentication for the network.
  • • An authenticator – Access point to which the user is trying to connect.
  • • An authentication server – Returns an accept or reject message to the access point.


A client is authenticated to the network through a series of EAP messages exchanged among the supplicant, authenticator and authentication server.


802.20 (mobile wireless broadband)

Unlike the 802.16 task group, the IEEE 802.20 task group has been working on a specifically mobile wireless broadband standard. This group originally included proprietary wireless broadband vendors such as ArrayComm, Flarion Technologies (acquired by Qualcomm in 2005) and IPWireless (now NextWave Wireless), which already have commercial deployments. However, because of a lack of any real progress, during 2004 this group suffered defections to 802.16e-2005, and the 802.20 standards effort is not expected to survive. 802.20 aims to provide high-speed wireless connectivity to mobile users even when they are traveling at speeds of up to 250 km per hour.



Developing technology for use in the metropolitan-area network (MAN) and beyond for frequency bands of 900MHz and below (replacing the U.S. analog TV spectrum).



Part of 802.3-2005, clause 33 is commonly referred as 802.3af or Power Over Ethernet (PoE). 802.3af is a technology that transmits up to 12.95W of usable electrical power, along with data, to remote devices over standard twisted-pair cable in an Ethernet network. See also 802.3at and PoE.



A future standard that is being worked on by the IEEE 802.3at task group. It is commonly referred to as PoE+ and will boost the usable power transmitted to over 30W using category five or higher cable. See also 802.3af and PoE.